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How carbon stored in harvested wood products contribute in a greenhouse gas accounting perspective
2017 - IRG/WP 17-50327
In 2014 the net annual removal by Norwegian forests was 30.4 mill ton CO2-eqvivalents while the emissions in other sectors was 53.2 mill ton CO2-eqvivalents. Hence, forests can play a major role in the national greenhouse gas balance. But forests also contribute to the carbon pool stored in wood products. The aim of this paper is, by using Norway as an example, to illustrate how the greenhouse gas emission reporting of harvested wood products (HWP) are performed, what results it provides and what the trends are. According to the Norwegian convention reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the total Norwegian HWP pool served as a sink (net annual removals) until 2009, thereafter it has served as a source (net annual emissions). Why? The main reason is that since 2006 the number of paper factories in Norway has declined. This has resulted in a drastic reduction of export of paper and paperboards. Additional reasons for the change are periods with reduced use of sawnwood domestically and increased import at the expense of domestic production. The finance crisis in 2008 – 2009 resulted in a temporary marked drop in production value and downscaling of Norwegian production.
G Alfredsen, G Søgaard

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) measured during drying of impregnated timber
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50216
Discussion about drying of impregnated timber has taken place in the Nordic countries under eighties and nineties and goes on nowadays. The drying increase the value of production and the customer gets fewer problems when handles the timber. This introduces a positive attitude to the impregnation as a process and its products. Beside the important information about the advantages of impregnated timber drying, a great help for the integrity of branch and customers will be the acquirement of drying schedules considering the timber quality and emissions of harmful VOC. The objective of the present study was to measure the total content of possible emissions containing organic substances in the vented air during drying of Scots pine timber impregnated for above ground use (preservatives of class AB). A drying charge of 6 m3 consisting of 28120-mm boards was prepared for impregnation. The preservative, a copper-HDO (Wolmanit CX-8, 2 % conc.) was impregnated in the boards according to the full cell process carried out in an industrial autoclave. The impregnated charge was further dried in a laboratory batch kiln to final moisture content of 18.1 %. The duration of drying was 86 h. The content of VOC emitted in the air from the aminoethanol in preservative was measured by gas chromatography technique. Samples from the air were taken directly in and beside the drying kiln. The measurements were carried out in the beginning, middle and at the end of drying. The gas chromatography technique showed to be appropriate for quantitative measuring of the VOC emitted during drying of timber impregnated with Wolmanit CX-8. The emissions measured in the kiln chimney were most intensive in the beginning of drying when the free water was evacuated (31.4 ppm) and decreased exponentially to 7.8 ppm at the end of the process. The study generated some ideas about the organisation of drying schedule for impregnated timber in order to decrease the content of VOC. The results are interpreted regarding the requirements approved by the environmental authorities in Sweden.
N Terziev, V Djokic

Analysis of tebuconazole in wood treated with Tanalith™ E
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20158
A simple gas chromatographic method for determining tebuconazole in Tanalith™ E treated wood is described. A two step sequential extraction procedure with methanol was used. Sample extracts were analysed without cleanup or concentration using capillary column GC with thermionic specific detection. The performance of the method was assessed using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood, radiata pine heartwood, and spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora) sapwood as substrates. Recoveries from fortified samples ranged from 97% to 103%. The precision of the method was assessed by analysing a number of actual treated wood samples over a range of retention levels, which produced relative standard deviations in the range of 3% to 8%.
D E Ferlazzo

Accelerated wood decay in a soil bed test under greenhouse conditions compared with a stake test under field condition
1991 - IRG/WP 2384
The rate of decay of oak, beech, Douglas fir, pine and spruce stakes in an outside test field were compared with the decay rate of the same species in a greenhouse soil-bed test. Strength loss after four and six months respectively was measured by determining the compression strength parallel to the grain. The results show that all species, strength loss in the greenhouse was 2 to 4 times higher than under field conditions. The rate of strength loss correlates with the rate of weight loss.
J E Polman, S G Michon, H Militz

