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European standardization for wood preservation
1990 - IRG/WP 2359
G Castan


Less environmental impact of wood preservatives by considering the risk of attack in addition to the hazard class system
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-10
Hazard classes, which are standardized in Europe in EN 335, are most useful to direct chemical wood preservation towards the organisms which may attack wood in the various fields of utilisation. However, hazard only signifies the fact that an attack may occur without considering the actual risk to attack. To minimize the application of chemicals with respect of less environmental impact it is necessary to consider both, the hazard of attack and the risk which implies the probability, how often attack may occur and how important this will be. In addition, also the consequences of the failure of a wooden commodity will influence the need of chemical wood preservation. It is therefore proposed to combine the hazard classes as specified in EN 335 or in similar non European regulations with a risk assessment including time assessment as a basis for the requirement on chemical wood preservation. For this, details are given in the paper.
H Willeitner


European standardization for wood preservation. Progress report 91-92
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2398
Since the IRG 22 conference in Kyoto, CEN/TC 38 Plenary met twice in relation with several working group meetings. 5 upon 6 of the interpretative documents have been prepared by adhoc groups of the Standing Committee for Construction within the scope of the 89/106/EEC directive on Construction Products. The expected requirements attached to wood preservation are both requirements 1) and 3): 1) mechanical resistance and stability; 3) hygiene, health and the environment. A consequence should be a redrafting of the previous official mandate delivered on September 27, 1989: - direct mandate on wood (solid and reconstituted) as well as wood preservatives as construction products - horizontal joint-mandates on wooden-commodities in relation with the other TCs in charge of such commodities. Another consequence is a formal exploration by TC 38/WG 11 "Permanence of active ingredients in treated timber" through a first couple of standards entitled "methods for measuring losses of active ingredients and other preservative ingredients from treated timber - Part 1: Laboratory method for measuring losses by evaporation to air - Part 2: Laboratory method for measuring losses into fresh water or salt water". This works anticipates the mandate and means that TC 38 is currently making progress, towards air and water quality. Apart from building activities, TC 38 got also by the end of 1991 an order of standardization on Creosote, and Creosoted-timber following the 13th adaptation of 76/169/EEC Diretive Creosote specifications. This additional event results from the trend in Brussels to develop the so-called "new approach" where the EC authorities elaborates essential requirements with mandates to CEN explicit them in close cooperation with the industry.
R Hüe


European standardization for wood preservation
1988 - IRG/WP 2321
G Castan


European standardization for wood preservation
1989 - IRG/WP 2335
G Castan


Wood Preservation in France. A statement of quality control early 1986
1986 - IRG/WP 3389
A statement of quality control in France early 1986 - Summary of new - Standards criteria for preservatives and treated wood - Aptitude of treated wood for use per class of biological hazard
M Romeis, G Ozanne


Japan's comments on ISO/DIS 12583-1/2
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20101
The Japanese body for ISO TC 165 can not be accepted on the adoption of ISO/DIS 12583-1/2. The comments and suggestions of Japanese body were described.
K Suzuki


Evaluation and approval of wood preservatives. Unification of European requirements
1988 - IRG/WP 2310
This paper reviews the current activities within the European Homologation Committee for Wood Preservatives (EHC) towards unification of the requirements on evaluation and approval of wood preservatives in Western European countries.
J Jermer


Practical consideration in developing an international hazard class standard: The hazards and risks
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20091
This paper discusses the concept of hazards and risks in relation to the way in which the hazard class philosophy may be used for international standardization. The difference between hazard and risk is considered as a basis for a simple classification of biological hazards for timber in use based upon its service environment. The paper proposes that the moderating influences within a service environment may be regarded as risks and used to classify the severity of hazard. These risks depend principally upon geographical location (climate) and design features controlled by the specifier. It is concluded that a pragmatic and simple approach could provide the best opportunity for an international agreement.
R J Orsler


Work programme of CEN/TC 38 (April 1999) and European publications
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20165
Scope of the CEN/TC38: Standardization of the characteristics of natural or conferred durability of wood and its derived materials against biological agents, including the characteristics of protection products and associated processes to obtain this durability. This applies in particular to: - the identification of hazard classes-, - the test methods (wood preservatives and treated wood and wood based materials) and interpretation of the results; - the specification of wood preservatives and treated wood by classes of hazard including processes-, - quality control methods-, -terminology.
R Hüe


