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Fire resistance of Alder wood treated with some chemicals. Part II. Effect of Other Chemicals on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40235
Samples from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey) Yalt.) were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 with boron compounds (boric acid, borax, sodium perborate), vinyl monomers (styrene, methyl methacrylate), Tanalith-CBC, Phosphoric acid, Vacsol, Immersol, Polyethylene glycole (PEG-400) and their mixed solutions of chemicals in order to determine their combustion properties. The results indicated that inorganic boron compounds with aqueous solutions were very effective as fire retardant and reduced burning of some vinyl monomers at some extent such as styrene and methylmetacrylate when used as a secondary treatment chemical polimerized later on wood structure and phosphoric acid was also showed fire-reterdancy. Further studies are suggested on boron-vinyl monomers, and boric acid+borax with different concentrations by physical and chemical interactions in terms of fire reterdancy.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz

Fire retardant treated wood and plywood: A comparative study Part III. Combustion properties of treated wood and plywood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40236
The fire retardant treated and untreated plywood and alder wood samples were prepared with the aim to investigate the effects of the way of treatment on the combustion properties. Alder wood was used for the preparation of plywood. Boric acid and borax were used as fire retardant. The plywood samples were impregnated by using three different methods; first group samples were impregnated by soaking of individual veneer before manufacturing plywood. The second group samples were impregnated by adding boron compounds into the glue mixture and third plywood group samples were vacuum impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88. In addition, the solid alder wood samples were impregnated with same fire retardant solutions for control purpose according to ASTM D 1413-88. The results showed that the most effective way of the treatment was the impregnation of plywood panels treated with boric acid and significantly reduced burning of plywood and solid wood samples.
S Çolak, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoglu

Mould growth on wood-based materials – a comparative study
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20455
Ten different wood-based materials - preservative-treated wood, fire retardant-treated wood, modified wood, WPCs and untreated references of pine sapwood and spruce - were tested for mould growth according to SP method 2899 during 42 days at 90% RH and 22°C. Even though the results must be interpreted carefully, they indicate significant differences in mould resistance between the materials tested. Sapwood of pine, thermally treated wood and furfurylated wood had the highest ratings of mould growth at the specific climatic conditions selected for this study. All other treatments seemed to retard mould growth and the least mould growth appeared on WPC samples prepared of fibres treated with an isothiazolone type preservative. Further studies at different climates and at fluctuating climates are required in order to get a better understanding of the resistance to mould growth of the materials tested.
P Johansson, J Jermer

Fire performance of the wood treated with retardant
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40591
To prepare the eco-friendly fire retardant wood, Japanese red pine (Pinus Densiflora), hemlock (Tsuga Heterophylla), and radiate pine (Pinus Radiata) were treated with inorganic chemicals, such as sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium boric acid. Different combination and concentration of those chemicals were injected by pressure treatment methods. The electron-beam treatment was used to increase the chemical penetration into the wood. The fire performance of the fire retardant was investigated. The penetration of chemicals into the wood was enhanced after irradiation of 200 kGy of electron beam. Ignition time of the treated wood was the most effectively retarded by sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium boric acid. The most effective chemical combination was found at 50% sodium silicate and 3% ammonium boric acid; which showed 3-grade flammability defined in the KS F ISO 5660-1 standards.
Jong In Kim, Mi-ran kang, Sang bum Park, Dong won Son

Mould growth on wood-based materials – a simulated in-service study
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20503
Ten different wood-based materials including preservative-treated wood, fire retardant-treated wood, modified wood, WPCs and untreated references of pine sapwood and spruce were placed in three different environments (an attic and two crawl spaces) for a period of 26 months. Mould growth was analysed at five to seven month intervals in an effort to map the growth development. The relative humidity and temperature were logged continuously. The results obtained from testing in the two crawl spaces generally corresponded well with a previous laboratory study. None of the materials tested could completely withstand mould growth during the 26 months’ exposure time. Most promising results were obtained with the preservative-treated WPC and the least promising with the modified wood materials. For the latter, poor mould resistance is of major concern.
G Bok, P Johansson, J Jermer

