Your search resulted in 2900 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Cultural heritage – research into innovative solutions and methods for historic wood conservation
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10874
Nowadays, interdisciplinary knowledge, tools and techniques are increasingly used to protect and conserve monuments representing our cultural heritage. This is of great importance especially in case of conservation and restoration of wooden historic artefacts which, as a result of physical, chemical and biological corrosion, have lost their technical, aesthetic and decorative properties. If those ...
M Broda, B Mazela
Conservation of wooden cultural property
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30038
A survey of the conservation of wooden archtitectual monuments, art objects and archaeological finds is presented. Each of the three areas has typical conservation problems which reqire the use of selected wood preservatives and consolidation agents. Furthermore specific protection and consolidation methods are necessary. A precise damage diagnosis with non-destructive testing methods is the first...
A Unger, W Unger
Examining environmental conditions and the biodeterioration of historic waterlogged wood: the Kolding Cog
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10441
Survival of waterlogged wood from thousands and in rare cases millions of years presents scientists with a unique opportunity to examine wood specimens which, due to select properties of the wood itself and/or the depositional environment, have not been completely degraded. This paper discusses the biodeterioration of a submerged shipwreck buried in Kolding Fjord, Denmark for the past 1000 years....
B A Jordan, D J Gregory, E L Schmidt
Wood preservation in Yugoslavia
1984 - IRG/WP 3319
This report, which is one in a series written by some of the most eminent experts in wood preservation in the world, is meant to serve as a practical guide to all those, both in Yugoslavia and in other countries, who wish to collaborate in the field of wood preservation production, wood preservation treatments and in the development and research work necessary in this subject. The report offers th...
N Vidovic, D Murko, R Cockcroft
Site characteristics impacting historic waterlogged wood: A review
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10344
Survival of waterlogged wood from hundreds and in rare cases millions of years presents scientists with a unique opportunity to examine wood specimens which, due to select properties of the wood itself and/or the depostional environment, have not been completely degraded. Although degradation patterns of various types of microbial wood decay have been studied in detail, the site parameters of the ...
B A Jordan, E L Schmidt
Wood preservation in Iran
1984 - IRG/WP 3270
The report sketches the history of the use of wood in Iran to the establishment of the country's national forest service and gives some figures for Iran's timber needs by the year 2000. Progress in wood preservation has been slow, although items such as railway sleepers and poles have been pressure treated since the first pressure impregnation plant was erected in 1932. Today the...
P Niloufari, R Cockcroft
PCP in aquatic environments arising from historic contamination at wood processing and preservation sites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-14
Three different studies are reported that assess the impacts of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aquatic environments arising from its historic use at sawmilling and wood preservation sites. These studies involved New Zealand wood processing facilities, and collectively they aimed to measure the transport of PCP from sawmill sites into the aquatic environment, determine the background environmental conc...
J S Gifford, P N McFarlane, M C Judd, S M Anderson
Wood preservation in Nigeria - Its increasing relevance, observed constraints and potential as a forest conservation option
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3732
The paper discusses the demand and supply of wood and wood products in Nigeria and points out that in view of the large population (88 million) and search for wood for housing and furniture, the demand exceeds supply. There is great shortage of industrial and domestic woods resulting in underutilization of installed machineries in forest industries and low profit margin. Under this prevailing cond...
M A Odeyinde, S C Ifebueme
An Important Wood Destroying Beetle: Anobium punctatum (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Distribution of Western Black Sea region
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10666
Anobium punctatum (De Geer) is an economically important insect species regarding damage to wooden structures. The damage mostly occurs in historic wooden buildings, wooden chairs, tables and seats. It has been determined in the Istanbul, Ankara, Ayancik, Bartin, Rize, Trabzon, Gumushane and Gole regions of Turkey. There is no detailed study in terms of the distribution of this insect and the d...
A Toper Kaygin, Y Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz, S M Onat, N K Özkazanç, B Kaygin, S Çelíkyay
Mechanical strength of wood from the Vasa shipwreck
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20381
Samples from three ancient ship wrecks (Vasa, Elefanten, and Gröne Jägaren) and recent oak samples as reference were examined with regard to mechanical strength using the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) - test method, which delivers the resistance to impact milling (RIM) of a material. Adoption and optimisation of the test method for the particular sample size of the wooden drilling cores was...
A O Rapp, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher, T Nilsson, C Björdal
The amazing wooden churches from Northern Romania - learning from the past, restoring for the future, preserving the present valuable heritage of forgotten wood building tradition
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10683
The beauty and the uniqueness of the north-western region of Romania called “Maramureş” are well known in Europe. Surrounded by mountains, the region remained to some extend isolated from modern influences, preserving the local village architecture and craftsman traditions learnt and passed on from generation to generation. Local folklore and past heritage sets you back centuries ago when...
R Craciun, R Möller
Use of Internal Remedial Treatment to Extend Wood Life at the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30525
The condition of wood in a reconstructed fur trading fort was assessed over a 30 year period. Poor initial treatment had resulted in the development of extensive early decay. While supplemental treatment with chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate had arrested the attack, the results suggested that remedial treatments were unable to completely overcome the initial problems associated with treatmen...
C S Love, C Freitag, J J Morrell
Ecological methods and products for wood protection used for restoration and conservation of built heritage cultural assets to increase natural durability and duration of exposure in open air museums
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40506
Wood is a perishable material, hygroscopic and fuel, which cause attention to selecting the wood species that is going to be exhibited in relation to humidity and soil. With variable depending on its humidity and moisture from the atmosphere or soil, wood is a good living environment for fungi and insects, but suffer biodegradation processes and dimensional changes. Observations over time on wood ...
M Pruna, D Purice, D Dumitru Copacean
Cobblestone Church in Gross Gievietz: Historic Wooden Construction and Potential for Conservation and Use
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10760
A majority of cobblestone churches situated in the German Federal State Mecklenburg-Vorpommern demonstrates immense construction deficiencies and are threatened by decay. The historic cobblestone church located in Groß Gievitz, built in the 13th century, is one such church in which the roof beam constructions have degraded considerably due to deficiencies in reconstruction measures. This paper d...
A Schulze, W Unger
The potential of propolis and other naturally occurring products for preventing biological decay
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30575
The potential of using a range of naturally occurring plant extracts and propolis from bee hives for enhancing the durability of timber in service as well as helping with the conservation of archaeological timbers is considered in this paper. Results reported demonstrate that there is some degree of protective effect noted, suggesting a viable treatment option might be developed based on a deeper ...
D Jones, N Howard, E Suttie
Durability and Wood Protection for Historic Covered Bridges in the United States
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10829
A majority of the covered wooden bridges in United States were built in the mid -1800’s. These structures represent a unique cultural and technological heritage from that era. Over time, these bridges have been deteriorated by microorganisms and insects or damaged by acts of vandalism and arson. The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program sponsored by the Federal Highway Ad...
V W Yang, C A Clausen
Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility ...
Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi
The IRG..Chanelling information and ideas into the mainstream of wood preservation technology
1985 - IRG/WP 5241
Wood preservation in Poland
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30362
Dynamic growth of market demand for wooden elements and articles, generated in Poland increase of interest in industrial preservation. Today, Poland is a substantial producer and exporter of wood made products. Majority of exported wood - approximately 70% - is scotch pine (Pinus silvestris L.), which, due to its natural durability, requires preservation....
Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions....
The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman
Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity ...
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix