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Some textile auxiliaries as wood protective agents
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30417
This study evaluated some textile auxiliaries applicable for wood protection. Commercial alkoxysilane quarternary ammonium formulation and fluorocarbon based water-oil repellent were tested for their ability to provide hydrophobicity and antifungal effect to solid wood samples. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood samples were impregnated with 25, 50 and 100 % concentrations of the above mentioned compounds and cured in an oven at 80 ?C for 24 h. Water absorption rate (WAR), anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) and compression strength parallel to grain of the wood samples were determined. Biological resistance of leached and unleached wood samples against fungal decay was evaluated with a modified soil block test using Postia placenta. Fluorocarbon based water-oil repellent and alkoxysilane quarternary ammonium treated samples demonstrated some improved durability against decay fungi and anti-shrink efficiency compared to the untreated controls. The water uptake of treated wood was significantly reduced, especially after the treatment with alkoxysilane quarternary ammonium. The initial water repellence was well pronounced with the both tested chemicals, but after a longer submersion time (2 weeks), the reduction in water uptake was significantly diminished. No significant decrease of the compression strength parallel to grain of wood samples was monitored. Although the improved durability of wood treated with the tested formulations, the performance is far poorer than that of the commercially available copper-based formulations.
E Dizman, A Temiz, N Terziev, Ü C Yildiz


Chapter 6 - Preservatives of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-06
Almost all currently available oil-borne, water-borne and compound types of preservatives suitable for the preservation of bamboo or wood have been described along with their classifications, applications, formulations, merits and demerits, history of invention or discovery and development. The preservatives suitable for wood are also considered suitable for bamboo.
A K Lahiry


Behaviour of some selective Indian species towards treatment with solvent based water repellent preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3309
This paper discusses a solvent based preservative using PCP and a water repellent for preserving three species of timber commonly used in India for the manufacture of doors and windows. It examines the method of treatment to achieve desired levels of penetration and retention of the preservative-cum-water repellent, and tests made on these timbers to examine the success of the processing methods against the controls. The treatment outlined seems to be most encouraging for this purpose.
V R Sonti, B Chatterjee


Water-based silicones on wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30144
Five waterbased silicones commonly used on masonry where tested as water repellents for wood. The Water Repellent Effectiveness was determined by swellometer-tests and by measuring the water uptake of samples after 24 hours complete immersion and by immersion in a water level of 4 mm for 24 hours. The different methods are compared and discussed. Artificial and natural weathering was performed to determine the durability of the water repellency. Non of the tested silicones showed a significant ASE. The gluability of three tested silicones with PVAc gave poor results. One of the silicone microemulsions and one silicone emulsion performed a water repellency that might allow their use on wood. Two commercial non silicone water repellents that where tested as controls had a lack of durability after weathering.
D Lukowsky, R D Peek, A O Rapp


The development of a new boron-based wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30085
The paper describes a new boron based wood preservative for the treatment of green timber. The product offers many benefits over conventional boron diffusion treatment including: 1. high viscosity, high concentration formulation; 2. permits dip treatment of a wide range of sawn board and pole sizes at ambient temperatures; 3. permits full cross section diffusion of borates without block stacking and wrapping of treated material; 4. treated material is ready for use within a few hours after dipping, this eliminates long storage periods; 5. a water-repellent coating which acts both as a leach retardant and protects the timber against weathering; 6. the new product permits the use of borates in H3 class situations. Evaluation of diffusion trials and simulated rain test data on treated material is discussed.
P Turner, D Conradie


A substantively bonded water repellent treatment based on chromium carboxylates
1985 - IRG/WP 3344
Chromium carboxylates soluble in toluene have been synthesised and applied to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood. Without any further treatment, the compounds may be readily leached from wood surfaces with toluene. After a period of heating however, they become fixed to the cell wall, substantial amounts being resistant to leaching even under reflux conditions for several hours. Treatment of wood polysaccharide and lignin fractions separately, indicates that most of the fixation occurs to lignin, although the polysaccharides may be involved to a lesser extent. Swelling and water sorption tests have been carried out on small cross-sectional wafer specimens treated with the chromium carboxylates. These show that the treatments impart significant levels of water repellency and that the water repellent effect persists much better than with conventional resin/paraffin wax treatments.
J K Wright, W B Banks, W J Eilbeck