Effect of electron beam irradiation on the fire retardant penetration into wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40642
Electron beam processing which can fast and easy change the nature of the material has received considerable attention recently. Studies using electron beam has been conducted in various fields and it has been applied in many industrial sectors. Electron beam has higher energy than other electromagnetic waves. It has excellent object permeability. It affects degradation of intermolecular cross-linking between molecules or atoms bond formation, polymerization. High permeability of the electron beam has applied to improve penetration of fire retardant into wood. Changes in the characteristics of the wood, retention of the retardant on different electron beam dose, leaching resistance of treated wood were examined. Scanning electron microscopy EDS analysis has been conducted to investigate the chemical elements and to calculate the distribution of each component.
Dong won Son, Jong Sin Lee, Mee Ran Kang, Sang Bum Park

Fire resistance of wood treated with potassium carbonate and silanes
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30657
This paper reports on the effect that organosilicon compounds and potassium carbonate and urea (PCU) have on wood flammability. The study focus on reducing wood flammability by promoting char formation through manipulation of the condensed phase decomposition chemistry. Potassium carbonate is known as an effective fire retardant, however it is easily leached out from wood and increases its hygroscopicity. The aim of the research was to assess the ability of selected organosilicon compounds to reduce potassium carbonate leachability from the treated wood. The study was performed through the mini fire tube (MFT) method, where fireproofing properties of the treated wood were evaluated. Pine sapwood treated with PCU at the retention of ca. 160kg/m3 showed 6% of wood mass loss as a result of combustion in MFT. The fireproofness effect has been reduced due to the ageing procedure and displayed 60% of wood mass loss. It has been shown that some selected silanes or their blends with siloxanes, superficialy applied on treated wood, allowed to retain PCU in wood and maintain its fireproofness. Wood mass loss resulting from sample’s combustion was significantly reduced (ML<10%). AEAPTMOS, VTMOS and a mixture of alkylalkoxysilanes turned out to be most effective agents limiting potassium carbonate leachability and maintaining wood fireproofness.
B Mazela, M Broda, W Perdoch

Fire retardant treated wood products – Properties and uses
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30701
Wood is combustible, but can still perform very well in fire, especially for load bearing structures. However, visible wood surface may not fulfil the fire requirements in building codes and fire retardant treatments may be an option. The highest reaction to fire classification for combustible products may then be reached. However, the excellent fire performance of the virgin fire retardant treated, FRT, wood products may degrade over time, especially in outdoor applications. Two cases of long term durability of FRT wood products exist and standard procedures are available for limited hygroscopicity and maintained fire performance after weathering. Structural degradation may also occur, but is relevant only for load-bearing uses. Recommendations on end uses and suggestions for further research are included.
B Östman, L Tsantaridis

Development of Wooden Fireproof Structures for Mid- and High-rise Buildings in Japan
2021 - IRG/WP 21-30757
When constructing a mid-to-high-rise building more than 4 stories in general in Japan, it is necessary to have a fireproof structure stipulated by the Building Standard Law. The performance required as a fireproof structure in Japan is generally stricter than in other countries, and it is required to be structurally sound after a fire even without fire extinguishing activities. In order to satisfy this requirement, the structural member must continue to support the load during the event of a fire. In the case of wooden structure, this means that the combustion should be eliminated spontaneously, and the charring of load support portion is not allowed. Under these conditions, many wooden fireproof structures have already been developed, and wooden buildings are actually being constructed widely. The method of making a wooden fireproof structure is roughly divided into (1) a “inorganic covering type” with gypsum board and (2) a “flame die out type” using fire-retardant treated wood or heat absorbing material. In this report, we will introduce these wood-based fireproof structures, as well as the fireproof structure of “flame die out type” developed by our research group, and the cases where the wooden fireproof structure has been actually applied to various buildings.
D Kamikawa, M Harada, H Matsunaga, R Takase, N Hattori, Keisuke Ando, M Miyabayashi

The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks were 45, 25, and 0% respectively, and corresponding weight losses in soil were 27, 25 and 10%. These results, and electronmicroscopical observations, showed conclusively that Eucalyptus grandis treated with fire retardant was rapidly decayed, and that copper inhibited such decay.
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker

Oxygen index levels and thermal analysis of wood treated with melamine-formaldehyde-boron combinations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30135
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin was impregnated into scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens with aqueous solutions of 5, 10 and 20% concs. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) was added to MF resin at the concentration levels of 0.25, 1.00 and 4.70% to each level of resin concs. BA and BX mixture was prepared at the 5:1 (w/w) ratio considering resultant pH of solutions and better fire resistance. Untreated and treated wood with all combinations were subjected to oxygen index test according to ASTM D 2863-91 and thermal analysis. Results were evaluated in terms of improvement of fire retarding performances of wood by sole or combination treatments.
M K Yalinkilic, W-Y Su, Z Demirci, E Baysal, M Takahashi, S Ishihara

Serial techniques for producing fire-retardant wood products
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30127
A series of techniques including fire-retarders denoted by WFR-1, WFR-2. WFR and their applications in producing fire-retardant wood (WFR wood), fire-retardant plywood (WFR plywood), fire-retardant particleboard (WFR particleboard) and fire-retardant MDF (WFR MDF) were investigated The fire retarders were low toxic, decay resistant and less leachable. The treated wood and WFR panels were of excellent fire resistance and good physic-mechanical properties. Besides formaldehyde released from WFR panels was very low.
Zhu Jia Qi, Liu Yan Ji, Gao Chao Ying

Fire, flame resistance and thermal properties of oil thermally-treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40361
Oil thermal treatment, first developed by German scientists, is a promising technology for improving the durability and dimensional stability of wood for outdoor above-ground residential uses such as siding and shingles. The present authors’ previous research showed that 220ºC is an optimal treatment temperature, with 2 hours’ treatment producing wood with significantly improved moisture and biological resistance. This paper mainly deals with the preliminary investigation into fire, flame resistance and related thermal properties of such thermally modified wood. Slack wax and soybean oil were used as heating media for treatment at 220 ºC. Small-scale fire and flame resistance tests including the crib test and the two-foot tunnel test, were carried out. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) were also used to investigate the corresponding thermal properties. The results indicated that the oil-thermal treatment reduced the flame resistance, as a result of the oil or wax residue in wood surface, and wax absorbed by wood during the high-temperature treatment may facilitate extra heat evolution during thermal decomposition in air. However, in general, oil thermally-treated wood, especially soybean oil-treated wood, did not reduce the fire resistance of wood or affect the thermal properties of wood significantly.
Jieying Wang, P Cooper

Surface color and roughness characteristics of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels treated with fire retardants
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40420
The objective of this study was to determine surface characteristics and color change properties of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated by fire retardants (FR) with 10% concentration. Experimental panels were made using by melamine ureaformaldehyde (MUF) adhesive having 10%, 15%, 20% of melamine. The surface properties of the samples were determined using a fine stylus technique. Three roughness parameters, namely average roughness (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) were determined from the surface of the samples. Color change properties of MDF samples were evaluated to CIE L*a*b* methods by a spectrophotometer (Minolta CM-2600d). It was found that the surface roughness values of the FR treated MDF panels were higher than those of control panels. The highest surface roughness values obtained from MDF panels treated with MAF+BA+NPB, MAF+BA+BX, the lowest values obtained from MDF panels treated with MAF+AL. Also surface roughness of the MDF panels improved with increasing melamine additive rate in the MUF adhesive. According to CIEL*a*b method, color change properties of the samples showed variation as function of chemicals type. Especially, while the highest color change(?E) were determined for MDF samples treated with MINPB and MAF+BA+NPB, the lowest color change (?E) were obtained from MDF samples treated with MAF+AL, MIN.
D Ustaömer, M Usta, S Hiziroglu

Thermal behavior of zinc borate-treated wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30511
The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal behavior of zinc borate (ZnB)-treated solid wood by thermal analysis (TA). Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curves obtained from TA showed that ZnB-treated wood specimens had higher char yields and lower maximum thermal decomposition temperature than untreated wood specimens. Reducing thermal decomposition temperature and increasing char yield are two of the most characteristic effects of fire retardant chemicals for wood products. Briefly, the final char yield of wood specimens occurred in the following order: 2% ZnB > 0.5% ZnB > 0.1% ZnB > control and the maximum thermal decomposition temperature of wood specimens occurred in the following order: 2% ZnB < 0.5% E Terzi, H Sutcu, S N Kartal

Extensive review of fire-retardant wood composites researches
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40471
The increased demand for public safety has led to greater interest in fire retardant materials in the recently years. Legislation relating to safety in the home, in work locations, on transport facilities and in public places continues to produce new regulation. There is average 524 thousand structure fires occurred every year in US, 3757 civilian in death, about 20 thousand civilian in juries, direct dollar loss is more than 10 billon. The fire damage of US is large because US’s wood structural building more than that of China, but increased use of composite wood products in China, which improve wood utilization and provide markets for small-diameter materials, can potentially increase the risk of property damage and loss of life in fires, therefore, protecting home and business from fire is a critical facing all over the world. Fire safety involves prevention, containment, detection, and evacuation. It is basically for fire prevention to prevent the ignition of combustible materials by controlling either the source of heat or the combustible materials. Statutory requirements pertaining to fire safety are specified in the building code and fire code, which includes material requirements such as combustibility, flame spread, and fire endurance, and building requirements such as area and height limitations, firestops, and draftstops, doors and other exits, automatic sprinklers, and fire detectors. The paper discussed the Damage in fire and cost of protection in US, Thermally degradation and fire performance of wood, Chemicals of fire-retardant wood, Flame-Retardant Treatment of wood and composites, the mechanic properties and loss in strength of treated wood and composite, fire properties of treated wood and composite, the standards about fire retardant, developing of Fire Retardant Wood Composites.
Zhilin Chen, Zhiyong Cai, Feng Fu

Progress in Fire-Retardant Research on Wood and Wood-Based Composites: a China Perspective
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40476
The fire retardant research on wood and wood-based composites, which was carried out in China in the past two decades, was reviewed with 55 references. While many kinds of fire retardants for wood and wood-based composites have been studied, the mainstream is still the compound or the mixture containing phosphorus, nitrogen and boron elements, which can be used in the form of water solution in the impregnation of solid wood. The fire-retardant treatment methods for wood panels are either pretreatment of veneers, fibres, particles and strands before hot pressing, or the impregnation of waterproof panels by fire-retardant solution. Though attempts have been done in lab to mix fire retardants with the glue, it has proved to be very difficult to spray glue with effective amount of fire retardants smoothly in the real manufacturing of fire-retardant panels. Fire retarding mechanism of phosphorus-nitrogen-boron fire retardants have been investigated systematically. The results indicated that for a proper fire-retardant formulation phosphorus-nitrogen compounds and boron compound are highly synergistic, that the catalytic charring effect of a fire retardant on wood is a key factor to its fire-retardant efficiency, and that a chemical fire-retardant mechanism for boric acid was proposed. The fire-retardant research on wood plastic composites has attracted more attention in recent years, however, most results are basically preliminary because of the difficulty for choosing or setting up a suitable fire retardant system that is effective to both of wood and plastics. Research on smoke suppression of wood was also discussed which was even more preliminary and innovative efforts are needed.
Wang Qingwen, Wang Fengqiang, Hu Yunchu, Li Jian

Effects of nano-wollastonite impregnation on fire resistance and dimensional stability of Poplar wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40595
The fire-retardant properties of Nano-Wollastonite (NW) in poplar wood (Populus nigra) were determined in this study. Some physical properties such as water absorption, volumetric swelling and Anti-Swelling Efficiency (ASE) were also measured. Specimens were prepared according to the ISO 11925 standard for the fire-retarding properties, and ASTM D4446-2002 standard for the physical properties. Impregnation of wood specimens with nano-wollastonite was carried out using the Ruping Method (empty-cell process) with a concentration of 10%. Three fire-retarding properties were measured; weight loss, ignition point and fire endurance. The results showed that fire-retarding properties increased in the NW-treated specimens. In addition, the NW-impregnated specimens gained higher dimensional stability. However, the water absorption also increased.
A Karimi, A Haghighi Poshtir, H Reza Taghiyari, Y Hamzeh, A Akbar Enayati

