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Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat trea...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff


Durability of different heat treated materials from industrial processes in ground contact
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40312
In this study the durability of heat treated wood originating from four different European industrial heat treatment processes in ground contact was examined. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood/Finland, New Option Wood/France and Menz Holz/Germany where Oil-Heat treated Wood (OHT) is produced. All heat treated materials showed significantly i...
C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp


Novel wood modification processes for window and cladding products
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40285
Because of the low natural durability and low dimensional stability of European wood species, the usage of wood for window frames has decreased dramatically during the last decade. In a joint project of several German research institutes and the window industry, following wood modification systems were compared. heat treatment (3 different materials from 2 companies) acetylation (pine sapwood an...
A Krause, C Hof, H Militz


Thermal modification of non-durable wood species 1. The PLATO technology: thermal modification of wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40123
The PLATO technology is an innovative upgrading technology with low environmental impact, which can be applied to fast grown and non-durable wood species. This technology is based on a thermal modification of solid wood without the addition of chemicals (e.g. preservatives), consisting of a hydrothermal treatment, followed by drying and curing. The PLATO technology results in a substantial improve...
M J Boonstra, B F Tjeerdsma, H A C Groeneveld


Investigation of the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) for thermal modification
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40275
In this study the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) was examined for thermal modification. Comparative experimental investigations were performed with silver fir and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) after thermal treatments. Besides properties, which characterize the quality of heat treatments, like dimensional stability and resistance against fungal attack, strength properties of the...
C Brischke, A O Rapp


Thermal modification of non-durable wood species 2. Improved wood properties of thermal treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40124
Properties of wood treated in a new heat-treatment process called the PLATO-process have been studied. Several wood species have been treated using this new thermal modification process using a range of process conditions (mainly time and temperature). In this study the characteristics of the treated wood were determined using samples from whole planks treated on pilot plant scale. The modified ch...
B F Tjeerdsma, M J Boonstra, H Militz


Comparison of thermally modified wood originating from four industrial scale processes – durability
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40229
This study examined the differences in biological wood properties of heat treated wood originating from four different European industrial heat treatment plants. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood/Finland, New Option Wood/France and Menz Holz/Germany where Oil-Heat treated Wood (OHT) is produced. The results of miniblock tests with basidiomyc...
C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp


Characteristics of thermally modified wood in vacuum
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40287
In commercial thermal wood modification processes nitrogen, steam or oil has been used for the reduction of oxygen content in the reactor atmosphere. In present study no special heating medium, but an initial vacuuming step has been used for this purpose. Mass loss, resistance to fungal decay, dimensional stability, bending strength and modulus of elasticity of heat treated wood were evaluated and...
G Rep, F Pohleven, B Bucar


Blue Staining of Coated Modified and Unmodified Wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10589
We investigated resistance of unmodified, DMDHEU modified and oil heat treated uncoated and coated Scots pine wood against blue stain fungi. Both EN 152-1 and the reverse exposure tests showed excellent resistance of DMDHEU and especially of oil heat treated wood against blue staining. It is not needed to add any additional protective coating layers to prevent modified wood from staining. However,...
M Petric, M Pavlic, M Humar, M Tomažic


Effects of heat treatments on decay resistance and material properties of ponderosa pine and yellow poplar
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40374
The potential for using heat treatment to improve the properties of North American fenestration species was evaluated on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L) treated using the ThermoWood process at various treatment temperatures and times. Soil block tests using Gloeophyllum trabeum, Postia placenta, or Trametes versicolor showed that durability was enh...
C Vidrine, C Freitag, J Nicholson, J J Morrell


Natural Weathering of Coated Oil Heat Treated Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30440
Oil heat-treated (thermally modified) pine wood was coated with 9 different types of solvent- or water-borne exterior finishes. The systems with modified wood substrate as well as unpainted and painted non-modified controls were exposed to weathering (EN 927-3) on two locations with sub-alpine and alpine climate. The influence of natural ageing on surface systems was evaluated after one year of ex...
M Petric, B Kricej, M Pavlic, A Rapp


Preliminary investigation of biological resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed pine wood panels
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40396
Wood can be modified by compressive, thermal and chemical treatments. Compression of wood under thermal conditions is resulted in densification of wood. This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels at either 5 or 7 MPa and at either 120 or 150?C for one hour. The process caused increases in density and decreases in thickness of the panels; however, lab...
Ö Ünsal, S N Kartal, Z Candan, R Arango, C A Clausen, F Green III


Termite resistance of some modified wood species
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40449
During the last few decades, researchers worldwide have investigated and developed new treatment techniques to improve intrinsic wood properties. Some of these techniques were introduced to the market recently and are gaining in importance.. Various wood properties of these new materials have been studied intensively. These include physical-mechanical properties (dimensional stability, moisture ...
H Militz, B C Peters, C J Fitzgerald


Effects of Heat-Treatment in Hot Water and Steam Mediums on Gas Permeability of Beech Wood
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40557
Heat-treatment, as a major method of wood modification, improving dimensional stability, and natural durability, has been studied greatly from different aspects. The effect of heat-treatment on gas permeability, as an important physical property of wood, in two different mediums of hot water and steam, as well as in two buffers of 7 and 8, is the main topic of the present study. Hydrothermal treat...
H Reza Taghiyari, A Talaei, A Karimi


