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Results of stake tests on wood preservatives (Progress report to 1974)
1975 - IRG/WP 361
A number of field stake trials on preservative-treated wood have been carried out at Princes Risborough Laboratory from 1928 to the present day, and many of the tests still continue. This paper presents in detail the results obtained to date, covering about 15 000 individual test stakes exposed over the period....
D F Purslow


Comparative performance of pentachlorophenol and copper naphthenate in a long term field stake test
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30243
In this study the performance of copper naphthenate (Cu-Nap) and pentachlorophenol (Penta) treated pine stakes against decay and termite attack were compared at two test sites in Mississippi. Four different petroleum oils meeting AWPA Standard P9-A were used as carriers for these wood preservatives. After ten years exposure, the efficacy of Cu-Nap at a retention level of 0.05 pcf Cu was equivalent...
D D Nicholas, M H Freeman


Accelerated wood decay in a soil bed test under greenhouse conditions compared with a stake test under field condition
1991 - IRG/WP 2384
The rate of decay of oak, beech, Douglas fir, pine and spruce stakes in an outside test field were compared with the decay rate of the same species in a greenhouse soil-bed test. Strength loss after four and six months respectively was measured by determining the compression strength parallel to the grain. The results show that all species, strength loss in the greenhouse was 2 to 4 times higher t...
J E Polman, S G Michon, H Militz


IRG soft-rot stake test - Site 03 Australia. Progress Report No. 3
1982 - IRG/WP 3202
The performance of test stakes was examined after four (4) years. Hardwood stakes treated with CCA showed significant soft-rot attack. The exception to this was Alstonia scholaris which was similar in performance to Pinus sylvestris. A supplementary test containing stakes treated with CBC, PCP and creosote, showed attack in all hardwoods examined. Little decay was found in stakes of Pinus sylvestr...
L E Leightley, R S Johnstone


IRG soft rot stake test. Site: 03 Australia. Progress repor
1980 - IRG/WP 1114
IRG soft-rot test stakes were installed in site 03 Australia 16.6.77. The stakes have been inspected twice, (28.11.78 (Johnson, 1979) and 31.10.79) for signs of decay, and used to obtain fungal isolates. The condition of stakes in the supplementary soft-rot test has also been examined....
L E Leightley, D M Francis, R S Johnstone


Biological effectiveness of ground-contact wood preservatives as determined by field exposure stake tests
1984 - IRG/WP 3297
Field exposure tests conducted on stakes treated with different creosotes, mixtures of creosote and waxy oil as well as different CCA wood preservatives over a period of 25 years, gave the following results: The CCA preservatives provided excellent biological protection to treated stakes, especially against fungal attack. The CCA Type I, currently approved for use under South African conditions is...
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


Calculation of preformance index of Bardac 20 (an alkylammonium compound) evaluated in a field stake test
1982 - IRG/WP 3206
Bardac 20 treated stakes have been in test for three years at the Westham Island test site near Vancouver, B.C. The Performance Index for the preservative was calculated and found to be 0.009 which infers that, at the standard retention, Bardac 20 added 0.9 y to the life of the stake. It may be concluded that when tested using a standard field stake test using ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws)...
J N R Ruddick


Field stake test assessment with the Pilodyn
1980 - IRG/WP 2136
The Pilodyn, which was originally developed to estimate the degree of soft rot in wooden poles, was thought to have potential for giving a quantitative measure of the extent or depth of decay in field test stakes. In the present work a 2-joule Pilodyn with 2.0-mm diameter pin was used in an attempt to limit depth of pin penetration (to 10-15 mm) without reducing scale sensitivity. The results show...
M E Hedley, R W Naish


Some Experiences with Stake Tests at BAM Test Fields and in the BAM Fungus Cellar Part 2: Comparison of Static and Dynamic Moduli of Elasticity (MOE)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20320
In routine in-ground stake tests of wood preservatives at the BAM test field Horstwalde and in the BAM fungus cellar periodical determinations of both static moduli of elasticity (MOE) on the basis of bending tests and dynamic MOE on the basis of the vibration method were performed as a possible method for the assessment of fungal attack. As expected from other publications, the absolute values of...
M Grinda, S Göller


Protection of southern pine using N,N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine: Field tests, soft-rot cellars and aquatic bioassay leach testing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30204
Recent environmental restrictions are limiting the use of broad-spectrum biocides for wood preservation. There is an urgent need for new, sharply targeted, environmentally benign wood preservatives. N'N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA), a water-soluble calcium-precipitating agent, has been shown to inhibit decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi in soil-block tests and prevent damage by Easte...
D M Crawford, F Green III