Wood-leather panels – A biological, fire retardant building material
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40615
The poor flame retardant properties of wood-based products are among the severest obstacles, hindering its use in the commercial building sector. Recently, some attempts to improve the fire properties, relying on inflammable salts or reactive halogen compounds, have been presented, although they either cause problems with machining or embody harmful compounds (halogen derivates). In this paper, the fire retardant properties of a novel material, wood-leather panels, are determined by the use of flame tests in a furnace according to ÖNORM EN ISO 1363:2011. The specimens were evaluated according to integrity and surface temperature. For the test specimens, wet white (WW) and wet blue (WB) leather shavings, with varying contents were used. The main finding is that both, panels containing WW and WB leather shavings, show properties superior to current flame-retardant medium density fibre boards, MDF B1,s2-d0. An optimum was found here at a leather content of 50%. In order to describe this behaviour towards fire in further detail, the calorific value of the material as well as the thermal conductivity were determined. As the leather panels produce a foam-like structure during the fire treatment, it is assumed, that this is caused by the exhaust of gases, leading to decreased temperature flow through the specimen, resulting in the observed properties. It can be concluded that the panels show superior fire retardant properties, compared to commonly available flame retardant material. Therefore further research in this field is proposed, with the aim to produce a certified product.
S Wieland, U Stöckl, T Grünewald, S Ostrowski, A Petutschnigg

Laboratory investigation of fire protection coatings for creosote-treated timber railroad bridges
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30639
As the incidence of timber railroad bridge fires increases, so has the need to develop protective measures to reduce the risk from accidental ignitions primarily caused by hot metal objects. Of the six barrier treatments evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to protect timbers from fires sourced with ignition from hot metal objects only one intumescent coating provided adequate fire protection. The intumescent barrier treatment also met environmental, performance (e.g. bond durability) and application criteria set forth in this study. These criteria also dictated the development of a flammability test, called the hot metal test that is compatible with the fire scenario specific to this study. The hot metal test evaluates protective materials on creosote-treated timber against ignition of gases generated by an 1100ᴼC heat source.
C A Clausen, R H White, J P Wacker, S T Lebow, M A Dietenberger, S L Zelinka, N M Stark

Experimental Measurements of Fire Retardants on Plywood at Fire Test
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40709
The use and development of wood composite materials increased in the past few years. However, in Brazil there are some restrictions on these products regarding their use, since it could be considered a potential risk at a fire situation. Thus, becomes evident the need for researches aiming to fit these in safety standards. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of two new fire retardant products produced by a Brazilian industry. Tests were performed in plywood panels of Pinus spp previously immersed, varying the products concentrations and compared with untreated samples. The test used to evaluate the flame spread in a panel was the modified Schlyter test. The product in question was proved efficient, before and after shutting off the burner. Comparing with the panels without treatment, there was a decrease of 400% of the height of the flame spread on the treated ones.
G C A Martins, L A Marcolin, J M Vidal, C Calil Jr

Effects of Nano-Wollastonite Impregnation on Fire Properties of Some Thermally-Treated Solid Wood Species
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40771
The effects of nano-wollastonite (NW) suspension impregnation on the fire-retarding properties of heat-treated solid wood of three species (beech, poplar, fir) were studied. Heat treatment was performed at two temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C. Impregnation was carried out at a pressure of 3 bars for 30 min. The fire properties included ignition time, glowing time, back-darkening, back-splitting, back-firing, and length and width of the burnt area. Both impregnation with NW and heat-treatment generally improved all fire-retarding properties, although not always to a significant level. As a mineral material, NW acted like a physical shield against fire penetration into the texture of wood specimens, thus improving fire properties. Moreover, the high thermal conductivity coefficient of wollastonite increased the thermal conductivity of wood, therefore preventing the accumulation of heat at the point nearest to a piloted flame and contributing to the improvement of fire properties. The chemical degradation of wood cell components caused by heat-treatment further improved the fire properties. Cluster analysis indicated the significant effect of species on fire properties. Significant R-square values were found amongst fire properties related to the spread of fire on the surface of specimens. The combination of thermal modification and impregnation with NW provides suitable fire properties for solid wood.
H R Taghiyari, R Hossinpourpia, S Adamopoulos, A Jahangiri, D Rabie