Corrosion of fasteners in heat-treated wood – progress report after nine years’ exposure outdoors
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40601
The corrosion of common fastener materials now in use - mild steel, zinc-coated steel, aluminium and Sanbond Z-coated steel – has been evaluated after nine years’ exposure outdoors in untreated and heat-treated (thermally modified) spruce (Picea abies). Spruce from south-western Sweden was used. The heat-treatment was carried out in Finland by Stora-Enso Oy according to the ThermoWood process ...
J Jermer, B-L Andersson


Experiences with an industrial system for controlled thermal wood modification in pressurized unsaturated steam
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40678
Thermal wood modification in pressurized reactors has a long history, but these processes are to date industrially scarcely used, because of the relatively complicated process equipment, compared to the more common high-temperature processes in kilns at atmospheric pressure. However, based on our practical experience with the FirmoLin® process, supported by recent scientific findings, it is foun...
W Willems


Resistance of heat treated Ash wood under steam pressure: rot fungi, soil micro-organisms and termites
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40724
Thermal modification processes have been developed to increase the biological durability and dimensional stability of wood. The aim of this paper was to study the influence of ThermoWood® treatment intensity on wood decay resistance improvement against soil-inhabiting micro-organisms, brown/white rots and termite’s exposures. All of the tests were carried out in the laboratory with two differen...
K Candelier, S Hannouz, M-F Thévenon, D Guibal, P Gérardin, M Pétrissans, R Collet


Effect of insitu polymerization on practical properties of heat treated wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40763
This research was conducted to investigate the effect of combined modification; heat treatment and impregnation with styrene monomer on physical and mechanical properties of poplar wood (Populus deltoides). Test samples were grouped in six levels of control, wood polymer made from styrene, heat treatment at 170 ºC and 200ºC and combined modification; first hat treated at 170 ºC and 200ºC and t...
M Ghorbani, M Mohseni Shaktaei


Effects of heat treatment on sound absorption coefficients in nanosilver-impregnated and normal solid woods
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40770
Effects of impregnation with silver nano-suspension as well as heat-treatment on sound absorption coefficients (AC) were studied in tangential direction of five different solid woods based on their importance. AC was measured at two frequencies of 250 and 500 Hz. A 400 ppm nanosuspension was used for the impregnation; silver nanoparticles had a size range of 30-80 nm. Based on the obtained results...
A Esmailpour, J Norton, H R Taghiyari, H Zolfaghari, S Asadi


Impact of heat treatment on physico-mechanical properties of torrefied Antholceistha djalonensis wood
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40811
Thermal modification at relatively high temperatures is an effective method to improve the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of wood. This study was carried out to investigate the impact of heat treatment on the physic-mechanical properties of torrefied Anthocleistha djalonensis wood. Thirty nine defect-free specimens of dimensions 20 mm × 20 mm × 60 were prepared for the determina...
E A Iyiola, B Olufemi, J A Fuwape, J M Owoyemi


Multiscale modification on water resistance and dimensional stability of Populus cathayana by alkali lignin combined with heat treatment
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40826
The aim of this study was to enhance the water resistance and dimensional stability of fast growing wood by alkali lignin combined with heat treatment. Poplar (Populus cathayana) samples were first impregnated with alkali lignin solution and then subjected to heat treatment at 140, 160, and 180°C respectively for 2h. Properties of leachability, moisture adsorption and water absorption, contact an...
H Zhou, J Li, E Ma


Improvement of short rotation teak wood properties through thermal modification
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40842
Teak (Tectona grandis L.f) is one of the most popular tropical timber species. Nowadays, the source of long rotation teak is limited in the availability. Many wood processing industries use short rotation teak, which has lower quality especially in durability and dimensional stability. Heat treatment is an eco-friendly method improving dimensional stability and durability of wood. The objectives o...
L A Pratiwi, I W Darmawan, B George, A Merlin, C Gérardin, S Dumarçay, T Priadi, P Gérardin


Improvement of wood decay and termite durability resulting from combined treatments based on borax/phenol-formaldehyde impregnation followed by thermal modification
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40871
This study determined the factors influencing the boron content after leaching of pine blocks impregnated with aqueous solution of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin with or without borax and subjected to heat treatment by response surface methodology. An experimental design permits to analyze the effects of heat treatment temperature (150, 185 and 220°C), curing time (5, 12, 5 and 20 hours), resin c...
S Salman, M-F Thevenon, A Petrissans, S Dumarcay, P Gerardin


Effect of Heat Treatment on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Oriental Beech Wood (Fagus orientalis L.)
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40923
The present study aims to investigate the influence of heat treatment on physical and mechanical properties of Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.). Samples were exposed to temperature levels of 130˚C, 160˚C, and 190˚C for 3, 6, and 9 h. Selected physical and mechanical properties including compression strength parallel to grain, compression strength perpendicular to grain, bending st...
M D Ghalehno, D Chu, B N Sheshkal, M Humar, M Bahmani


Evaluation of Decay Resistance for the Larch Wood Heat-treated with Superheated Steam
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40956
Heat-treatment of wood is a process that involves applying heat ranging 160–260°C to improve its physico-mechanical properties and resistance against wood rot fungi. The level of the changes in the wood properties by heat-treatment differs depending on the temperature and duration of heat-treatment, as well as the types of heat transfer media used for heat-treatment. The heat-treatment on wood ...
Y Park, S-M Yoon, H Kim, W-J Hwang


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