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Wood preservation in the USA
1982 - IRG/WP 3215
This report is a comprehensive survey of the status of the wood preservation field in the U.S.A. at the start of the 1980s. The importance of wood preservation is discussed and its industry described. Various statistics and analyses regarding the use of treated wood have been compiled. Both pressure and non-pressure applications have been covered, as well as remedial treatments and pest control op...
D D Nicholas, R Cockcroft


Soil blocks versus field test for evaluating and standardizing wood preservatives: A commercial view
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20024
On the basis of technical considerations, experience, costs and applicability, the author concludes that the soil block test and other laboratory tests have little meaning in a wood preservative standardization process and almost no merit in the commercialization of a wood preservative system. Field tests at sites known to be aggressive to preservative treated wood are strongly recommended....
W S McNamara


Climate indices at work: Above ground decay L-joint tests (EN 330 and AWPA E9) at two sites 12000 km apart and with Scheffer climate indices of 60-65 and 300-330
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20095
Matched sets of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) L-joints were exposed above ground at two field sites for approximately five years. One site, at Garston, Watford, UK has a climate index between 60 and 65 while the other, close to Hilo, HI, USA has an index between 300 and 330. The joints were treated with a range of organic solvent treatments applied either by three minute dip immersion or b...
A F Preston, K J Archer, D M Roberts, J K Carey, A F Bravery


A critical review of the AWPA standard method (M12-72) for laboratory evaluation to determine resistance to subterranean termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1298
The American Wood Preservers' Association standard (M12-72) for evaluation of candidate wood preservatives against subterranean termites is reviewed and suggestions for revision are made. The most serious flaws in the current test procedure involve a failure to recognize inter- and intraspecific variation and a lack of quantification of test results....
J P La Fage, M Jones


International standards can we make them simple?
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20092
The earth is round and therefore limited in space. A consequence is that we - earthlings - are convicted to mutual understanding with a basic need to pay attention to others. Leading countries have been developing standards for years (i.e. USA/CANADA - AUSTRALIA/NEW ZEALAND - SOUTH AFRICA - EUROPE). They are keen and proud to argue on their peculiarities and advantages. A survey of the various sch...
G Ozanne


Protection of wood blocks treated with Trichoderma isolates selected on the basis of preliminary agar screening studies
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10154
Previously reported results of agar interaction screening studies for biocontrol agents of wood decay basidiomycetes showed two Trichoderma viride isolates, killed 16 of 19 target fungi (Tucker and Bruce, 1995). Testing of these isolates in wood was required to assess their performance at preventing decay of wood blocks. Standard testing of chemical wood preservatives is used to determine the toxi...
E J B Tucker, A Bruce, H J Staines


Soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 179
Soft rot decay of treated wood is examined with special reference to hardwoods treated with CCA. Factors which adversely affect the chances of protection of hardwoods against soft rot are discussed. The ratio of the volume of the fibre cell wall to the volume of the fibre lumen is presented as a major factor influencing final preservative concentration in the fibre cell wall, the major strength co...
C R Levy


Chromated copper arsenate preservative treatment of hardwoods. Part 2: leaching performance of seven North American hardwoods
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30132
Seven North American hardwood species were treated with 2% CCA-C solution and fixed at temperatures of 21°C and 50°C and conditions of high relative humidity (95%) as described in Part 1 of this presentation. Red pine (Pinus resinosa) was included as a softwood for comparison. Adequately fixed wood blocks (99.9% chromium fixation) were exposed to leaching tests according to AWPA E11-87 test. Par...
T Stevanovic-Janezic, P A Cooper, Y T Ung


International standards - can we make them simple? Stage 2: Reflection arising from the discussion at IRG 27
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20103
For the purpose of the ISO FAST TRACK project on preventive wood protection and durability, one shall refer to the 3 following stages: Hazards: (for wood in service), a review of biological agencies defining the scope; Exposure: a review of local, geographical parameters influencing the virulence of biological agencies towards wood in service (i.e climate indexes); Risks: as a combination of ha...
G Ozanne