Effects of wood protecting biofinish and linseed oil on fire behaviour and leachability of the fire retardant
2018 - IRG/WP 18-30728
A wood protecting biofinish is based on a protective and decorative fungal-based coating and a linseed oil impregnation (called Xyhlo biofinish). This biofinish enables the long-term use of wood in outdoor applications without using toxic chemicals. The fire resistant properties of materials used in buildings are very important. Since Xyhlo biofinish is relatively new, only little information is available about its fire behaviour. In this study wood treated with biofinish was therefore provided with an extra treatment consisting of a halogen-free phosphate-based fire retardant to improve the fire resistance. A concerning aspect of the used fire retardant is the ability of leaching. Therefore, the leachability of the fire retardant and the effects of the biofinish on the leachability of the added fire retardant were studied. Pine wood impregnated with linseed oil and coated with biofinish provided with a phosphate-based fire retardant was tested on fire behaviour in a Single Burning Item test and a Small Flame test. Also, the effects of two types of biofinishes (biofinish A and B) on the leachability of the phosphate-based fire retardant were tested in a leachability test based on ENV 1250-2 and EN84. Results showed that wood treated with linseed oil and biofinish supplemented with a phosphate-based fire retardant meets the requirements of the European fire class B-s3, d0 (difficult inflammable). Effects of a biofinish on the leachability of the used fire retardant depends on the type of biofinish treatment. The application of biofinish B on wood impregnated with linseed oil and fire retardant diminishes leaching of the fire retardant in a watery environment. To develop a 100% leach resistant biofinish on wood that is classified as fire class B, improvements of biofinish B, the usage of non-water-soluble fire retardants and fire retardant fixation should be explored.
S Rensink, E J van Niewenhuijzen, M F Sailer

Wood-Plastic Composites preservation against fire: Nanofillers as fire retardant alternative
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40843
The purpose of this study is to improve fire resistance of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs) by adding inorganic nanofillers. Indeed, the main components of WPC, namely wood and polymer are both flammable materials despite the fact that WPCs are used in the field of construction. The effect of nanofillers on fire retardancy of Wood-High density polyethylene Composites was studied with three nanofillers, an organically modified nanoclay and fumed nanosilica and nanoalumina with percentages of 1%, 3% and 5% respectively. Samples had been prepared by twin-screw extrusion with percentages of 20%, 30% and 40% of Aspen fibers. The thermal stability was evaluated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), while the flammability behavior was tested using cone calorimetry. It was found that the nanocomposites showed better thermal stability than non-filled WPC. Measurements from the Cone calorimetry test (Heat Release Rate, Total Heat Release, Carbon monoxide and Carbon dioxide) makes it possible to observe trends in fire behavior. Fire resistance improves with the increasing percentage of nanofillers. The nanoclay exhibits the lowest values of Peak Heat Release Rate (PHRR), Flashover Propensity Index (FPI) and Mass Loss Rate (MLR) as well as the highest ignition time (TTI). It is therefore considered to be the most efficient nanoparticle for fire retardancy. The char yield based on TGA analyses correlated with the PHRR in cone calorimetry tests and a high correlation coefficient between the char yield and PHRR (R2 = 0.909) was found. Furthermore, the char yield correlated with melting enthalpy based on DSC measurements and a high correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9229 was obtained.
D Ben Ammar, A Koubaa, S Migneault, H Bouafif

Effects of Borax and Boric Acid as Fire Retardants on the Resistance of Pterygota macrocarpa Wood to Fire Tests
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30770
The combustible nature of wood as a building material, when exposed to hazards of fire underscores the reason for fire retardant treatments. Pterygota macrocarpa wood is commonly used by builders in Nigeria for roof and other structural applications. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the effect of Borax and Boric acid on the fire-retardant properties of P. macrocarpa wood. Wood samples of dimension 200 x 95 x 10 mm were obtained from the harvested tree of P. macrocarpa across and along at 25%, 50% and 75% of the total length. The result revealed that the control samples without any fire retardant treatment had the highest weight loss of 16.06±7.61 %, followed by samples treated with boric acid (14.74%), while the lowest percentage weight loss of 4.26±1.51 % was observed for P. macrocarpa wood treated with borax. The study shows that percentage weight loss due to combustion of borate-treated wood samples decreases with an increasing proportion of borax in the treatment combination revealing that borax provides better protection than boric acid.
J M Owoyemi, O Apogbona, T O Akinwamide

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