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Creosote immersion treatments in fence-posts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis
1988 - IRG/WP 3488
The method of soaking in creosote was applied to fenceposts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis, taking into account its easy use in the field. Absorption, retention and penetration rates were recorded and analysed. Absorption rates were higher in Pinus nigra than in Pinus halepensis, and lowest in Castanea sativa. Thin fence-posts always absorbed more preservative than thick ones. Penetration rates were similar in both pines, and much higher than in Castanea sativa. Retention levels were almost the same in Pinus nigra and Castanea sativa, and lower in Pinus halepensis.
C De Arana Moncada

Health aspects concerning the use of bifluorides in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3173
An attempt has been made to find a correlation between the quantities F¯ and HF present among other ions in an 'Improsol' solution consisting of NH4F.HF and KF.HF, the quantity absorbed by the wood from this after immersion and the toxicological effects of this treated wood when it is used in rooms destined for the residence of people or animals or for the storage of foodstuffs.
H F M Nijman

Non-pressure treatability of plywood by CCA, CCB and boron
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40295
Study on diffusibility and absorbability of CCA, CCB and boric acid in 3 mm thick 3-ply hardwood plywood at water saturated and air-dry conditions and dipped at same concentration (5%) and same duration of time (12 hours) revealed complete diffusion of all the preservatives at water saturated condition. Only the CCA-C was found absorbed by the plywood at air-dry condition. The rate of absorption and diffusion of CCA-C was found about 4.5 times higher than CCB and boric acid.
A K Lahiry

Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) were monitored with respect to the amount of material dipped. Selective adsorption (removal of actives from the suspension at greater than simple volumetric transfer rates) varied with formulation and active ingredient, and increased with decreasing product concentration. Movement of active ingredients into dipped boards was monitored for 30 days after dipping. Mobility order was MTC >> TCMTB > CTL. Surface depletion characteristics were obtained for each active ingredient.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

Untersuchungen über die Imprägnierbarkeit verschiedener türkischer Holzarten mit wirtschaftlicher Bedeutung
1976 - IRG/WP 370
Holzarten mit einer geringen natürlichen Dauerhaftigkeit können nur dann wirtschaftlich verwendet werden, wenn ihre Gebrauchsdauer durch einen zusätzlichen chemischen Schutz verlängert wird. Holzschutzmaßnahmen können nur regelmäßig geplant werden, wenn die Tränkbarkeit der verwendeten Holzarten bekannt ist. Aufgabe dieser Versuche war es daher, festzustellen, wieweit die Holzarten hinreichend getränkt werden können. In Rahmen der zur Zeit in der Türkei laufenden Entwicklungsvorhaben entstand die Frage nach den tränk-technischen Eigenschaften türkischer Holzarten, um ihre Verwendungsmöglichkeiten besser beurteilen zu können.
R Ilhan

Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is due to differences in methodology employed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater used (e.g. temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen content) affect emission rate. So too do the specifics of the treatment process especially the preservative formulation used, and pre- and post-treatment handling of the wood. The nature of the treated wood samples is also important, with misleadingly high estimates being obtained from samples with unrepresentatively high proportions of cross-cut surfaces. A suggested strategy for developing an informative and standardised methodology is discussed. To form useful models of impacts of leaching, emission rates need to be considered in conjunction with site-specific information regarding a) water exchange rates between the area where leaching occurs and the sea, and b) the extent of partitioning of leachate between the water column, biota and sediment. The risk of environmental impact may be reduced by modification to treatment procedures and by careful planning of installation.
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton

Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results.
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada

Response of laboratory groups of Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) to different quantities of food
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10489
As part of a project aimed at improving understanding of the foraging biology of Japan’s most widespread wood-destroying termite, different sized groups of Reticulitermes speratus (0.5; 1 and 2 g) from two colonies were kept on 16 or 64 cm3 of sapwood of Cryptomeria japonica for 12 weeks in the laboratory. Patterns of wood consumption, wood consumption rates and survival are discussed.
M Lenz, T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda

Treatment behaviour of fresh and inservice catamaran logs
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30255
Catamaran is a conventional fishing craft fabricated by lashing 4 - 6 shaped logs of soft timber together. Over 73,000 of these craft fabricated out of 165,000 m3 of wood are in use along the vast east coast of India. Each craft lasts for 5-7 years. Over 15,000 m3 of timber is required annually for repairs and replacements of the craft. Such huge demand exerts enormous pressure on the resources. It is apt, therefore, to extend the practice of wood preservation to the catamaran sector and conserve the precious raw material. In order to achieve this objective, our Institute took up technology demonstrations way back in 1968. However, because of illiteracy and socio-economic constraints of the traditional fishermen, the efforts did not catch up well. Under these circumstances, as a renewed measure of propagation, treatment of 3 each of fresh as well as inservice catamarans was taken up some time ago. The results of pressure impregnation of these six catamarans made of Albizia falcataria timber with copper-chrome- arsenic (CCA) preservative were analyzed to understand the preservative absorption of the constituent logs. The study revealed that there was no significant variation in the total quantity of chemical absorbed among the fresh as well as inservice catamarans that served for three different periods prior to treatment . However, significant difference was noticed between all the fresh catamarans clubbed as one group and the inservice craft as another group. The CCA absorption ranged from 13.52 to 15.30 kg.m-3 averaging at 14.60 kg.m-3 in the fresh craft and 18.65 to 22.10 kg.m-3 averaging at 20.42 kg.m-3 in the inservice catamarans. Also, each constituent log of the six catamarans differed in its chemical content from the other. The analysis proved that it is possible to treat the inservice catamarans and achieve good preservative retentions.
V Kuppusamy, M V Rao, M Balaji, K S Rao

Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and wind). Finally, we have determined the growing velocity of two of the most representative species found and the presence or absence of degradative enzymatic activities.
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete

Reliability-based service life prediction methodology for assessment of water protection efficiency for coatings on wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20268
Assessment of water protection efficiency according to EN 927-5 has been shown to give significant differences in water absorption values for different types of coatings on wood. It is shown that the combination of EN 927-5 and an artificial weathering procedure gives more information regarding expected durability and long-term performance than a single measurement of water absorption on fresh, unweathered wood. A combination of water absorption measurement and artificial weathering could become a useful tool in product development as well as in benchmarking. Together with statistical tools, such as reliability-based service life prediction methodologies for prediction of the service life of coating systems a reduction in testing time may be achieved. The predicted service life can then be the input to integrated life cycle assessment of products for wood protection.
J Ekstedt

Technique for monitoring absorption during a vacuum pressure process
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3696
A laboratory technique was developed and an apparatus constructed which allowed for the direct and continuous measurement and observation of volumetric uptake of water-borne preservative into wood samples throughout a controlled vacuum-pressure treatment process. Fractional filling of void space was calculated. Graphing (fractional saturation) against time allows prediction of optimum cycle lengths with respect to achievable saturation values. Treatability evaluations using this technique were carried out on heartwood samples of six Malaysian hardwood species, kapur, kempas, keruing, punah, rubberwood, simpoh and on sapwood samples of Scots pine as a control. Generally the graphs exhibited two quasi-linear zones showing rapid initial absorption followed by slow absorption over a long period.
A J Pendlebury, J A Petty

Steam conditioning of partially dried radiata and Corsican pine roundwood
1988 - IRG/WP 3499
The effect of partial air drying prior to steam conditioning and its effect on subsequent preservative treatment by the Bethell treatment process was investigated. A high standard of preservative treatment was obtained in both radiata and Corsican pine, irrespective of whether a period of partial drying was imposed before or after steam conditioning.
P Vinden, D R Page, K Nasheri

Absorption of inorganic salts solutions. Retentions of inorganic salts. Fire retardants
1990 - IRG/WP 3625
The study aims evaluated the impregnation capacity using fire retardants on woods with differents densities. At the same time, impregnation with several fire retardant salts were carried out in order to obtain their absortion and retention in wood.
A Garcia, J Navarro

Water-repellent additive for CCA
1991 - IRG/WP 3655
Hickson have developed a water repellent additive for incorporation into copper-chromium-arsenate timber treatment solutions. The water repellent emulsion shows good stability in the treatment solution, is easily incorporated and applied in a single stage treatment. No modifications to the additive is safe to treatment schedule are usually needed and use. Weathering of the treated wood is substantially inhibited by the presence of the additive. Adhesion of paints is not affected.
P Warburton, R F Fox, J A Cornfield

Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 2: Redox states of chromium
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10164
Concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with metal-based preservatives, such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Of particular concern is the toxic redox state of chromium and arsenic in aging and decayed CCA-treated wood. Generally, hexavalent chromium is more toxic than trivalent chromium and trivalent arsenic is more toxic than pentavalent arsenic. The desired outcome from treating wood with CCA is total change of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and As(III) to As(V). As part of an on-going study to determine the fate of copper, chromium and arsenic during aging and decay of CCA-treated wood, we detected Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in situ in CCA-treated southern yellow pine lumber. The redox states of Cr were determined using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF). An SXRF microprobe was used to to detect Cr redox states by measuring X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The ratio of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) was determined (1) on the surface and interior of lumber two years after CCA treatment and (2) in lumber during decay by a CCA-tolerant fungus, Meruliporia incrassata TFFH-294. The XANES spectrum for Cr(VI) has a strong pre-edge feature that is not present in the spectrum for Cr(III). Only the Cr(III) XANES spectrum was detected on the surface and in the interior of the wood, indicating total reduction of Cr(VI). The XANES spectrum for Cr(III) was detected in wood after 12 week decay by Meruliporia incrassata TFFH-294, indicating that the fungus does not oxidize Cr(III) to Cr(VI) during the decay process. We are currently using XANES spectroscopy to detect and map in situ redox states of As in CCA-treated wood.
B Illman, S Bajt, T L Highley

Preservative absorption response of planks of Anogeissus acuminata for plank-built catamarans
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40245
Due to shortage of timber coupled with other compelling factors, traditional fishermen along the east coast of India, especially of Andhra Pradesh, of late, are departing from conventional log type wooden catamarans. Instead, they are fabricating catamarans out of timber planks of hard woods and utilizing thermocol for buoyancy. Mostly, locally available timber of a Combretaceae species, Anogeissus acuminata (Yon) is used to fabricate these plank-built catamarans. Since these catamarans are also built with untreated timber, there is every need to extend wood preservation technology to these craft also so as to achieve enhanced service life and conserve the resources. Therefore, the Institute of Wood Science and Technology took up treatment of timber meant for five such craft with copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA). Thirteen different logs were procured and converted into planks and batons of suitable sizes, debarked, cleaned and air dried under shade. While the length of the planks ranged from 0.81 to 6.53 m, the width varied from 16 to 44 cm. After sufficient seasoning, the material was pressure treated with 6% CCA by full cell method as per IS: 401 (1982). Chemical retentions were computed from the weight gained by the individual planks and sets of 20 batons immediately after treatment. The preservative absorption in the planks ranged from 13.05 to 69.80 kg/m3 averaging at 25.90 kg/m3 and that in the batons averaged at 32 kg/m3. The quantity of CCA absorbed by the planks was analyzed with reference to their length, width, thickness and volume. Planks when categorized to different length and volume groups exhibited clear difference in the intake of chemical by them but when categorized into different width and thickness classes showed not much variation. All the treated planks and batons after air drying in shade for 15 days were fabricated into five catamarans. Thus, though the planks of A. acuminata are either very long or very wide, they showed a positive response to CCA treatment by absorbing reasonably good quantities of preservative. Similarly, on fabrication of the catamarans, an average retention of 21.79 to 25.43 kg/m3 of CCA per craft could be achieved. These values fall into the recommended preservative absorption range of 16 to 32 kg/m3 (IS: 401, 1982) for marine structures.
V Kuppusamy, M V Rao, M Balaji, K Rao

Comparison of decay rates of preservative-treated stakes in field and fungus cellar tests
1980 - IRG/WP 2135
With the exception of acid-copper-chromate, zinc-chrome-arsenate, and sodium pentachlorophenoxide, the relative performance of preservatives in the fungus cellar was similar to that in the field.
M E Hedley

Contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30216
The contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine was investigated. Holocellulose, lignin and xylan absorbed significant amount of copper. The amount of copper absorbed by cellulose was almost negligible. The removal of extractive also decreased the amount of copper absorption. This study clearly indicates the importance of lignin, hemicellulose in the absorption of copper amine in wood.
D P Kamdem, Jun Zhang