Assessing the performance of wood preservatives from biological tests - the European approach
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20040
The impetus for the European Standardisation Committee to undertake the development of a performance standard for characterising the effectiveness of wood preservatives from biological tests, lies in the Construction Products Directive. This is effectively the European Community law which provides the basis for Construction Products to be traded across all member states without technical or regulatory barriers and without having to undergo further testing or re-certification. The performance standard covering wood preservatives is EN 599 and it defines the performance which preservative products will be required to achieve in specific laboratory and field tests, in order to be accepted and marketed as suitable for particular conditions of use. Five hazard classes of use are defined in another standard (EN 355-1) and EN 599 lists the specific biological tests required for each hazard class, the maximum amount of the product that can be applied in each test, the need for pre-leaching or pre-ageing and the rationale for deriving a value (the biological reference value) for the minimum amount of product deemed effective in each test. The highest biological reference value determined from all the tests is defined as the critical value and it is this value which is carried forward to the standard covering treated wood (EN 351) to provide the basis for defining the minimum amount of product required for effectiveness within treated commodities. EN 599 lists the minimum testing requirements for each hazard class together with optional additional tests to provide efficacy assessment against a wider range of target pests or to increase confidence in the critical value by incorporating data from longer-term field tests. The standard also describes the requirements for marking and labelling preservative products to describe their suitability for specific uses. Work on EN 599 commenced in 1988 and its development has required negotiated agreement between the 18 member states of the CEN/CENELEC region with 12 different working languages and 3 different official languages for documentation. EN 599 is now at the final stage of submission to vote and the decision on its adoption and implementation will be announced before the end of 1994.
A F Bravery


Towards harmonisation of regional approaches for an International Standard for the approval of wood preservatives
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20122
Recent proposals from the European Standards body (CEN) for an ISO Standard on wood preservatives has initiated debate on whether there is any prospect of an acceptable common approach among ISO member countries, to a harmonised framework of hazard classes, with agreed supporting biological tests, leading to a unified rationale for demonstrating compliance with minimum performance standards for specific preservatives in specific end-uses. This paper discusses a potential framework for developing an International Standard prescribing hazard classes and the biological test methods capable of supporting a common approach to the approval or standardisation of a wood preservative system. An approach is proposed which incorporates elements of existing standards or protocols used in Europe, Japan, Australasia, South Africa and North America based on the framework of European Standard EN599 but adopting regional variants with incorporation of field testing for the suggested Hazard Classes 2, 3, 4a, 4b and 5. The proposals are intended to initiate development of a consensus process rather than to suggest a solution in itself. However, it is hoped that the framework provided will allow the discussion process to advance more effectively and harmoniously.
A F Preston, A F Bravery


European standardization for wood preservation
1991 - IRG/WP 2365
Since the last IRG 21 conference in New-Zealand, there one meeting of the plenary committee and several meetings of working groups. The interprative documents prepared by CCE for expliciting the essential requirements of the CCE Directive on the construction products and specially: mechanical resistance and stability / hygiene, health and environment / safety in use are waited to valid the programme of work in the frame of the mandate officially received the 27th of September 1989. What is the advancement of the programme? Definition of biological hazard classes / Natural durability of wood / Treated wood / Performance of preservatives / Test methods
Anonymous


Sawn timber of fir (Abies alba Mill.) - Treatability and usability for the Hazard Classes 3 and 4
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40147
Within a national research project, tests on the treatability on sawn timber of fir (Abies alba Mill.) in oscillation pressure, vacuum pressure and double-vacuum processes have been worked out with 95 trunks taken from 3 different altitude levels (up to a height of 590 metres, 600 to 990 metres and over 1000 metres) and from 4 different regions of Switzerland. As the treatability of round wood can be compared with that of spruce (Picea abies L.), the sawn timber shows a considerably higher retention and penetration of the preservative. According to the standard EN 350.2 this wood can be classified into treatability class 2. With a vacuum pressure process a much better quality can be reached than with an oscillation pressure treatment. The treatability can be influenced by the origin of growth, as far as wet heart appears increasingly on a fir location; lumber with wet heart has a four times higher retention. The altitude of growth had no significant influence on the impregnation quality. The good retention and penetration of the preservative makes these wood species suitable for weather exposed outside constructions of solid wood or glued laminated timbers (for example bridges, acoustic and face protection walls, fences and toys). As the heartwood of fir is impregnated too, an adequate or even longer durability than with Scots pine (Pinus ssp.).can be obtained for treated construction wood.
E Graf, T Bör


