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Bending Properties of FRT OSB
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40600
Fire retardant treated (FRT) oriented strandboard (OSB) and plywood of different widths were tested in static bending to determine width effects. Results were consistent with previous width effect studies and showed that increasing specimen width results in a decrease in sample MOR properties among all the sample groups tested in this study. Increasing sample width for OSB samples leads to more consistent MOR and MOE values. FRT plywood has a better width factor value than the two OSB sample groups tested in this study.
J M Hill, H M Barnes, S Q Shi

Serviceability modeling-Predicting and extending the useful service life of FRT-plywood roof sheathing
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20210
One of the most, if not the most, efficient methods of extending our existing forest resource is to prolong the service life of wood currently in-service by using those existing structures to meet our future needs (Hamilton and Winandy 1998). It is currently estimated that over 7 x 109 m3 (3 trillion bd. ft) of wood is currently in service within the United States of America (PATH 1999). Research programs throughout North America are increasingly focusing on understanding and defining the salient issues of wood durability and by maintaining and extending the serviceability of these existing wood structures. This report presents the findings and implications of a major 10-year research program carried on at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory. This research program developed serviceability models for fire-retardant (FR)-treated plywood roof sheathing exposed to elevated in-service temperatures and experiencing thermal degrade. FR-treated plywood roof sheathing is often required by U.S. Building Codes in roof systems for multifamily dwellings having common property walls. This 10-year research program found many important facts. Qualitatively, the mechanism of thermal degrade in FR-treated plywood was acid-hydrolysis. The magnitude of strength loss could be cumulatively related to FR chemistry, thermal exposure during pre-treatment, treatment, and post-treatment processing and in-service exposure. The effects of FR chemistry could be mitigated by use of pH buffers. The strength effects were similar for many levels of plywood quality. Quantitatively, a kinetics-based approach could be used to predict strength loss based on its time-temperature history. This research program then developed models with which to assess current condition, predict future hazard based on past service life, and then predict residual serviceability of untreated and FR-treated plywood used as structural roof sheathing. Each of these findings is briefly described in this report. There are many opportunities for extending the useful service life of wood by better maintenance, remedial treatment, or enhanced serviceability assessment to predict both residual strength and residual utility. Results of research programs such as this can be used to extend service-life by providing the engineer with a estimate of residual serviceability and thereby avoiding premature removal. Many of the concepts employed in the development of these FR-plywood serviceability models are directly applicable to the development of predictive durability models for wood as affected by decay. When such a durability-based service-life model is developed, that serviceability model will aid building code officials, regulators, contractors, and engineers in determining replacement time schedules for wood undergoing biological attack.
J E Winandy

Laboratory investigation of fire protection coatings for creosote-treated timber railroad bridges
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30639
As the incidence of timber railroad bridge fires increases, so has the need to develop protective measures to reduce the risk from accidental ignitions primarily caused by hot metal objects. Of the six barrier treatments evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to protect timbers from fires sourced with ignition from hot metal objects only one intumescent coating provided adequate fire protection. The intumescent barrier treatment also met environmental, performance (e.g. bond durability) and application criteria set forth in this study. These criteria also dictated the development of a flammability test, called the hot metal test that is compatible with the fire scenario specific to this study. The hot metal test evaluates protective materials on creosote-treated timber against ignition of gases generated by an 1100ᴼC heat source.
C A Clausen, R H White, J P Wacker, S T Lebow, M A Dietenberger, S L Zelinka, N M Stark

Fire resistance of wood treated with potassium carbonate and silanes
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30657
This paper reports on the effect that organosilicon compounds and potassium carbonate and urea (PCU) have on wood flammability. The study focus on reducing wood flammability by promoting char formation through manipulation of the condensed phase decomposition chemistry. Potassium carbonate is known as an effective fire retardant, however it is easily leached out from wood and increases its hygroscopicity. The aim of the research was to assess the ability of selected organosilicon compounds to reduce potassium carbonate leachability from the treated wood. The study was performed through the mini fire tube (MFT) method, where fireproofing properties of the treated wood were evaluated. Pine sapwood treated with PCU at the retention of ca. 160kg/m3 showed 6% of wood mass loss as a result of combustion in MFT. The fireproofness effect has been reduced due to the ageing procedure and displayed 60% of wood mass loss. It has been shown that some selected silanes or their blends with siloxanes, superficialy applied on treated wood, allowed to retain PCU in wood and maintain its fireproofness. Wood mass loss resulting from sample’s combustion was significantly reduced (ML<10%). AEAPTMOS, VTMOS and a mixture of alkylalkoxysilanes turned out to be most effective agents limiting potassium carbonate leachability and maintaining wood fireproofness.
B Mazela, M Broda, W Perdoch

