Your search resulted in 54 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
How carbon stored in harvested wood products contribute in a greenhouse gas accounting perspective
2017 - IRG/WP 17-50327
In 2014 the net annual removal by Norwegian forests was 30.4 mill ton CO2-eqvivalents while the emissions in other sectors was 53.2 mill ton CO2-eqvivalents. Hence, forests can play a major role in the national greenhouse gas balance. But forests also contribute to the carbon pool stored in wood products. The aim of this paper is, by using Norway as an example, to illustrate how the greenhouse gas...
G Alfredsen, G Søgaard
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) measured during drying of impregnated timber
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50216
Discussion about drying of impregnated timber has taken place in the Nordic countries under eighties and nineties and goes on nowadays. The drying increase the value of production and the customer gets fewer problems when handles the timber. This introduces a positive attitude to the impregnation as a process and its products. Beside the important information about the advantages of impregnated ti...
N Terziev, V Djokic
Analysis of tebuconazole in wood treated with Tanalith™ E
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20158
A simple gas chromatographic method for determining tebuconazole in Tanalith™ E treated wood is described. A two step sequential extraction procedure with methanol was used. Sample extracts were analysed without cleanup or concentration using capillary column GC with thermionic specific detection. The performance of the method was assessed using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood, radiata pine...
D E Ferlazzo
Accelerated wood decay in a soil bed test under greenhouse conditions compared with a stake test under field condition
1991 - IRG/WP 2384
The rate of decay of oak, beech, Douglas fir, pine and spruce stakes in an outside test field were compared with the decay rate of the same species in a greenhouse soil-bed test. Strength loss after four and six months respectively was measured by determining the compression strength parallel to the grain. The results show that all species, strength loss in the greenhouse was 2 to 4 times higher t...
J E Polman, S G Michon, H Militz
Effect of asphyxiation on wood decay fungi treated
with argon and nitrogen gas
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10452
The effects of low-oxygen conditions, achieved with either argon or nitrogen gas, on the viability of wood decay fungi Coniophora puteana, Antrodia vaillantii and Trametes versicolor, cultivated on PDA medium and infected wood samples, were examined. The fungal cultures were exposed to low oxygen concentration (below 10 ppm) for one to five weeks in hermetically sealed vessels. Anoxic treatment di...
C Tavzes, F Pohleven, M Janisek, R J Koestler
Emission of trimethyl borate and methanol from radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30088
Sawn and kiln dried radiata pine conditioned to 3, 6, and 12% moisture content was treated with trimethyl borate (TMB). The treated wood samples were placed in mini-desiccators maintained at 20 or 40°C. The air space within the mini-desiccator was analysed for TMB and methanol. An initial period of emission of TMB and methanol was observed. This was followed by a period of gradual dissipation of ...
F J Romero, P Vinden, J A Drysdale
A review of environmental emissions from building and construction materials in comparison with preserved wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-11
A review of the public domain literature concerning emissions to the environment from materials which are used in the construction of buildings (e.g. Concrete, Asphalt, Galvanised Steel), in comparison with preserved wood, and a review of the approaches taken by the construction sector in assessing the risk from environmental emissions, in comparison with the approaches taken by the wood preservat...
E F Baines
Analysis of volatile emissions as an aid in the diagnosis of dry rot
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2393
The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans was grown in pure culture on malt extract and on sapwood of pine. The volatile compounds emitted from the cultures were determined by diffusion sampling on tubes filled with Tenax TA, thermal desorption and gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry in order to find markers for attack of the fungus....
J Bjurman, J Kristensson
Measurement of VOC emissions from curative treated wood: A new emission test chamber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-13
A poor indoor air quality (IAQ) is now recognized as a potential factor affecting occupants health. There are three basic strategies to improve IAQ: source control, improvement of the ventilation and use of air cleaners. Usually, the most efficient way to improve IAQ is to eliminate the different pollutant sources or to reduce their emissions. In order to precisely measure emissions from building ...
F Maupetit, O Ramalho, C Yrieix
Environmental behaviour of treated wood in (semi-)permanent contact with fresh or seawater
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-20
This study presents a strategy for the environmental toxicity evaluation of treated wood towards the aquatic compartment, using non target water organisms toxicity tests. A lixiviation process is applied on wood (Pinus sylvestris) treated with several wood preservatives formulations. The lixiviation process is carried out in the laboratory with ultrapure water or synthetic seawater. After chemica...
P Marchal, C Martin
Laboratory experiments on aerial emissions from wood treated with wood stains
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-06
Due to the actual environmental interest in wood preservation, a series of experiments was carried out on the emission of biocides from treated wood. The research focussed on the volatilization of 5 biocides from boards treated with wood preservative finishes containing dichlofluanide (DCF) azaconazole (AZA), pentachlorphenol (PCP), iodopropynylbuthylcarbamate (IPCB) and tributhyltinoxide (TBTO). ...
G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens
Investigation of some technical properties of heat-treated wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40266
The objective of this study was to investigate some technical properties of heat-treated wood. Wood heat-treated according to a process intended for wood in above-ground end-uses (European hazard class 3) was subject to the following: · A delamination test according to EN 391 with glulam beams made of heat-treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) laminations, assembled with PR...