International co-operation in wood preservation research
1979 - IRG/WP 3145
If one searched the literature, one could find many examples of international co-operation in the field of research in wood preservation. For example, individual workers in different countries in Europe have got together and made replicate tests with both fungi and insects on various preservatives of common interest and their results have been published. Much co-operation has not had its results p...
R Cockcroft


El Rol de la AWPA en las Normas y Códigos Nacionales e Internacionales
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20389
AWPA Standards for treated wood products are recognized around the World in building codes and architectural specifications. Standardization is important in the global marketplace because it leads to increased safety, reliability, and efficiency. Consumers have a profound awareness of and preference for standardized products, even though businesses sometimes ignore them. Historically, market fa...
C McCown


Prevelence of termite infestation and wood preferences in Pakistan
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10695
In order to know about prevalence of termite infestation in Pakistan, A study was carried out to know the intensity of infestation of different species of termites to different types of woods used in buildings as well as in the forests. Heterotermes indicola was the most notorious species of termite present in buildings, grounds throughout the year while Odontotermes obesus was most common in for...
F Manzoor, S Asma Malik


Component leaching from CCA, ACQ and a micronized copper quat (MCQ) system as affected by leaching protocol
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50261
Leaching results for Cu, Cr and As (CCA) and Cu (ACQ and MCQ) from southern pine are compared for laboratory tests (AWPA E11, and draft OECD methods I and II) and natural weathering of horizontally and vertically oriented lumber samples over two seasons. This paper expands on results and comparison of results presented at the IRG regional meeting in Costa Rica in Dec 2008 (Cooper and Ung 2008) a...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Termite Resistant Properties of Wood and Natural Fiber Plastic Composites - AWPA E1 Test Data
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40466
This paper deals with resistance properties of wood plastic composites against Formosan Subterranean Termites (FSTs) based on the AWPA E1 test standard. Sixteen laboratory WPC formulations, four WPC commercial materials, and southern pine (Pinus sp.) wood control were tested for termite mortality, sample weight loss, and sample damage rating. The results show that FSTs did attack WPC products in ...
Q Wu, T Shupe, J Curole, K Ragon, M Voitier, M Freeman, D Ring


Durability of Furfurylated Wood – Results from Laboratory and Field Tests in the Ecobinders project
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40602
Within the EU project Ecobinders, laboratory tests were performed with furfurylated wood produced in semi-industrial scale in the factory of Kebony ASA. Field trials in Horizontal double layer decks and in-ground of transmission poles were also started. Four wood species, Southern yellow pine (SYP), maple, beech and aspen were treated to two treatment levels by using two impregnating liquids with ...
M Westin


Laboratory Study of Relative Leachability of Chromated Copper Arsenate Preservative from Treated Woods among Soil Types of Sarawak
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50307
Wood and soils are important natural resources from the environment and serves mankind well respectively as structural materials and natural platform erecting such materials. With shortfalls of naturally durable timber species for protected in-ground uses under Malaysian environments, Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated woods are widely used instead, incurring serious potential threats of pres...
A H H Wong, P K F Chong


Overview of the treated wood quality control program in the United States with the recent challenges and advances
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20616
In the past two decades, there have been significant and rapid changes in wood protection technologies for residential applications which have moved away from long established heavy duty metal oxide based products such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The successor generation of wood protection systems usually contain copper as the primary biocide, in combination with carbon-based co-biocides s...
L Jin


Lab-scale termite damage synthesis using least squares generative adversarial networks
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20674
This manuscript investigated the feasibility of least squares generative adversarial networks (LSGAN) to generate synthetic images of lab-scale termite damage based on AWPA E1 standard, to push machine-learning forward into wood science field and to ameliorate the lack of a termite damage dataset. We leveraged LSGAN to learn the distribution of 203 uniquely termite damaged samples from previous ex...
D J V Lopes


Post-layup protection of mass timber elements in above ground protected exposures: 2-year results
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30766
Mass timber has seen increased use as a building material for low and mid-rise construction in recent decades. The durability of mass timber elements has not been fully examined and the effects of wood destroying organisms on this these materials merits attention. The effectiveness of currently labeled soil termiticides and passively applied biocides at post-construction or as remedial agents need...
M E Mankowski, T G Shelton, G T Kirker, J J Morrell