The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks were 45, 25, and 0% respectively, and corresponding weight losses in soil were 27, 25 and 10%. These results, and electronmicroscopical observations, showed conclusively that Eucalyptus grandis treated with fire retardant was rapidly decayed, and that copper inhibited such decay.
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker

Fire resistance of Alder wood treated with some chemicals. Part II. Effect of Other Chemicals on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40235
Samples from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey) Yalt.) were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 with boron compounds (boric acid, borax, sodium perborate), vinyl monomers (styrene, methyl methacrylate), Tanalith-CBC, Phosphoric acid, Vacsol, Immersol, Polyethylene glycole (PEG-400) and their mixed solutions of chemicals in order to determine their combustion properties. The results indicated that inorganic boron compounds with aqueous solutions were very effective as fire retardant and reduced burning of some vinyl monomers at some extent such as styrene and methylmetacrylate when used as a secondary treatment chemical polimerized later on wood structure and phosphoric acid was also showed fire-reterdancy. Further studies are suggested on boron-vinyl monomers, and boric acid+borax with different concentrations by physical and chemical interactions in terms of fire reterdancy.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz

Chapter 6 - Preservatives of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-06
Almost all currently available oil-borne, water-borne and compound types of preservatives suitable for the preservation of bamboo or wood have been described along with their classifications, applications, formulations, merits and demerits, history of invention or discovery and development. The preservatives suitable for wood are also considered suitable for bamboo.
A K Lahiry

Evaluation of the fire retardant efficacy and leach resistance of an amino resin fire retardant - Preliminary report
1983 - IRG/WP 3260
The Early Fire Hazard Indices of untreated Pinus radiata were determined by testing to Australian Standard 1530, Part 3 - 1976. Differences in the performance of heartwood and sapwood were noted, with heartwood samples giving higher Ignitability, Heat Evolved and Spread of Flame indices. The treatability of Pinus radiata with Pyrogard H was assessed, and backsawn sapwood treated more effectively than all other combinations of direction of cut and sapwood/heartwood. Treatment of kiln dried DAR Pinus radiata with Pyrogard H did not produce dimensional changes of practical significance. This factor, plus a high concentration gradient of retardant in the treated timber, make it an ideal treatment for fully machined and profiled Pinus radiata. The leach resistance of the retardant was assessed. A greater percentage of phosphorus than nitrogen was leached, but the retardant remaining after leaching conferred similar protection to the unleached material at equivalent rententions. Pyrogard H is an effective leach resistant fire retardant for Pinus radiata.
W D Gardner, P N Alexiou, P Lind, D Butler

Serial techniques for producing fire-retardant wood products
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30127
A series of techniques including fire-retarders denoted by WFR-1, WFR-2. WFR and their applications in producing fire-retardant wood (WFR wood), fire-retardant plywood (WFR plywood), fire-retardant particleboard (WFR particleboard) and fire-retardant MDF (WFR MDF) were investigated The fire retarders were low toxic, decay resistant and less leachable. The treated wood and WFR panels were of excellent fire resistance and good physic-mechanical properties. Besides formaldehyde released from WFR panels was very low.
Zhu Jia Qi, Liu Yan Ji, Gao Chao Ying