Environmental situations on wood preservation industries in Japan
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-21
Because of environmental civil oppinions, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Japan, reviesed "the standards for sawn lumber" in 1994. For the possibilities of the use of preservatives out of CCA, by the using of the hazard levels, new products like ACQ, DDAC and emulsified zinc-naphthenate can be used in the standards. Since 1994, the permitable limit of the arsenic in the waste water become severe to 0.1 mg/l, but untill Fev. 1997, it's possible to allow the level of 0.3 mg/l. The Wood Preservers Association in Japan considers the possibility by accerlated fixation of CCA for decreasing the level of the arsenic in waste water of wood preservation industries.
K Suzuki


Categories in wood preservation hazard, risk, and use
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20048
In various countries hazard-, risk-, or use-categories have been established. The different terms seem to be only a sophisticated language problem, but they are rather a basic principle of the philosophy of wood preservation which is going to obtain importance with respect to the low reputation of chemical wood preservatives in an increasing number of countries. Whilst hazard signifies the fact that an attack may occur, the term risk implies the probability how often and how important attack may be. It further includes the consequences of a failure. Both are orientated towards the organisms, which may involve problems when using wood or wood-based products. Use-categories are directed towards the utilization of the material possibly or not exposed to an attack. The author is convinced that for the future of wood preservation it is essential to combine the hazard of possible attack with a risk assessment for the probability and the consequences of an attack. In addition, also a time assessment is needed to consider the intended service life of a timber component. Only a combination of these influences will lead to the most suitable way of wood protection under environmental impact conditions.
H Willeitner


Performance criteria for approving new wood preservatives for ground contact
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20021
Protocols for testing novel formulations prior to approval or registration as wood preservatives are being developed in a number of countries, e.g. Australia, New Zealand, USA. One aspect which must be addressed is the effectiveness in tests relative to that of currently approved formulations which would be acceptable to approving authorities. It is assumed that natural exposure testing is a prerequisite procedure before application for approval is sought and that a minimum exposure period of five years is required. Using CCA as a reference formulation and combined field test stake results from other copper-chrome-(non-arsenical component) formulations, performance criteria have been developed for novel formulations where approval for use in ground contact is sought.
M E Hedley


Towards a unified international hazard class system
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20081
Working party 2.5 on International Standardisation has set the development of a unified hazard class system as a short-term objective. This document is intended to stimulate the discussion required to work towards such a system. Two possible approaches are discussed, the compromise approach and the development of a basic system from first principles. For the second approach, the factors impacting on durability of wood products are examined and three factors are selected to define hazard classes. All three increase in number or severity with increasing hazard class. They are: the sources of moisture and nutrients and the inoculum potential of the primary biodeterioration agents. These describe the potential for a biodeterioration hazard. A unified international hazard class system is proposed.
P I Morris


Ensure Durable Wood-Frame Construction under the Climate and Biological Hazards in Shanghai
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20413
This paper provides technical background for developing durability-related provisions for the Shanghai wood-frame construction code. It summarizes the related climate, decay and termite hazards in this area as well as traditional durability solutions used for wood and wood hybrid constructions in China. The overall durability principles or philosophy used throughout this durability chapter are to improve and ensure building durability using integrated protection methods by appropriate design and construction and by using preservative-treated or naturally durable wood where necessary. Of these principles, durability by design is taken as the most fundamental approach for achieving good long-term performance of a building as a whole, and using durable wood where necessary to ensure the durability of individual components. This chapter covers moisture and termite management, and whenever possible multiple lines of defence are provided. Meanwhile, the practical side is also taken into consideration in order to make sure that all measures are buildable on construction sites with a reasonable cost.
Jieying Wang, Chun Ni, Jiahua Zhang