Amine Oxides for Use in Wood Protection: II: Water Repellent Agents for Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30426
Wood treated with cetyl and stearyl amine oxides was evaluated to determine its long term water repellency. Comparative water uptake data, generated during two years of outdoor exposure, illustrated that Lonza’s products, Barlox® 18S (N-octadecyl-N, N-dimethylamine oxide) and Barlox® 16S (N-hexadecyl-N, N-dimethylamine oxide), were effective water repellent agents, imparting lasting water resistance in treated wood. A conventional wax based water repellent system showed superior initial results for water resistance; however, the water repellent ability of the wax based system started to degrade after four months of weathering and was significantly deteriorated after two years of outside exposure.
Xiao Jiang, L Walker


Investigating the potential role of creosote oil for the water repellent purposes in fiberboards
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40635
Effect of wood steaming during fiber generation processes and creosote oil on the properties of fiberboard, manufactured from creosote treated solid wood were investigated. Pulp fiber was generated by alkaline pretreatment of waste creosote impregnated wood which being fiberized by laboratory defibrator, atmospherically. These fibers blended with 0, 15, 30, 45 and 100 percent by weight of wood virgin fiber; generated at high steam pressure treatment. All fiber mixtures formed, dried and hot pressed to produce 3mm(d:1g/cm3) nominal thickness hardboard. Acidified creosote oil (free of high molecular weight poly aromatic hydrocarbons) was added to each fiber composition distinctly to evaluate and compare specifications with creosote free board specimens. All specimens were tested physically and mechanically to evaluate the effect of oil presence and wood steam treated fiber ratios on water absorption and thickness swelling after 2&24 hours submersion in distilled water. The results showed that creosote is responsible to decrease water uptake and thickness swelling of wood-based composite materials effectively and steam treatment in comparison to sodium hydroxide as precursor of fiber disintegration, is more efficient to improve both physical and mechanical properties of the fibrous sample boards.
M Sheikholeslami


Evaluation of weathering and termite resistance of the Myoung-oil as a Korean traditional coating agent
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10996
This study investigated the applicability of Myoung-oil (MO) as an eco-friendly preservative of Korean wooden cultural properties and buildings. Wood test specimens painted with various concentrations of MO were exposed in the external environment. Then color change and wettability of the wood surface were evaluated and compared depending on the exposure time. As a result of exposure for 12 months, the surface color of the untreated or termiticide-treated wood changed brown to grey. By the way, the surface color of treated wood with MO was maintained until 6 months of exposure time but finally changed to dark following mold colonization. Furthermore, the water repellency of MO, evaluated by measuring the contact angle, showed a higher level than that of the termiticide-oil (T100). It suggested that MO prevents graying because it formed a layer on the wood to prevent photodegradation of wood. In addition, to evaluate the possibility of preventing damage against termites, one of the major problems of wooden cultural properties, the resistance to termite was evaluated using the specimens exposed in the external environment according to the EN118 method. In the termite test of weathered wood specimens, MO was not effective against termites. And termite attack on weathered wood treated with M75 and M50 was observed according to the exposure time. However, the T100 and M25 reliably prevented termite attacks even when exposed outdoors for 12 months.
S-M Yoon, Y Park, W-S Jeon, H-M Lee, J-G Park, K Dal Nam, W-J Hwang


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Effect of water repellents on leaching from CCA treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50044
CCA treated fence boards brushed with a water repellent finish had consistently lower leaching losses of all CCA components compared to the rate for matched samples without the water repellent. These results are after 12 cycles of simulated rainfall in the laboratory (1800 mm rainfall total) and four months of natural rain exposure in Toronto.
P A Cooper, R MacVicar