Distribution of fire retardant chemicals in kempas (Koompassia malaccensis)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40037
Samples of Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) heartwood were treated by vacuumpressure impregnation with solutions of monammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate or a borax-boric acid mixture. A commercial saltbased fire retardant formulation was also used. After slow air drying, the treated wood samples were sub-divided and zonal analysis carried out in order to determine the gradients of chemical retention form surface to core. Steep gradients of fire retardant chemicals were found irrespective of formulation. In a pyrolysis study, the amount of residue after pyrolysis at 550°C was proportional to the retention gradients of the fire retardant chemicals being greatest in the surface zones and least in the core of the samples.
A R A Malek, R J Murphy

Fire retardant treated wood and plywood: A comparative study Part III. Combustion properties of treated wood and plywood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40236
The fire retardant treated and untreated plywood and alder wood samples were prepared with the aim to investigate the effects of the way of treatment on the combustion properties. Alder wood was used for the preparation of plywood. Boric acid and borax were used as fire retardant. The plywood samples were impregnated by using three different methods; first group samples were impregnated by soaking of individual veneer before manufacturing plywood. The second group samples were impregnated by adding boron compounds into the glue mixture and third plywood group samples were vacuum impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88. In addition, the solid alder wood samples were impregnated with same fire retardant solutions for control purpose according to ASTM D 1413-88. The results showed that the most effective way of the treatment was the impregnation of plywood panels treated with boric acid and significantly reduced burning of plywood and solid wood samples.
S Çolak, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoglu

Bibliography on the use of boron compounds for the preservation of wood
1973 - IRG/WP 315
This bibliography is based on an earlier literature survey prepared by J. Thornton and Wm. E. Bruce (O.E.C.D. Document No. 27/DAS/CSI/M/91) which was enlarged and revised for a meeting in Paris in October 1968 (Document 27/DAS/CSI/M554) by Professor W. Bavendamm of Reinbek. The latter (1968) document with its 166 references has now been extended and brought up to date. Acknowledgments are due to Borax Consolidated Ltd. and to the New Zealand Forest Research Institute who have both helped by providing us with further compilations of their own. Boron compounds have been in use in the past and are still found useful in medicine in the form of boric acid solutions and boracic ointment. They have also been used for the conservation of foodstuffs. In the treatment of wood they were first mostly used as fire retardants. Since the Second World War they have become increasingly important in the field of wood preservation.
R Cockcroft, J F Levy

Fire, flame resistance and thermal properties of oil thermally-treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40361
Oil thermal treatment, first developed by German scientists, is a promising technology for improving the durability and dimensional stability of wood for outdoor above-ground residential uses such as siding and shingles. The present authors’ previous research showed that 220ºC is an optimal treatment temperature, with 2 hours’ treatment producing wood with significantly improved moisture and biological resistance. This paper mainly deals with the preliminary investigation into fire, flame resistance and related thermal properties of such thermally modified wood. Slack wax and soybean oil were used as heating media for treatment at 220 ºC. Small-scale fire and flame resistance tests including the crib test and the two-foot tunnel test, were carried out. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) were also used to investigate the corresponding thermal properties. The results indicated that the oil-thermal treatment reduced the flame resistance, as a result of the oil or wax residue in wood surface, and wax absorbed by wood during the high-temperature treatment may facilitate extra heat evolution during thermal decomposition in air. However, in general, oil thermally-treated wood, especially soybean oil-treated wood, did not reduce the fire resistance of wood or affect the thermal properties of wood significantly.
Jieying Wang, P Cooper