Performance of chromated copper arsenate-treated aspen fence posts installed in Forintek's Eastern test plot from 1951 to 1963
1984 - IRG/WP 3272
Aspen poplar fence posts were pressure treated by the full cell process using three formulations of copper chrome arsenate wood preservative. A total of one hundred and fifty nine of the posts were installed in service in Forintek's Chalk River post plot from 1951 to 1962. During the 1982 general inspection of the post plot all 159 posts were still in service. A groundline inspection was carried out on the material to determine the extent to which decay had progressed during this period. Samples were taken from the surface of tanalith C treated posts and subsequent microscopic examination revealed that soft rot attack was present in the outer portion of posts. The groundline area of posts treated with (K 33), CCA type B and (greensalt) CCA type A were in generally good condition after 22 years and 31 years respectively. Rate of decay was highest for CCA-C tanalith treated posts at 0.3 mm per year with a retention of 3.04 kg/m³ oxides.
C D Ralph

A study of salt imbalances observed in recycled copper/chrome/arsenic preservative solutions in commercial practice
1987 - IRG/WP 3461
The study reported monitored tank solutions, sludge and other by-products using a standard CCA solution, when recycled. This recycling of the CCA solution is quite usual in between any commercial treatment schedules. Salt imbalances were observed and the possible reasons for such phenomena were studied. The paper discusses the procedure followed, the method of sampling the liquid after the charge and the analysis, to arrive finally at an aggregation and conclusion from the data.
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee

TBTO absorption and penetration in pine joinery treated by various processes
1989 - IRG/WP 3523
Matched sections of several White pine (Pinus strobus) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) mouldings were treated with TBTO by Double vacuum, modified empty-cell, 15 second dip and several preheating treatments followed by a 15 s dip treatments. As expected the double vacuum and empty-cell (batch) treatments resulted in much greater retentions and penetrations than the dip treatments. The absorptions by the 15 s dip treatments could be improved significantly by preheating the wood to 60-90C° by microwave, radio-frequency or infra-red techniques. Since this approach is amenable to a continuous treatment process, it is being evaluated for potential commercial application.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung

Ancillary properties of vapor boron-treated composites
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40210
This paper discusses the water absorption, thickness swelling, and internal bond strength of North American composites treated using a vapor boron treatment process. For oriented strandboard, high boron loadings led to lower internal bond strength and lower thickness swelling. Water absorption results were variable but no deleterious effect of treatment was noted. For medium density fiberboard, the highest loadings led to reduced internal bond strength. Thickness swelling decreased with increasing boron level, but not significantly. As with OSB, water absorption results varied.
W A Jones, H M Barnes, R J Murphy

Heat treatment of wood strands for OSB production: Effect on the mechanical properties, water absorption and dimensional stability
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40238
The effect of heat treatment on the mechanical and physical properties of commercial OSB strands was evaluated. Heat treatment was applied under inert atmospheric conditions to wood strands. The aim of this study was to examine the heat treatment parameters to achieve significant reduction of thickness swelling (upon exposure to moisture in service) without causing excessive reductions in strength. Heat treatments of 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, and 260°C for 20 minutes were applied and swelling tests were performed. Subsequently the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity were measured in wood strands. High temperature treatments resulted in significant reductions in thickness swelling of wood strands but resulted in 20% reductions of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity.
G J Goroyias, M D C Hale

Stability and performance of tributyltin compounds
1984 - IRG/WP 3275
Based on the critical examinations of the disputable permanence of tributyltin compounds in wood, this paper deals with a number of examinations of the relative evaporation, thermal stability and oxidation stability of some TBT-compounds. While thermal and oxidative stability is high for all TBT-species, the relative evaporation at elevated temperature is highly variable, and lowest for the TBT-esters examined. Evaporation measurements on treated wood confirm this order of precedence and stress the importance of the preservative formulation. The results also indicate that TBTO evaporates 2-3 times faster than TBTN. It is established that at high retention of TBT in wood the decomposition is slower than at low retention. This fact combined with the extra high retention of TBT in vacuum treated joints of window frames explains the fine record of non-failure for such windows, and the paper ends up with a calculation indicating the presence of sufficiently high amounts of tributyltin for effective fungicidal protection of Nordic class B impregnated windows for at least 20 years.
F Imsgard, B Jensen, H A B Landsiedel, H Plum

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