Effect of asphyxiation on wood decay fungi treated with argon and nitrogen gas
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10452
The effects of low-oxygen conditions, achieved with either argon or nitrogen gas, on the viability of wood decay fungi Coniophora puteana, Antrodia vaillantii and Trametes versicolor, cultivated on PDA medium and infected wood samples, were examined. The fungal cultures were exposed to low oxygen concentration (below 10 ppm) for one to five weeks in hermetically sealed vessels. Anoxic treatment did not affect T. versicolor cultures in the time span of the experiment. Therefore treatment of only C. puteana and A. vaillantii mycelial cultures was extended to 10 and 16 weeks. After treatment, respiration and regeneration of mycelium were tested by measurements of CO2 production and resumed growth of hyphae onto fresh PDA growth medium. The effect of anoxic conditions on the mycelia of treated fungal species was expressed as an increased time needed for regeneration or as a complete absence of growth of inocula taken from the exposed cultures or wooden blocks reintroduced on new nutrient medium. The cultures that were retarded by the low oxygen concentration consequently produced less CO2. For C. puteana cultures, the effects of anoxic treatment became evident in the second week of the treatment. The number of affected cultures rose steadily with the prolongation of anoxic treatment. By the sixteenth week of the anoxic treatment, 80% of the inocula of C. puteana did not regenerate. A. vaillantii inocula regeneration was not affected until after the fourth week of treatment, and similarly for infected wood samples, after five weeks. The influence of anoxic treatment on the cultures of this species was more pronounced on the tenth and especially after the sixteenth week, when 67% of inocula did not regenerate. In general fungal species were differently sensitive to asphyxiation. T. versicolor cultures were not affected by anoxic conditions, caused by either argon or nitrogen gas, and A. vaillantii mycelial cultures proved to be less sensitive than those of C. puteana. In the test with infested wood blocks argon proved to be more effective, compared to nitrogen gas.
C Tavzes, F Pohleven, M Janisek, R J Koestler

Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
M Fougerousse

Emission of trimethyl borate and methanol from radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30088
Sawn and kiln dried radiata pine conditioned to 3, 6, and 12% moisture content was treated with trimethyl borate (TMB). The treated wood samples were placed in mini-desiccators maintained at 20 or 40°C. The air space within the mini-desiccator was analysed for TMB and methanol. An initial period of emission of TMB and methanol was observed. This was followed by a period of gradual dissipation of both TMB and alcohol. There was an equilibrium of 2 ppm and 60 ppm respectively of TMB and methanol for 12% moisture content timber stored at 20°C. Dissipation was slower for 6% and 3% moisture content timber. Higher temperatures resulted in higher concentrations of TMB and methanol during the emission and dissipation stage.
F J Romero, P Vinden, J A Drysdale

A review of environmental emissions from building and construction materials in comparison with preserved wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-11
A review of the public domain literature concerning emissions to the environment from materials which are used in the construction of buildings (e.g. Concrete, Asphalt, Galvanised Steel), in comparison with preserved wood, and a review of the approaches taken by the construction sector in assessing the risk from environmental emissions, in comparison with the approaches taken by the wood preservation sector.
E F Baines

Analysis of volatile emissions as an aid in the diagnosis of dry rot
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2393
The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans was grown in pure culture on malt extract and on sapwood of pine. The volatile compounds emitted from the cultures were determined by diffusion sampling on tubes filled with Tenax TA, thermal desorption and gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry in order to find markers for attack of the fungus.
J Bjurman, J Kristensson

