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Some factors affecting the treatability of spruce roundwood with ammoniacal preservative solutions
1976 - IRG/WP 371
Permeable wood species for use in preservative-treated commodities are becoming depleted in Canada. Spruce can be a convenient replacement for them from local resources provided it can be treated to levels adequate for protection of commodities in ground contact. Basically, two approaches were taken to improve treatability of difficult-to-penetrate softwood species; first, to improve the permeabil...
J Rak


Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coatings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10035
The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans was previously examined, using agar plate tests, with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood (Sharpe and Dickinson, 1992). This study compared these findings with the nutritional capability of four other fungi (Alternaria sp., Cladosporium cladosporoides, Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) common...
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson


Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two prep...
I Usta


Improvement of liquid penetration of wood by precompression under appropriate conditions and recovery process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40014
A new system for enhancing the penetration of liquid into wood using a precompression treatment was designed, and the effects of compressive deformation and recovery on liquid uptake were evaluated. Precompression of up to 60% under appropriate moisture and heat conditions effectively increased the penetration of liquid into refractory wood samples of practical sizes without producing any strength...
I Iida, Y Imamura


Preservation of hyphal-forming brown- and white-rot wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10397
Lyophilization is an excellent technique for the long-term preservation of hyphal-forming brown- and white-rot wood-inhabiting basidiomycotina. However, vegetative mycelial isolates are not lyophilizable. In this study, 10 brown-rot and 10 white-rot basidiomycetous non-sporulating, non-chlamydosporulating, and non-bubillerferous basidiomycetes fungi were tested for viability after lyophilization. ...
S C Croan


Amines – Promising Wood Preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30287
Environmental concerns require a new approach in the field of wood protection. Band of many traditional wood preservatives has lead to intense researches for new environmental-friendly wood preservatives. Amines seem to be promising substitutes for classical biocides. Fungicidal and leaching resistance as well as some other chemical analysis of beach and Norway spruce samples treated with ethanola...
M Humar, F Pohleven, Š Kesnar, P Kalan


Ammoniacal wood preservative for use in non-pressure treatment of spruce and aspen poplar. Part 1
1984 - IRG/WP 3273
End-matched lumber of Picea glauca (Moench)Voss (white spruce) and Populus tremuloides Michx. (aspen poplar) timbers was treated by a thermal diffusion process in open tank treating vessels using an ammoniacal copper-arsenate wood preservative. The process proved technically feasible with respect to controlling the vapourization of ammonia from open tanks during treatment at high temperatures. Tre...
C D Ralph, J K Shields


Natural exposure weathering tests: Their role in the assessment of wood preservative efficacy
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20006
Previous work has demonstrated the potential and usefulness of natural ageing procedures in e evaluation of wood preservative efficacy. This results from the combination of physico-chemical influences and microbiological interactions with both substrate and wood preservative. In this paper, results are presented for a range of biocide types. Discussions are centred on the value of natural exposure...
G R Williams, J Brown


The effect of different concentrations of polesaver rods on the survival of selected decay fungi in liquid culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30166
An in-vitro method was developed to determine the effect of solutions of Polesaver Rods on the survival of selected decay fungi. Polesaver Rods are a diffusing preservative treatment containing fluorine and boron designed for the internal remedial treatment of power poles. Two white-rot fungi, Perenniporia tephropora and Trametes versicolor, and two brown-rot fungi, Polyporus verecundus and Gloeo...
M A Powell, T Deldot, C McEvoy


Application of roller-pressing method to the novel liquid impregnation treatment of green timber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40198
A transverse compression technique enabled us to impregnate liquid into green timber through replacement of the free water in the timber with a treatment liquid without any critical physical damage to the timber by the roller-pressing method. The roller-pressing is supposed to remove free water the cell cavities and to concurrently introduce the treatment solution into green timber in the treatmen...
M Inoue, K Adachi, K Tsunoda, Y Imamura, S Kawai


Borate diffusion in wood from rods and liquid product. Application to laminated beams
1988 - IRG/WP 3482
In the aim to use borate preservatives (fused rods and boracol) in fields of building construction other than external joineries, tests of diffusion of borate rods and secondary boracol, were carried out on different species of woods exposed to different moisture conditions. Tests were also applied on laminated beams very often subjected to high moisture contents and thus decay of rot fungi. Diffu...
D Dirol


Decay resistance of densified ammonia-plasticized stems of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)
1991 - IRG/WP 3673
When wafers of oil palm stems (Elaeis guineensis) were plasticized with 28% aqueous ammonia and immediately compressed mechanically, the treated material, gained 73% in basic density (average basic density, 0.695 g/cm³), and was highly resistant to decay by wood rot basidiomycetes. Compared with the control specimens (density, 0.403 g/cm³), resistance to decay of the densified specimens by Corio...
A H H Wong, M P Koh


Preservative treatment of green timber by diffusion
1984 - IRG/WP 3291
The preservative treatment of green timber by diffusion is reviewed together with criteria which influence the economics of the process. New process options are described which should overcome some of the technical and economic disadvantages of double diffusion. These include the use of coagulating agents which increase the viscosity of the preservative solution and facilitate treatment by momenta...
P Vinden