Performance testing of DMDHEU-modified wood in Australia
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30613
Chemical wood modification with dimethyloldihydroxy-ethyleneurea (DMDHEU) or its derivatives has been researched for many years and shown to be applicable to improve certain wood properties to both solid lumber and wood-based composites. Earlier research proved a high biological resistance of DMDHEU-modified wood against biological degradation in laboratory and field tests in Europe. Due to the very different climatic conditions and test procedures in Queensland (Australia), the resistance of DMDHEU-modified wood was evaluated in field tests in Southern and Northern Queensland over a period of 5.5 years. The tests show, that in weather exposed out of ground (H3) exposure and in soil contact (H4) DMDHEU treated pine resists degradation by fungi compared to treated beech (Fagus sylvatica) which is protected only at higher chemical loadings.
H Militz, J Norton


Superior kempas hardwood protection with two proprietary microemulsion termiticdes based on permethrin and cyermethrin against Coptotermes termite attack under H2 an H3 weathered conditions found in buildings
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10931
SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions are water-based wood preservatives approved for dipping treatment providing 25 years of termite protection for solid wood and wood-based products in Europe and for more than 10 years in Indonesia. SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions are patented formulations based on concentrated microemulsions (ME) diluted with water as a dipping treatment but also for vacuum pressure treatment. Field trials conducted in Malaysia by UNIMAS confirmed the efficacy of SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions at three product concentrations on short dip-treated kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) heartwood, a major hardwood species in the Malaysian wood construction market, against the Southeastern Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus exposed to aboveground H2 (indoor, non-wetting conditions) hazard class targeting termites compared to CCA-treated kempas and radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood. Prior to the H2 hazard class termite field test exposure, treated wood blocks were conditioned to either a non-leaching volatilization (H2 hazard class weathered wood blocks) or to a leaching followed by volatilization (H3 hazard class weathered blocks) as well as non-leaching/non-volatilization and leaching/non-volatilization reference treatments. After 6 months field exposure, untreated kempas was severely (termite ratings: 0, mean mass loss: 97.4%) or moderately attacked (mean ratings: 7.7, mean mass loss: 17.5%), while none of the leached-volatilized (H3 hazard class) or non-leached-volatilized (H2 hazard class) test blocks treated with SARPECO® and AXIL® at both target retentions were regarded as attacked (mean ratings: 9.7-10, negligible mean mass loss) regardless of applied termiticide concentration, leached or non-leached wood, volatilized or non-volatilized wood treatments. Excellent performance also prevailed with the remaining treatment combinations of treated wood. Due to their unique compositions, SARPECO® and AXIL® solutions showed excellent performance against Coptotermes curvignathus with low termiticide concentrations where conventional agro-insecticides do not work. In conclusion, SARPECO® and AXIL® are effective for wood protection in buildings against Southeast Asian Coptotermes subterranean termites.
D Messaudi, A H H Wong, C A D Tawi, N Bourguiba, O Fahy


Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons treated by the empty cell method have better performance than those prepared by the toluene dilution method. The naphthalene coupons treated by the full cell method show no attack after six months' exposure.
B R Richards, D A Webb


Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) a pest in wood materials
1988 - IRG/WP 1365
Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) is found to be a frequent pest occurring in hardwood in storage in Italy. This paper reports the characteristic for identification, biological features, distribution and timber liable to attack.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi.


A proposal for an international wood preservation standard
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20031
Two factors are driving the need for an international wood preservation standard. First, the global need to use our natural resources more wisely and second, the movement towards free trade exemplified by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation is the ideal organisation to undertake the task of developing such a standard. This paper is intended to start this process. It attempts to bring together the best points of a number of national and international standards into a uniform format. Preservative penetrations and retentions for each commodity would be based on the hazard class/use category, the climate zone, the biological area, the natural durability of the heartwood of the species used, the service life required and the consequences of failure. The outline standard presented borrows heavily from the new European Standard and is presented as a possible starting point for the development of an international standard.
P I Morris


Biological control with Trichoderma harzianum in relation to the formation for spores the production of soluble metabolites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10073
The amount of spores produced by three strains of Trichoderma harzianum on the aerial mycelium of agar cultures and in shake cultures, respectively, correlated with the inhibition zones exerted against Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an agar diffusion test. The amount of soluble antifungal metabolites as well as the protein content also correlated with the inhibition zones and the amount of spores produced. The antifungal metabolites were identified to be trichorzianines. They were the only compounds with antifungal activity. It is concluded that the trichorzianines are responsible for the biocontrol effect by soluble metabolites and that they are produced during conidiogenesis.
J Bürgel, E Horvath, J Haschka, K Messner


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