Measurement of VOC emissions from curative treated wood: A new emission test chamber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-13
A poor indoor air quality (IAQ) is now recognized as a potential factor affecting occupants health. There are three basic strategies to improve IAQ: source control, improvement of the ventilation and use of air cleaners. Usually, the most efficient way to improve IAQ is to eliminate the different pollutant sources or to reduce their emissions. In order to precisely measure emissions from building products and estimate the potential heath impact of emitted pollutants, standardised analytical methods are needed. The aim of this paper is to present the new standards prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for the measurement of indoor air pollutants and their application to the characterization of emissions from wood products. The prestandard ENV 13419, subdivided in three parts, has been prepared by the CEN technical committee 264 : ??ENV 13419-1 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 1 : Emission test chamber method, ??ENV 13419-2 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 2 : Emission test cell method, ??ENV 13419-3 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 3 : Procedure for sampling, storage of samples and preparation of test specimens. The two first parts of the prestandard ENV 13419 specify a general laboratory test method for the determination of the area specific emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from newly produced building products under defined climate conditions in a test chamber (Part 1) or cell (Part 2). The third part specifies for solid, liquid or combined products, the sampling procedure, transport and storage conditions and preparation of test specimens. In France, those European prestandards have been translated by the French Normalisation Association (AFNOR) in three experimental standards : XP ENV 13419-1, XP ENV 13419-2 and XP ENV 13419-3 [1-3]. In parallel to the ongoing work at CEN, the technical committee 146 of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has prepared the draft international standard ISO/DIS 16000 related to indoor air. Part 6 of this standard specifies a method for the determination of the emission of single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) from building materials using test chambers and cells [4]: ??ISO/DIS 16000-6 : Indoor air - Part 6 : Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and chamber air by active sampling on TENAX TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID. It is intended that, after the final voting stage, the CEN prestandards (Parts 1-3) will be taken over by ISO and that Part 6 of the ISO standard will be taken over by CEN as the fourth part of the ENV 13419 prestandard. As an example, the volatile organic compounds emissions from preservative treated wood samples were characterised according to the CEN ENV 13419-1 prestandard describing the emission test chamber method and to the ISO/DIS 16000-6 prestandard for the analytical method. Two representative wood preservatives (hydrodispersable and petroleum solvent formulation) were tested for this purpose. The VOCs concentrations in the test chamber were monitored during 6 days following a simulated curative wood treatment.
F Maupetit, O Ramalho, C Yrieix

Environmental behaviour of treated wood in (semi-)permanent contact with fresh or seawater
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-20
This study presents a strategy for the environmental toxicity evaluation of treated wood towards the aquatic compartment, using non target water organisms toxicity tests. A lixiviation process is applied on wood (Pinus sylvestris) treated with several wood preservatives formulations. The lixiviation process is carried out in the laboratory with ultrapure water or synthetic seawater. After chemical analysis for the pesticides migration, the leachates are evaluated for their ecotoxicity. For freshwater, the standard ecotoxicological tests on the luminescence bacteria Vibrio fisheri, the microcrustacean Daphnia magna and the green unicellular algae Raphidocelis subcapitata are used. For seawater, marine tests using organisms such as the microcrustacean Artemia salina and the marine alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum are performed. Then, complementary methods for the detection of mutagenic components (genotoxicity) are applied on wood leachates in order to complete the evaluation. The same chemical treatment is therefore evaluated on fresh and seawater through this laboratory methodology applied to treated wood.
P Marchal, C Martin

Laboratory experiments on aerial emissions from wood treated with wood stains
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-06
Due to the actual environmental interest in wood preservation, a series of experiments was carried out on the emission of biocides from treated wood. The research focussed on the volatilization of 5 biocides from boards treated with wood preservative finishes containing dichlofluanide (DCF) azaconazole (AZA), pentachlorphenol (PCP), iodopropynylbuthylcarbamate (IPCB) and tributhyltinoxide (TBTO). Formulations used were solventborne or waterborne and varried from low build to high build types. Treated samples were exposed in a standard emission column to a conditioned air stream and the emitted gasphase was adsorbed on amberlite xad. The chemical compounds were released in an appropriate solvent and subsequently analysed. A distinct variation was observed between the emission results of the different biocidal compounds. The volatilization values decreased in the following order: TBTO > DCF > IPBC > PCP >> AZA Relating the chemical concentration, obtained under various conditions of test to the inherent toxicity of the preservatives, it can be concluded that azaconazole possesses the lowest aerial toxicity potential. PCP and TBTO are considered to possess a lower aerial safety factor, while dichlofluanide and IPBC take an intermediate position. A significant effect of some of the exposure variables used could be noticed e.g. temperature, application dosis and exposure period. Other variables of importance were type of formulation, pre-curing of coating, moisture content and type of wood. As an overall conclusion, the emission tests gave evidence of no real danger for human inhalation toxicity. In none of the conditions used, for any preservative, the level of emission exceeded the maximal aerial concentration, cited in literature.
G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens

Investigation of some technical properties of heat-treated wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40266
The objective of this study was to investigate some technical properties of heat-treated wood. Wood heat-treated according to a process intended for wood in above-ground end-uses (European hazard class 3) was subject to the following: · A delamination test according to EN 391 with glulam beams made of heat-treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) laminations, assembled with PRF and PVAc adhesive respectively. · Determination of the withdrawal load for screws and nails. · Determination of the emission factor for VOC and the identification of major compounds. Results: · PRF adhesive performed very well whereas PVAc adhesive showed an unacceptable percentage of delamination and thus seems to be unsuitable for gluing heat-treated wood. · There is an indication that the withdrawal load for heat-treated wood is generally lower than for untreated wood. However, the number of tests carried out was quite small and definitive conclusions are difficult to draw. · The emission factor for the heat-treated wood, expressed as TVOC, was less than 10 µg/(m2 x h) and this was less than for untreated reference.
C Bengtsson, J Jermer, A Clang, B Ek-Olausson

Glulaminated poles - Progress report after 7 years' testing
1987 - IRG/WP 3444
In 1979 a number of glulaminated poles with various preservative treatments were placed in a greenhouse at Uppsala, at the Simlångsdalen test field in southern Sweden and under a power line just south of the Arctic circle in order to study their resistance against biological degradation. The tests have shown that the comparatively best performance will be obtained if each lamination is treated with a water-borne preservative (only CCA was used in this test) whereafter the laminated pole is treated with creosote.
J Jermer, Ö Bergman

Equilibrium distribution of toxic elements in the burning of impregnated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50172
The current work focuses on predicting the behavior of arsenic, chromium, and copper in the burning of impregnated wood. A theoretical method is used to study the chemistry of the system, with special interest directed towards the vaporization tendency of the potentially toxic elements. The core of the study is the global equilibrium analysis that simultaneously takes into consideration all chemical reactions. The results of the present study indicate that chromium and copper are unlikely to volatilize at combustion temperatures. Arsenic appears to be more volatile. Nevertheless, the prediction showed that it may be captured by calcium of the wood ash, and small amounts are likely to dissolve in the slag-phase of the ash. It may also form non-volatile compounds with magnesium, copper, and chromium and other elements of the impregnated wood, which efficiently hinders its emissions as gaseous species.
K Sandelin, R Backman

Gas chromatographic determination of 1,8-naphthalimide, N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide (N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine) and the sodium salt of N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20259
A number of naphthalimide (NI) derivatives are used as efficient laser dyes, in medicine or in scanning electron microscopy. Only N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) has been shown to be an effective wood preservative against wood decay fungi and termite damage. However, limited information is available concerning the analytical detection of NI-derivatives in treated timber. There is a clear need for the analytical characterisation; e.g. with regard to the penetration depth or the assessment of retention after leaching. This paper describes the development of a gas chromatographic method for determination of NI and their derivatives in timber. These investigations were carried out by means of direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GS-MS) using the pure substances in solution, as well as direct analysis of treated southern yellow pine (SYP). It was shown that the identification of NHA in treated SYP is possible using this analytical technique. Furthermore first evidence is given for determining quantitative data. Surprisingly, the chromatograms and especially mass spectra obtained for NHA and the sodium salt of NHA are identical to the mass spectra of NI. The first results show that TD-GC-MS can be an option in determining the retention levels of NI and their derivatives in wood.
E Melcher, F Green III

Risk assessment of energetic valorization of treated wood - wooden recycling
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50072
The most useful method for the valorization of wood wastes and wooden wastes is energetic valorization. In France the percentage of wood treated by antisaptain products is around 30%. Currently with the growing regulation, there is a need for cleaner methods and technology to allow sustainable valorization. The preservatives concerned are common organochlorine compounds (NaPCP) less used nowadays in France and another product used at large scale now composed of quaternary ammonium and boron compounds. Results concerning air emissions during the combustion process, chemical analysis of process residues, toxicological evaluation of combustion exhaust gas in rats and ecotoxicological evaluation of residues is presented to assess the risk of recycling processes.
G Deroubaix, P Marchal, G Labat