Effects of various preservative treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of plywood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40007
The technical properties of plywood are related to both the intrinsic characteristics of its composing wood species and the quality and performance of the glue bond which acts as an interface between veneer sheets. Consequently mechanical and physical testing and glue bond strength analysis offer an appropriate means for studying the effect of preservative treatments on the overall quality of plywood. A range of boards was treated with waterborne and oilborne preservatives. Changes in modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and tensile strength were noted as well as variations in physical properties. Analysis of the glue bond strength was done by shear strength testing and determination of the amount of wood failure after different ageing procedures.
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylotrupes bajulus L. and Anobium punctatum De Geer have not the significance given to them for decennies. That often allows to replace solvant-based with water-based wood preservatives in old buildings, for the protection of humans and environment. Therefore, a method has been developed in Switzerland for testing wood preservatives with delayed curative efficacy against the house longhorn beetle. Like the European Anobium Standard EN 370 this method intends to prevent the emergence of Hylotrupes beetles. Laboratory tests with diverse water-based wood preservatives available on the market in Switzerland have shown that particularly boron and benzoylphenylurea derivatives containing products get a sufficient penetration in the wood and prevent the emergence of the beetles.
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz


Reliability-based service life prediction methodology for assessment of water protection efficiency for coatings on wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20268
Assessment of water protection efficiency according to EN 927-5 has been shown to give significant differences in water absorption values for different types of coatings on wood. It is shown that the combination of EN 927-5 and an artificial weathering procedure gives more information regarding expected durability and long-term performance than a single measurement of water absorption on fresh, unweathered wood. A combination of water absorption measurement and artificial weathering could become a useful tool in product development as well as in benchmarking. Together with statistical tools, such as reliability-based service life prediction methodologies for prediction of the service life of coating systems a reduction in testing time may be achieved. The predicted service life can then be the input to integrated life cycle assessment of products for wood protection.
J Ekstedt


Water-repellent additive for CCA
1991 - IRG/WP 3655
Hickson have developed a water repellent additive for incorporation into copper-chromium-arsenate timber treatment solutions. The water repellent emulsion shows good stability in the treatment solution, is easily incorporated and applied in a single stage treatment. No modifications to the additive is safe to treatment schedule are usually needed and use. Weathering of the treated wood is substantially inhibited by the presence of the additive. Adhesion of paints is not affected.
P Warburton, R F Fox, J A Cornfield


A comparative field test of the effectiveness of anti-sapstain treatments on radiata pine roundwood
1986 - IRG/WP 3376
Peeled radiata pine posts were sprayed with one of six antisapstain formulations, with and without a wax water-repellent additive, to evaluate the protection given by each treatment. After 3 months' outside storage the best treatments tested were 4% product Busan 30, 2% product Busan 1009, and 2% active sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) with 1.5% borax. After 6 months' storage posts sprayed with Busan 30 were of sounder appearance than those sprayed with Busan 1009 or NaPCP plus borax. The effect of a water repellent on the moisture content of posts and on the severity of the fungal degrade was variable between treatments and requires further research.
J A Drysdale, R M Keirle


Water-based water repellents for treatment of wood
1987 - IRG/WP 3446
The water uptake by wood can be reduced by treatment with a water repellent. The water repellents most commonly used are solvent based. In the present work a new type of water repellent that is water-based has been investigated. Two different treatments have shown an effect of the same order as a commercial solvent based product. The cellular distribution of the water repellents has been investigated and for one of the formulations a more uniform distribution can be seen at the impregnated surface. Use of water as a solvent would be advantageous due to lower cost and non-toxicity.
I G Svensson, G Hägglund, I Johansson, W B Banks


Copper based water-borne preservatives: The biological performance of wood treated with various formulations
1987 - IRG/WP 3451
Wood samples treated with the various components of CCA preservative singly and in combination were tested against a soft rot organism, a copper tolerant brown rot organism and in soil burial both unleached and after leaching. The results suggest that, of the elements tested, fixed copper is essential for preventing soft rot attack and fixed arsenic is essential for preventing attack by a copper tolerant brown rot organism in leaching environments.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


Copper based water-borne preservatives: The use of a thin section technique to compare the protection of wood by copper based preservatives against soft-rot and bacterial decay
1987 - IRG/WP 2286
This paper describes the techniques developed and gives examples of results obtained for the performance of copper based wood preservatives against both the bacterial and fungal hazards.
A M Wyles, D J Dickinson