Bi-oleothermal treatment of wood at atmospheric pressure: resistance to fungi and insects, resistance to weathering and reaction to fire results
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40418
Bi-oleothermal process is a simple treatment which has been developped by CIRAD in cooperation with FCBA. It allows a deep impregnation of wood with hydrophobic products using cheap facilities. The process includes two steps at atmospheric pressure. The first one is a dipping of wood samples in a hot oil bath (between 110 °C and 200°C) which creates an overpressure inside the wood. The second one is also a dipping in a oil bath but at a lower temperature (20°C to 80°C). In this second bath samples cooling leads to water condensation. A vacuum is created inside the samples and makes the oil to impregnate the wood. In this study, this process has been used to impregnate several wood species with several linseed oils with and without biocides. The resistance to wood destroying fungi has been assessed using a method adapted from EN 113. Results show that the linseed oils lead to an increase in the natural durability. The resistance to termites and to house longhorn beetles has been assessed using EN 117 and EN 47 respectively. Wood treated with biocide-free oil is attacked by termites but afterwards the oil induces the death of the insects. The addition of biocide makes the wood completely protected from termites attacks. EN 47 results show that 93% of mortality amongst the beetles is obtained with the biocide-free oil and 100% with the oil including biocide. The resistance of the treatment to weather has been studied using artificial weathering test according to EN 927-6. Results show that the coating provided by this process constitutes a low performing product compared to conventional stains. However the coatability with a solventborne or a waterborne stain is ensured and leads to good performance after artificial weathering. The influence of the oil treatment on wood exposed to fire was studied on oil treated samples and on samples which were fireproofed and then oil treated. EN ISO 11925-2 tests show the oil treated samples do not pass the test and have a fire classification of F. However samples that have been fireproofed and then impregnated with the linseed oil pass the test and a fire classification of E is obtained. These results were completed with EN 13823 tests. Samples that were fireproofed then oil treated fulfill the C fire classificiation requirements.
L Podgorski, I Le Bayon, I Paulmier, J-D Lanvin, V Georges, D Grenier, H Baillères, J-M Méot

Surface color and roughness characteristics of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels treated with fire retardants
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40420
The objective of this study was to determine surface characteristics and color change properties of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated by fire retardants (FR) with 10% concentration. Experimental panels were made using by melamine ureaformaldehyde (MUF) adhesive having 10%, 15%, 20% of melamine. The surface properties of the samples were determined using a fine stylus technique. Three roughness parameters, namely average roughness (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) were determined from the surface of the samples. Color change properties of MDF samples were evaluated to CIE L*a*b* methods by a spectrophotometer (Minolta CM-2600d). It was found that the surface roughness values of the FR treated MDF panels were higher than those of control panels. The highest surface roughness values obtained from MDF panels treated with MAF+BA+NPB, MAF+BA+BX, the lowest values obtained from MDF panels treated with MAF+AL. Also surface roughness of the MDF panels improved with increasing melamine additive rate in the MUF adhesive. According to CIEL*a*b method, color change properties of the samples showed variation as function of chemicals type. Especially, while the highest color change(?E) were determined for MDF samples treated with MINPB and MAF+BA+NPB, the lowest color change (?E) were obtained from MDF samples treated with MAF+AL, MIN.
D Ustaömer, M Usta, S Hiziroglu

Extensive review of fire-retardant wood composites researches
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40471
The increased demand for public safety has led to greater interest in fire retardant materials in the recently years. Legislation relating to safety in the home, in work locations, on transport facilities and in public places continues to produce new regulation. There is average 524 thousand structure fires occurred every year in US, 3757 civilian in death, about 20 thousand civilian in juries, direct dollar loss is more than 10 billon. The fire damage of US is large because US’s wood structural building more than that of China, but increased use of composite wood products in China, which improve wood utilization and provide markets for small-diameter materials, can potentially increase the risk of property damage and loss of life in fires, therefore, protecting home and business from fire is a critical facing all over the world. Fire safety involves prevention, containment, detection, and evacuation. It is basically for fire prevention to prevent the ignition of combustible materials by controlling either the source of heat or the combustible materials. Statutory requirements pertaining to fire safety are specified in the building code and fire code, which includes material requirements such as combustibility, flame spread, and fire endurance, and building requirements such as area and height limitations, firestops, and draftstops, doors and other exits, automatic sprinklers, and fire detectors. The paper discussed the Damage in fire and cost of protection in US, Thermally degradation and fire performance of wood, Chemicals of fire-retardant wood, Flame-Retardant Treatment of wood and composites, the mechanic properties and loss in strength of treated wood and composite, fire properties of treated wood and composite, the standards about fire retardant, developing of Fire Retardant Wood Composites.
Zhilin Chen, Zhiyong Cai, Feng Fu

