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Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 5. Treatment of Sitka spruce and Scots pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40136
The suitability of the MPP Process for CCA treatment and accelerated fixation of species other than Radiata pine was assessed by pilot plant trials on UK-grown Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Pressure and vacuum kickbacks of spruce (14 l/m3) and Scots' pine (122 l/m3) were both substantially lower than that generated during treatment of radiata pine (369...
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, G Durbin


Ground contact performance of wood treated by the MSU process
1990 - IRG/WP 3609
Environmental concerns have prompted a renewed interest in accelerated fixation schemes for CCA-treated wood. Results from stake tests of southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated using a conventional Bethell cycle are compared with matched stakes treated using the MSU Process. The effects of adding boric acid to the preservative formulation are also discussed. Differences among test plots are discussed....
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, R W Landers


Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated slash pine heartwood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50020
Drying green slash pine with any of three high temperature drying schedules produced a product in which both the sapwood and the heartwood could be penetrated with CCA using a modified Bethell treatment schedule. Required H3 retentions were achieved in both sapwood and heartwood, from 200 litres per m³ charge uptake. Post-treatment fixation/drying was accomplished by three different regimes, incl...
M J Kennedy, G Palmer


The multi-phase pressure (MPP) process. One stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process - Concepts proved by repetitive pilot plant treatments
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40079
Twenty-four charges of radiate pine roundwood or sawn timber were treated using the MPP Process and hot CCA solution. Treated timber met the CCA retention and penetration requirements of the NZ Timber Preservation Council for Hazard Classes H3 to H5. The objectives of the trials were: (1) To "stress" CCA solution by repetitive heating, treating and cooling to determine its stability in the process...
A J Pendlebury, J A Drysdale, K Nasheri, H Pearson, M E Hedley


Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: Pilot plant trials for disposal of kickback using reverse osmosis membrane filtration
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40202
The MPP Process (a one-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process) generates ~ 250 litres of kickback per cubic metre of timber treated. Composition of kickback is mainly wood sugars and traces of copper, chromium and arsenic. In pilot plant scale trials, MPP process kickback was filtered through a Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane of a type found from earlier small-scale trials to be the mo...
H Pearson, G Durbin, M E Hedley


The multi-phase pressure (MPP) process. One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process - The process as a new concept in preservative treatment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40078
The background to current commercial CCA treatment schedules used in New Zealand and fixation processing is reviewed. The limitations of these conventional practices with respect to treated product quality and CCA solution handling issues are defined. A novel, patented treatment schedule has been developed using a combination of hydraulic and pneumatic pressure phases and hot (~ 75°C) CCA solutio...
K Nasheri, A J Pendlebury, J A Drysdale, H Pearson, M E Hedley


Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 4. MPP compared with other processes for achieving acceptable treatment of radiata pine heartwood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40115
Although radiata pine sapwood is very amenable to preservative treatment, it is often difficult to achieve the required standard for heartwood treatment. A preliminary investigation showed that to achieve the NZ Timber Preservation Council minimum penetration requirements for radiata pine heartwood using the Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process, a hydraulic pressure of at least 1250 kPa for 20 m...
K Nasheri, J A Drysdale, G Durbin, M E Hedley


Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 3. Effect of process variables on sapwood treatment and CCA fixation.
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40114
The Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process achieves treatment and fixation as combined process using hot CCA, within a 2-3 hour time-frame. Timber is treated to saturation with hot CCA using an empty cell process. During the pneumatic pressure phase, hot solution is held in the wood in an otherwise liquid-free treatment vessel until fixation is >95% complete. This report details a factorial des...
H Pearson, K Nasheri, J A Drysdale, G Durbin, M E Hedley


Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slice...
A K Lahiry


Rapid leaching test
1991 - IRG/WP 2367
An accelerated test which is suitable for measuring the extent of metal fixation in both chromium and non chromium containing preservatives is described....
J A Cornfield, M Bacon, A Lyman, C Waldie, M R Gayles


Acceleration of the fixation of chromated wood preservatives by UV-radiation
1989 - IRG/WP 3544
Preliminary laboratory tests demonstrated that the fixation of chromated water-borne wood preservatives may be accelerated by UV-radiation. The degree of fixation depends on the intensity of radiation and the prevailing temperature. Three hours radiation at 20°C in a device for artificial weathering diminished the leaching of chromium to 43% and of copper to 23% compared to not-radiated samples. ...
H M Illner, H Willeitner, K Brandt


Applications of the shower test. Part B: Results from CC and CCB treated wood: influence of fixation process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50010
This report outlines the results of shower tests conducted on CC and CCB treated wood. The results indicate the fairly good fixation of chromium and the reasonable fixation of copper in CC and CCB formulations, as judged by the leaching limits within the Environmental Regulations. In general boron leaches to a higher extent than chromium and copper. The shower test has proven to be a useful qualit...
W J Homan, H Militz