Detection of Termite Attack to Wood Stakes in a Monitoring Station Using Ceramic Gas Sensors and Acoustic Emission (AE) Sensor
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20271
To evaluate the termite activity in monitoring stations non-destructively, metabolic gas from termites and acoustic emission generated by feeding of termites were measured. Ten cylindrical stations with small wood stakes of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) were buried around a house attacked by Coptotermes formosanus SHIRAKI. A sample air in the station was collected by sucking through a drilled hole of the station lid and analyzed using two types of ceramic gas sensors (odour- and hydrogen-selective sensors). Acoustic emissions (AEs) were detected by a PZT sensor attached to the cross section of one of the small stakes in the station. The concentrations of two components of the collected gas, odour and hydrogen, and AE event rate per 2 minutes were measured periodically from December 2001 to February 2003. The infestation activity in the station was also evaluated by visual inspection. In the early stage of the experiment, from the first to the third measurements, neither AEs nor significant level of the gas concentration was detected, and no termite was found in any stations. A higher gas concentration of odour and hydrogen and a larger number of AE events were detected since termites have invaded in the stations. These findings suggest that termite attack in the monitoring station can be evaluated by using two types of the gas sensors and AE sensor.
Y Yanase, Y Fujii, S Okumura, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura, T Maekawa, K Suzuki

Co-incineration of CCA-treated wood and Municipal Solid Waste in MSWI plant
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-19
The Norwegian Association of Energy Users and Suppliers (Norsk Energi) have carried out incineration tests with addition of 10 % by weight CCA-treated wood waste to municipal solid waste in a MSWI plant. The objective with the test was to determine emissions and composition of bottom ash. The incineration test was done at the Klemetsrud plant in Oslo The main conclusions are: -No significant increase in emission of copper, chromium, arsenic and dioxin -Emission of total heavy metals (incl. copper, chromium and arsenic) is much lower than the limit value in the EU directive on waste incineration. -The dioxin concentration in the flue gas was ¼ of the limit value in the EU directive on waste incineration. -The concentration of heavy metals in bottom ash shows levels far below the threshold value stated in the Norwegian regulations for Hazardous waste. The results from the leaching tests suggest that the bottom ash from the incineration with 10 % CCA-treated wood meets the criteria for depositing on landfills for non-hazardous waste.
D Borgnes, B Rikheim

Emissions from the combusting of boron and fluoride containing wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-18
The combustion properties of waste wood and wood residues containing wood preservatives were investigated in several test series after having been blended with untreated wood at a ratio of 1:4. The results for CFB, SF and boric salt show that, provided an optimized combustion, the concentrations of the stack pollutants correspond approximately with those found for untreated wood. Only during the combustion of chipboard bonded with aminoplast and the preservative KHF, higher emissions in nitrogen oxide were observed which, however, were due to the nitrogen-containing binder. The results of tests made with other preservative components described in a recent work are confirmed.
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek

Field and greenhouse testing of window joinery of pine and spruce treated with LOSP
1991 - IRG/WP 3658
Norwegian window frame components of full size were double vacuum-treated with TBTN and TBTO, and connected as 'L-joints' and subsequently coated with stains. The corner sections were exposed (out of ground contact) both in field (temperated coastal climate, Taastrup, Denmark) and in a greenhouse (Uppsala, Sweden). The window frame L-joints of spruce (Picea abies Karst.) - treated and untreated showed a lower moisture content after exposure both in field and in the greenhouse than similar L-joints of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). After 70 months' exposure the spruce had almost the same permeability level as pine heartwood and far less than the pine sapwood. Since water permeability and moisture content are regarded as decisive factors for the development of decay, spruce may therefore be considered as suitable as pine, as far as durability is concerned, when used in impregnated window joineries.
F G Evans, B Henningsson, E Borsholt