Differential behaviour of wood rotters at water repellent Rubberwood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10386
Rubberwood samples treated with different concentration of aqueous solution of chromic acid has induced significant increase in water repellency and attains dimensional stability. Though water repellency and dimensional stability was achieved by treatment, the fungal invasion could not be completely controlled. Differential level of decay of brown and white rot in wood treated with water repellent compound is observed. Wood shows complete protection from white rot but failed to prevent the invasion of brown rot in water repellent rubber wood. These treatments were found to be very effective even at a low concentration of 2.5% in protecting decay due to white rots as compared to brown rot. Effectiveness of these treatments against white rot may be attributed to formation of lignin-chromic acid complex.
H C Nagaveni, S S Chauhan, K S Rao


Preservative treatments of window components with a water-based borate formulation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40171
Factory finished window joinery components were treated with an aqueous borate preservative in order to investigate penetration and retention levels, associated drying times; and the potential impact of using a water-based treatment on finished items. It was found that by using borates applied by light double vacuum schedules, it was possible to meet standards for penetration and retention, to air dry components within 48 hours; and to avoid other potentially significant negative impact usually associated with aqueous treatments. It is also suggested that current penetration requirements are inappropriate for mobile preservatives. This initial study indicates that it is possible to replace organic solvent carried preservatives with water-borne technology. The potential impact within Europe is of significance as most authorities have introduced mandatory requirements to move from solvent to aqueous systems where it is shown possible to do so. These treatments have now been adopted commercially by some treaters in the UK and are being considered by window manufacturers in Germany and Sweden.
J Jermer, J D Lloyd


Development of a turbidity method for the determination of water repellent in CCA treatment solutions
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40177
The use of aqueous water repellent emulsion formulations has increased significantly in the wood treatment industry. These are primarily used to enhance the weathering characteristics of wood products treated with water borne preservatives systems used in exterior above ground exposures. However, they are also used in pole treatments to improve the climbing characteristics and in low VOC millwork treatments. With the increase in water repellent treated wood production there was a requirement to develop analytical methods for the determination of the water repellent concentration in treatment solutions for quality control at wood treatment facilities. Various methods were examined for the determination of water repellent emulsions in wood treatment solutions. Of the methods considered the turbidity method was found the best suited for routine quality control at treated wood production facilities. The effects of emulsion concentration and particle size on the turbidity measurements were evaluated.
P J Walcheski, L Jin


Influence of pre-swelling conditioning on swellometer results for CCA and water repellent additive treated wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20125
The pre-test moisture content and conditioning history of wafers cut from wood treated with CCA and an emulsion water repellent additive can dramatically influence swelling curves generated using a standard swellometer apparatus. The rate of water uptake and swelling increased significantly as wafers were dried to lower moisture contents prior to immersion swelling. The pre-swelling conditioning history can also influence swellometer curves and confuse the interpretation of relative water repellent efficacy of emulsion water repellent systems. Results support that careful pre-conditioning of wafers is critical for meaningful comparisons of the relative efficacy of water repellent emulsion systems.
A R Zahora


Evaluation of the corrosivity of the treated wood - Laboratory vs field test methodologies
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20211
The corrosivity of treated wood to fasteners has been evaluated using laboratory test procedures, including AWPA Standard E12-94. The standard method was modified in order to allow detailed study of commercial metal fasteners in terms of sample types, installation configuration and exposure conditions. Parallel field tests were also performed. The experimental results generated from these tests suggest that the laboratory test methods accelerate metal corrosion relative to the field performance conditions for only certain preservative treatments. The influence of performance properties of water repellent treated wood on the corrosivity testing methods is also discussed.
L Jin, A F Preston


Treatment of lumber with preservative/water repellent emulsions - The significance of shear stability on penetration
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20124
Currently, the treatment of lumber with a water repellent emulsion and a wood preservative formulation in combination is the most cost effective way to prevent decay and to maintain the appearance of uncoated lumber in service. Water repellents influence the movement of moisture into and out of wood and, by so doing, can decrease checking and splitting significantly. Adequate penetration of the emulsion and the preservative alike are important guarantors of performance for such preservative systems. The inherent particle size of an emulsion will influence its penetration into wood but our studies have indicated that the shear stability of the emulsion is also important. Results from a series of treatment trials using wood and a model system are discussed. A simple method has been developed to semi-quantitatively compare the shear stability of emulsion water repellents.
F Cui, K J Archer


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