Investigation of temperature effect on fixation of Celcure preservative (ACC) in beech (Fagus orientalis)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40200
In this research, the fixation speed of Celcure 2% (ACC) preservative salt, under temperature of 17°C, 27°C and 50°C, on intact and stained wood specimens of beech was investigated. For this purpose, blocks of wood with 5x5x7 cm dimensions were prepared and saturated with 2% ACC concentration by full-cell process. The specimens were put in three incubators at the above-mentioned temperatures. F...
A Karimi, M Ghorbani


Délavabilité de bois ronds traités avec un sel CCA dans des conditions réelles de stockage. Incidence pratique de la fixation accélérée par étuvage. Impact effectif sur l'environnement
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-23
Un essai de terrain a été organisé pour mesurer concrètement, dans des conditions aussi proches que possibles des conditions réelles de terrain, les pertes effectives en produit de traitement lorsque le bois traité est soumis à des intempéries. L'essai a été conduit sur des bois ronds (poteaux), traités en autoclave par procédé Bethell avec un sel CCA de type C, avec comme fi...
M Rayzal, F Larroze


Applications of the shower test. Part A: Results from CCA type C treated wood: influence of fixation process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50009
This report outlines the results of shower tests conducted on CCA type C treated wood. The results indicate the inherent good fixation of CCA type C, as judged by the leaching limits within the Environmental Regulations. The shower test has proven to be a useful quality control and research test. It determines reasonably accurately the leaching under simulated conditions and, admittedly from a lim...
W J Homan, H Militz, D A Lewis


Microwave treatment to Accelerated fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40271
This study evaluated the use of microwave post-treatment to accelerate fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated 19 mm southern yellow pine sapwood cubes. Cubes were pressure treated at 3.2 and 6.4 kg/m3 Cu retention target, after which they were microwave post treated during different duration periods. An accelerated AWPA leaching test was conducted during 300 hours to determine the amount...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem


Industrial fixation of chromium based wood preservatives
1990 - IRG/WP 3630
Fixation is an abstract and non-defined process. Nevertheless it is a specified requirement in most impregnation standards. The impregnation industry is facing increased pressure to deliver fixed products and to increase the safety of the handling of impregnated products. Industrial fixation of impregnated wood can be obtained by using different methods. The purpose of the process is to transform ...
T Christensen


Evaluation of the efficiency of industrial kiln type CCA fixation chambers
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40063
Six commercial CCA treating plants in Canada were assessed for the fixation efficiency of their hot air fixation chambers. The wood temperature was measured with thermocouples over the fixation period at different locations in the chamber and at the end of the fixation cycle, the degree of chromium fixation was determined by a boring leaching procedure. There was a great variation in the effective...
A Taylor, P A Cooper


Soft rot test of copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood of three Malaysian timbers by the vermiculite-burial method. (+ correction document of 25 July 1990)
1990 - IRG/WP 2354
Heartwood of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), tualang (Koompassia excelsa) and keruing (Dipterocarpus spec.) was found to be susceptible to soft rot in recent pole surveys. Standardized heartwood blocks were impregnated with 0 to 6.3% (w/v) CCA and challenged to decay for twelve weeks by a mixed inocula of Chaetomium globosum, Glenospora graphii, Humicula grisea...
R-D Peek, A H H Wong


Less pollution due to technical approaches on accelerated steam fixation of chromated wood preservatives
1988 - IRG/WP 3487
Steaming of freshly treated wood at 100°C to 120°C initiates a spontaneous fixation of copper-chromate-containing wood preservatives. For the performance, a suitable anticorrosive equipment is necessary. Good results can be achieved using a separate steaming equipment which allows a rapid heating of the wood. While warming-up, in the wood some preservative solution extends and can be partly extr...
H Willeitner, R-D Peek


Accelerated fixation of ACQ-D treated Chinese fir with different post-treatments
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40400
With the enhanced focus on the environmental impact of the preservative-treated wood in recent years, it is necessary to perform some post treatments to prevent contamination of soil and ground water and reduce copper losses from ACQ treated wood in service. In this study, the potential of hot air, hot water, steaming and microwave post treatments to accelerate the fixation of copper in ACQ-D trea...
Lili Yu, Jinzhen Cao, P A Cooper


Chapter 14 - Accelerated fixation of CCA-treated bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-14
Chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C) fixation study on impregnated (with adequate w/v 6% CCA solution) then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of airdried borakbamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to low fixati...
A K Lahiry


Proposal for further work on accelerated ageing
1988 - IRG/WP 2314
M-L Edlund


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market a...
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder str...
C D Howick, J W Creffield


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