Progress in Fire-Retardant Research on Wood and Wood-Based Composites: a China Perspective
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40476
The fire retardant research on wood and wood-based composites, which was carried out in China in the past two decades, was reviewed with 55 references. While many kinds of fire retardants for wood and wood-based composites have been studied, the mainstream is still the compound or the mixture containing phosphorus, nitrogen and boron elements, which can be used in the form of water solution in the impregnation of solid wood. The fire-retardant treatment methods for wood panels are either pretreatment of veneers, fibres, particles and strands before hot pressing, or the impregnation of waterproof panels by fire-retardant solution. Though attempts have been done in lab to mix fire retardants with the glue, it has proved to be very difficult to spray glue with effective amount of fire retardants smoothly in the real manufacturing of fire-retardant panels. Fire retarding mechanism of phosphorus-nitrogen-boron fire retardants have been investigated systematically. The results indicated that for a proper fire-retardant formulation phosphorus-nitrogen compounds and boron compound are highly synergistic, that the catalytic charring effect of a fire retardant on wood is a key factor to its fire-retardant efficiency, and that a chemical fire-retardant mechanism for boric acid was proposed. The fire-retardant research on wood plastic composites has attracted more attention in recent years, however, most results are basically preliminary because of the difficulty for choosing or setting up a suitable fire retardant system that is effective to both of wood and plastics. Research on smoke suppression of wood was also discussed which was even more preliminary and innovative efforts are needed.
Wang Qingwen, Wang Fengqiang, Hu Yunchu, Li Jian

Mould growth on wood-based materials – a comparative study
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20455
Ten different wood-based materials - preservative-treated wood, fire retardant-treated wood, modified wood, WPCs and untreated references of pine sapwood and spruce - were tested for mould growth according to SP method 2899 during 42 days at 90% RH and 22°C. Even though the results must be interpreted carefully, they indicate significant differences in mould resistance between the materials tested. Sapwood of pine, thermally treated wood and furfurylated wood had the highest ratings of mould growth at the specific climatic conditions selected for this study. All other treatments seemed to retard mould growth and the least mould growth appeared on WPC samples prepared of fibres treated with an isothiazolone type preservative. Further studies at different climates and at fluctuating climates are required in order to get a better understanding of the resistance to mould growth of the materials tested.
P Johansson, J Jermer

The Effects of Some Fire Retardant Chemicals on the Decay Resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30536
The objective of this study was to determine the decay resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated with 5% and 10% concentration of various fire retardant (FR) chemicals. Experimental panels were produced using by melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins having 10%, 15% and 20% of melamine content. MDF specimens were subjected to decay resistance test performed according to modified EN 113 standard method using white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. It was found that the weight loss (%) of MDF specimens treated with chemicals were lower than those of control panels. Especially, the best results were obtained from MDF specimens treated with zinc borate (ZB). Furthermore, decay resistance of the MDF specimens improved with increasing melamine content in the MUF resin and increasing chemical concentration.
D Ustaömer, M Usta, Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz, E D Tomak

Fire performance of the wood treated with retardant
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40591
To prepare the eco-friendly fire retardant wood, Japanese red pine (Pinus Densiflora), hemlock (Tsuga Heterophylla), and radiate pine (Pinus Radiata) were treated with inorganic chemicals, such as sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium boric acid. Different combination and concentration of those chemicals were injected by pressure treatment methods. The electron-beam treatment was used to increase the chemical penetration into the wood. The fire performance of the fire retardant was investigated. The penetration of chemicals into the wood was enhanced after irradiation of 200 kGy of electron beam. Ignition time of the treated wood was the most effectively retarded by sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium boric acid. The most effective chemical combination was found at 50% sodium silicate and 3% ammonium boric acid; which showed 3-grade flammability defined in the KS F ISO 5660-1 standards.
Jong In Kim, Mi-ran kang, Sang bum Park, Dong won Son