Aspects of the fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in liquid culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30160
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) that has found use as an anti-sapstain preservative for the transportation of softwood lumber from Canada to overseas markets. However, its use is limited by the knowledge that certain mould fungi seem capable of degrading it. The aim of this research was to gain knowledge about the fungal degradation of DDAC. The effe...
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick


Attempts to isolate tunnelling bacteria through physical separation from other bacteria by the use of cellophane
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1535
During attempts to isolate tunnelling bacteria in pure culture, physical separation from other bacteria was successfully achieved by the use of cellophane. Cellophane was used in liquid cultures as a substrate for tunnelling bacteria that were present in a mixture with other bacteria. By tunnelling into cellophane, TB were physically removed from contaminating bacteria which could then be removed ...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Preservative treatment of wood by diffusion processes - Simulation of commercial treatment processes
1988 - IRG/WP 3498
Spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pendula) were preservative treated by diffusion with mixtures of copper sulphate and arsenic pentoxide. The preservative was fixed after a suitable diffusion storage period by soaking in ammonia solution. A high standard of treatment could be achieved in spruce sapwood. This was attributed to its low wood density, and high wood ...
P Vinden


Evaluation of copperised Cashew nut shell liquid and Neem oil as wood preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30368
An effort has been made to develop eco-friendly wood preservatives using naturally available plant by-products with less toxicity. Copper was incorporated into Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and Neem seed oil. Rubber wood samples were treated with these solutions employing dipping and pressure techniques in 3 different levels. These samples have been evaluated to find out the effectiveness as wood...
D Venmalar, H C Nagaveni


Decay and termite resistance of wood treated with boron-containing quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) incorporated with acryl-silicon type resin
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30334
This study evaluates the decay and termite resistance of surface-treated wood with didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) incorporated with acryl-silicon type resin emulsion. DBF is a quaternary ammonia compound and contains boric tetrafluoride (BF4-) as a counter ion in its chemical structure. In the study, DBF was incorporated with an acryl-silicon type resin to increase water-resista...
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, K Shinoda, Y Imamura


The relationship between basic density and liquid absorption in fast, plantation grown 8 Year Old Eucalyptus pellita and E. Urophylla
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40220
The liquid absorption characteristics of 8 year old Eucalyptus pellita and E. urophylla were studied in order to gain insight into the treatability of this young, fast grown eucalypt plantation resource. The trees were grown in an experimental plantation trial near Innisfail in northeast Queensland. The study demonstrated that average sapwood basic density in young plantation grown E. pellita a...
J Norton, A Muneri


Basidiospore germination threshold against borate in-vitro may vary between liquid and agar media
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2405
The concentration of disodium octaborate (BAE) which prevented mycelial growth of a common brown rot and 3 white rot fungi was compared to that required to prevent basidiospore germination on malt extract agar. Spore germination sensitivity was lower (50%) for only one of the white rot fungi. However, when spore germination thresholds were tested in malt extract-borate solutions in well slides (no...
E L Schmidt, Ya-Lih Lin


Determination of corrosive effect of liquid wood preservatives to metals – First experiences with a National Standard which is in revision
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20321
The development of standards is an essential tool to characterise different kind of materials and products. An important aspect during the development of a new product is to check the corrosion behaviour with other materials. Corrosion can cause several problems like pitting corrosion. Consequently the knowledge concerning the corrosive effect of liquid wood preservatives is important due to the s...
E Melcher


Minimum inhibitory concentration of methylene bisthiocyanate towards selected wood inhabiting fungi in liquid culture and on radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30261
The objective of the current study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) towards wood inhabiting fungi common on unseasoned radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). The fungi used were Ophiostoma floccosum, Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma viride. Fungi were individually inoculated into nutrient media spiked with differ...
T Singh, B Kreber, C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, A Stewart


Environmental characterisation of retification process by-products (liquid and gaseous wastes)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-10
In order to reduce environmental risks during the service life of the treated wood and to find new alternative developments on the durability of wood, some research and technology development have been made on thermal treatment. The retification process is one of these processes. The retification process induces chemical modification of the lignin and cellulosic components and modifies the intrins...
G Labat, E Bucket, S Legay, C Yriex, P Marchal, E Raphalen, M Vernois, R Guyonnet, H Besset, E Fredon), G Vilarem, L Rigal, C Raynaud


Chemically modified tannin and tannin-copper complexes as preservatives for wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30271
The efficacy of Mimosa tannin, chemically modified tannin, and tannin-copper complexes as wood preservatives was studied. When the tannin-ammonia-CuCl2 solutions were impregnated into wood specimens in a one-step procedure, a large quantity of the tannin-copper complex was fixed in the specimens. Little of the complex was leached from specimens by a weathering treatment, and these specimens showed...
H Yamaguchi


Preliminary evaluation of new quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate for preventing fungal decay and termite attack
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30375
This study evaluates the decay and termite resistance of wood treated with didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF), a recently developed quaternary ammonia compound containing boron. DBF contains boric tetrafluoride as a counter ion in its chemical structure. Laboratory decay resistance tests were performed using brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris and white-rot fungus, Trametes versi...
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, Y Imamura


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