Scandinavian experience – 25 years’ experience in transforming used creosoted wood into bio-fuel
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-18
Swedish experiences show that the best and most efficient way to handle the creosoted wood waste is through combustion. The preparation of creosoted waste wood to fuel chips at IQR AB’s plant in Trollhättan is done by splinting the wood according to a special method. Mainly railroad sleepers, but also other wooden commodities, from all over Europe are delivered to the plant. The wood material is crushed in a number of steps to achieve the appropriate size of the chips. The wooden chips are then delivered to combustion facilities in Sweden. The PAH emissions can be kept at a low level due to good mixing, high temperature and a high retention time in the furnace.
T Karlström

Emissions from the combustion of wood treated with organic and inorganic preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50019
Wood waste and industrial wood residues often contain various preservatives. The waste management for these residuals can be recycling, deposition or combustion. Among the three possibilities, combustion seems to be the most efficient way of usage. To obtain more information about the emission properties of treated wood, different materials were incinerated in different furnaces after mixing with non-treated wood in a ratio of 1:4. For sake of comparison, combustion was also performed using non-impregnated wood only. The combustion process of residues containing organic or inorganic preservatives is influenced by the elementary composition of the preservative and the thermal and oxidative reaction paths in the flame. Organic preservatives mostly can be thermally destructed by usual combustion conditions. Elevated conditions are necessary for preservatives based on creosotes (tar oil). Among inorganic preservatives, volatile ingredients like fluorine have a considerable environmental impact. Other elements like copper, chromium and boron remain in ashes and cinders reducing the emission problem towards an effective dust removal. It was also found that the concentrations of the gaseous emission components CO, NOx and CmHn are not increased in comparison to the values being found for non-treated wood. However, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans in the exhaust gas could only be kept low under optimized combustion conditions.
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek, R Marutzky

The use of preservative containing waste wood as substrate for growing greenhouse crops
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50011
In the Netherlands a large amount of waste wood and wood waste is produced every year. An important part of this amount comes from the pallet and packaging industries. One of the possibilities to re-use this relatively clean material is to convert it into substrates for growing crops in glass houses instead of the commonly used materials such as rock wool and glass wool. In this research, the influence of several material parameters such as wood species, texture, density, height, water holding capacity on the growth of cucumbers has been studied and this has been compared with the growth on rock wool, which is applied in approximately 95% of the glasshouses in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the influence has been investigated of anti blue stain preservatives on the growth of the cucumber plants, this kind of preservatives is often used in the dutch industry for protection of pallets. In general it can be concluded that when waste wood is to be used as substrate a few preservatives can be accepted and some others can not. The wood species teture, density, height and water holding capacity of the substrate showed to have only a slight effect on the growth of cucumbers.
W J Homan,H Militz

Status of Work on OECD Test Guidelines for Emissions of Wood Preservatives to the Environment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-3
In April, 2003, OECD published an ESD on wood preservatives that provides guidance on how to estimate emissions: 1) during the wood preservative application processes and storage of treated wood prior to shipment; and 2) from treated wood-in-service. The ad hoc Expert Group that developed the wood preservatives ESD identified the need to develop Test Guidelines to estimate the amount of biocides leaching from treated wood. A proposal to develop these Test Guidelines was submitted to the OECD Working Group of National Coordinators of the Test Guidelines Programme (WNT), and the WNT agreed at it May 2001 meeting to include this project in the Work Plan and Schedule of Activities. The current work on these Test Guidelines is being carried out b the Secretariat in collaboration with drafting group WG 27 of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). A first draft of the guidelines (for leaching of active ingredients from wood both in and not in contact with water/soil) was circulated in February 2003 to the National Coordinators for comment. Germany, with funding from the European Commission (EC), had agreed to carry out some pre-validation work that could address some of the issues raised in the comments from the National Coordinators. Germany invited project partners, the OECD Expert Panel, members of CEN TC38/WG 27, industry and governmental agencies to participate in a meeting held in September, 2004 to design the pre-validation work. Once the pre-validation work has been completed and the text for the draft guidelines modified, the guidelines will be submitted to experts in OECD countries for comment. The final drafts of the guidelines will be submitted to the Joint Meeting for declassification.
W Jakob

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