Resistance of acetylated wood to biological degradation. Evaluation of field test
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30139
Acetylated wood samples were tested in ground contact (stake test) at two test fields, one in Simlångsdalen, Sweden, and one in Viikki, Finland, according to European standard EN 252. The test samples were inspected annually and their condition was compared with that of untreated controls and of samples treated with two reference CCA preservatives. The use of untreated controls and preservative t...
P Larsson Brelid, R Simonson, Ö Bergman


Results on field stake tests against termite – Maximum for 8 years examination at Kumamoto in Japan
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10463
Various preservative treated or modified wood and charcoal painting stakes were tested in field, maximum for eight years in Kumamoto, distributed two main termite species, Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes speratus. After two years in field, untreated sapwood of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) were observed severe attacks by termites, but the preservative treated stakes were observed no signif...
K Suzuki


Stake test with ammoniacal copper in combination with different agents started in 1962
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30130
In 1962 a stake test was started with ammoniacal copper in combination with chromium, arsenic, pentachlorophenol, boron, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, pyridine and tannin. Different concentrations of the copper component were used as well as the added agents. For each concentration and test site, ten stakes of Pinus sylvestris L. sapwood were treated. The stakes were set out at two te...
B Häger, Ö Bergman


Some Experiences with Stake Tests at BAM Test Fields and in the BAM Fungus Cellar Part 1: Comparison of Results of Visual Assessments and Determinations of Static Moduli of Elasticity (MOE)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20319
With examples of routine in-ground stake tests differences are shown in the performance of wood preservatives at the BAM test fields Lehre and Horstwalde and in the BAM fungus cellar. Signs of attack of micro-organisms were assessed visually according to EN 252. Periodical determinations of static moduli of elasticity (MOE) revealed the influence of the attack on the elastic properties of the wood...
M Grinda, S Göller


Biological Performance of micronized copper wood preservative formulations in field and laboratory tests
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30488
Micronized Copper wood preservative formulations with different co-biocides were exposed to brown rot fungi in an 8-week AWPA E10 soil block decay test and two AWPA E7 ground-contact decay tests in Hawaii. The micronized copper formulations performed well against decay at or above the AWPA UC3 and UC4 retentions stipulated by the ICC-ES. Micronized copper preservatives performed comparably to a ...
G M Larkin, J Zhang, D L Richter, R J Ziobro, P E Laks


The Technical Criteria on Biological Evaluation of Wood Preservatives for Use Category C4.1 in Southern China
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20481
According to the Regulations on Pesticide management of the People's Republic of China, wood preservatives belong to agrochemicals. The establishment of registration system on wood preservatives would be benefit to management of preservatives, including the market entrance and safety insurance to the human beings, livestock and the environment associated by the application of these preservati...
Xingxia Ma, Mingliang Jiang


Effectiveness of CCA-C and CCB preservatives after a 30 years stake test
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30606
The objective of this experiment was to assess the durability of four pine species treated with waterborne preservatives. In order to determinate this, a stake field test, following the IUFRO (International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) recommendations, was installed at Experimental Station of Luiz Antonio (21º 32’ S and 47º 42’ W), State of São Paulo, Brazil. Species under t...
I PJankowsky, E S Lepage, C Salvela, J M Vidal, S Takeshita


Field trials results of preservative treated ground contact stake conducted in Korea
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30640
The field trials results from Korea preservative treated ground contact stake are reported. There was two site which was in southern area(Anmeon) and east area (Jungsun) of Korea. The CUAZ, CCA and CBHDO preservatives were use in this study. The sapwood of Japanese red pine stake was treated with these preservatives according to Korea standard method and then installed in 2003. Every year the insp...
Dong Won Son, Won Jung Hwang, Hyun-mi Lee, Dong-heub Lee, Sang-bum Park


Progress report on co-operative research project on L-joint testing
1983 - IRG/WP 2192
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson, M Fougerousse


A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to de...
R N Wakeling


Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions....
M Fougerousse


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test....
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder str...
C D Howick, J W Creffield


Performance of treated fence posts after 6 years in five test plots in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil
1976 - IRG/WP 376
Fence posts treated with creosote, pentachlorophenol and creosote/ pentachlorophenol mixtures showed good performance after 6 years of exposure in five test plots located in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Good results were also achieved with copper sulphate/sodium arsenate and copper sulphate/potassium dichromate mixtures. Fungi and termites were the main destroying agents found attacking the po...
M S Cavalcante


Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher


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