C Bengtsson, J Jermer, A Clang, B Ek-Olausson
Glulaminated poles - Progress report after 7 years' testing
1987 - IRG/WP 3444
In 1979 a number of glulaminated poles with various preservative treatments were placed in a greenhouse at Uppsala, at the Simlångsdalen test field in southern Sweden and under a power line just south of the Arctic circle in order to study their resistance against biological degradation. The tests have shown that the comparatively best performance will be obtained if each lamination is treated wi...
J Jermer, Ö Bergman
Equilibrium distribution of toxic elements in the burning of impregnated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50172
The current work focuses on predicting the behavior of arsenic, chromium, and copper in the burning of impregnated wood. A theoretical method is used to study the chemistry of the system, with special interest directed towards the vaporization tendency of the potentially toxic elements. The core of the study is the global equilibrium analysis that simultaneously takes into consideration all chemic...
K Sandelin, R Backman
Gas chromatographic determination of 1,8-naphthalimide, N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide (N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine) and the sodium salt of N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20259
A number of naphthalimide (NI) derivatives are used as efficient laser dyes, in medicine or in scanning electron microscopy. Only N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) has been shown to be an effective wood preservative against wood decay fungi and termite damage. However, limited information is available concerning the analytical detection of NI-derivatives in treated timber. There is a clear need ...
E Melcher, F Green III
Risk assessment of energetic valorization of treated wood - wooden recycling
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50072
The most useful method for the valorization of wood wastes and wooden wastes is energetic valorization. In France the percentage of wood treated by antisaptain products is around 30%. Currently with the growing regulation, there is a need for cleaner methods and technology to allow sustainable valorization. The preservatives concerned are common organochlorine compounds (NaPCP) less used nowadays ...
G Deroubaix, P Marchal, G Labat
Detection of Termite Attack to Wood Stakes in a Monitoring Station Using Ceramic Gas Sensors and Acoustic Emission (AE) Sensor
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20271
To evaluate the termite activity in monitoring stations non-destructively, metabolic gas from termites and acoustic emission generated by feeding of termites were measured. Ten cylindrical stations with small wood stakes of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) were buried around a house attacked by Coptotermes formosanus SHIRAKI. A sample air in the station was collected by sucking through a drill...
Y Yanase, Y Fujii, S Okumura, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura, T Maekawa, K Suzuki
Co-incineration of CCA-treated wood and Municipal Solid Waste in MSWI plant
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-19
The Norwegian Association of Energy Users and Suppliers (Norsk Energi) have carried out incineration tests with addition of 10 % by weight CCA-treated wood waste to municipal solid waste in a MSWI plant. The objective with the test was to determine emissions and composition of bottom ash. The incineration test was done at the Klemetsrud plant in Oslo The main conclusions are: -No significant inc...
D Borgnes, B Rikheim
Emissions from the combusting of boron and fluoride containing wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-18
The combustion properties of waste wood and wood residues containing wood preservatives were investigated in several test series after having been blended with untreated wood at a ratio of 1:4. The results for CFB, SF and boric salt show that, provided an optimized combustion, the concentrations of the stack pollutants correspond approximately with those found for untreated wood. Only during the c...
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek
Field and greenhouse testing of window joinery of pine and spruce treated with LOSP
1991 - IRG/WP 3658
Norwegian window frame components of full size were double vacuum-treated with TBTN and TBTO, and connected as 'L-joints' and subsequently coated with stains. The corner sections were exposed (out of ground contact) both in field (temperated coastal climate, Taastrup, Denmark) and in a greenhouse (Uppsala, Sweden). The window frame L-joints of spruce (Picea abies Karst.) - treate...
F G Evans, B Henningsson, E Borsholt
Scandinavian experience – 25 years’ experience in transforming used creosoted wood into bio-fuel
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-18
Swedish experiences show that the best and most efficient way to handle the creosoted wood waste is through combustion. The preparation of creosoted waste wood to fuel chips at IQR AB’s plant in Trollhättan is done by splinting the wood according to a special method. Mainly railroad sleepers, but also other wooden commodities, from all over Europe are delivered to the plant. The wood material i...
Emissions from the combustion of wood treated with organic and inorganic preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50019
Wood waste and industrial wood residues often contain various preservatives. The waste management for these residuals can be recycling, deposition or combustion. Among the three possibilities, combustion seems to be the most efficient way of usage. To obtain more information about the emission properties of treated wood, different materials were incinerated in different furnaces after mixing with ...
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek, R Marutzky
The use of preservative containing waste wood as substrate for growing greenhouse crops
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50011
In the Netherlands a large amount of waste wood and wood waste is produced every year. An important part of this amount comes from the pallet and packaging industries. One of the possibilities to re-use this relatively clean material is to convert it into substrates for growing crops in glass houses instead of the commonly used materials such as rock wool and glass wool. In this research, the infl...
W J Homan,H Militz
Status of Work on OECD Test Guidelines for Emissions of Wood Preservatives to the Environment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-3
In April, 2003, OECD published an ESD on wood preservatives that provides guidance on how to estimate emissions: 1) during the wood preservative application processes and storage of treated wood prior to shipment; and 2) from treated wood-in-service. The ad hoc Expert Group that developed the wood preservatives ESD identified the need to develop Test Guidelines to estimate the amount of biocides ...