Effects of nano-wollastonite impregnation on fire resistance and dimensional stability of Poplar wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40595
The fire-retardant properties of Nano-Wollastonite (NW) in poplar wood (Populus nigra) were determined in this study. Some physical properties such as water absorption, volumetric swelling and Anti-Swelling Efficiency (ASE) were also measured. Specimens were prepared according to the ISO 11925 standard for the fire-retarding properties, and ASTM D4446-2002 standard for the physical properties. Impregnation of wood specimens with nano-wollastonite was carried out using the Ruping Method (empty-cell process) with a concentration of 10%. Three fire-retarding properties were measured; weight loss, ignition point and fire endurance. The results showed that fire-retarding properties increased in the NW-treated specimens. In addition, the NW-impregnated specimens gained higher dimensional stability. However, the water absorption also increased.
A Karimi, A Haghighi Poshtir, H Reza Taghiyari, Y Hamzeh, A Akbar Enayati

Mould growth on wood-based materials – a simulated in-service study
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20503
Ten different wood-based materials including preservative-treated wood, fire retardant-treated wood, modified wood, WPCs and untreated references of pine sapwood and spruce were placed in three different environments (an attic and two crawl spaces) for a period of 26 months. Mould growth was analysed at five to seven month intervals in an effort to map the growth development. The relative humidity and temperature were logged continuously. The results obtained from testing in the two crawl spaces generally corresponded well with a previous laboratory study. None of the materials tested could completely withstand mould growth during the 26 months’ exposure time. Most promising results were obtained with the preservative-treated WPC and the least promising with the modified wood materials. For the latter, poor mould resistance is of major concern.
G Bok, P Johansson, J Jermer

Wood-leather panels – A biological, fire retardant building material
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40615
The poor flame retardant properties of wood-based products are among the severest obstacles, hindering its use in the commercial building sector. Recently, some attempts to improve the fire properties, relying on inflammable salts or reactive halogen compounds, have been presented, although they either cause problems with machining or embody harmful compounds (halogen derivates). In this paper, the fire retardant properties of a novel material, wood-leather panels, are determined by the use of flame tests in a furnace according to ÖNORM EN ISO 1363:2011. The specimens were evaluated according to integrity and surface temperature. For the test specimens, wet white (WW) and wet blue (WB) leather shavings, with varying contents were used. The main finding is that both, panels containing WW and WB leather shavings, show properties superior to current flame-retardant medium density fibre boards, MDF B1,s2-d0. An optimum was found here at a leather content of 50%. In order to describe this behaviour towards fire in further detail, the calorific value of the material as well as the thermal conductivity were determined. As the leather panels produce a foam-like structure during the fire treatment, it is assumed, that this is caused by the exhaust of gases, leading to decreased temperature flow through the specimen, resulting in the observed properties. It can be concluded that the panels show superior fire retardant properties, compared to commonly available flame retardant material. Therefore further research in this field is proposed, with the aim to produce a certified product.
S Wieland, U Stöckl, T Grünewald, S Ostrowski, A Petutschnigg

Effect of electron beam irradiation on the fire retardant penetration into wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40642
Electron beam processing which can fast and easy change the nature of the material has received considerable attention recently. Studies using electron beam has been conducted in various fields and it has been applied in many industrial sectors. Electron beam has higher energy than other electromagnetic waves. It has excellent object permeability. It affects degradation of intermolecular cross-linking between molecules or atoms bond formation, polymerization. High permeability of the electron beam has applied to improve penetration of fire retardant into wood. Changes in the characteristics of the wood, retention of the retardant on different electron beam dose, leaching resistance of treated wood were examined. Scanning electron microscopy EDS analysis has been conducted to investigate the chemical elements and to calculate the distribution of each component.
Dong won Son, Jong Sin Lee, Mee Ran Kang, Sang Bum Park

The whitening cause of Korean wooden heritage by flame retardant treatment
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20560
Korean wooden heritage used to treat by flame retardants in order to protect fire. There are 2 types flame retardant using for wooden heritage. These flame retardants treatment are basic measure that apply to wooden heritage along with other fire protection. The flame retardants cause white stains by reacting with Korean traditional wood painting (Dancheong) and increase wood humidity. The Korean government had discontinued use of flame retardants on the wooden cultural assets because of this whiteness phenomenon. This study was carried out to find out the cause of white stains by flame retardants treatment. The reaction of pigment and flame retardants was analyzed.
Jin Qyu Kim, Gyu-Seong Han, Yong Jae Chung, Hwa Soo Lee, Dong Won Son

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