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In-ground performance of two formulations of chlorothalonil after five years of exposure at three test sites in Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30101
Sapwood specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. were each treated to three retentions of each of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) and installed in-ground at three field test sites in Australia. Specimens were treated with each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. For comparison, specimens of each timber species, treated to a commercial in-ground retention of a copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) formulation, were also installed. Treated specimens (including controls) have been rated for their condition annually for attack by subterranean termites and fungal decay using a scale ranging from 4 (sound) down to 0 (failed). After five years of exposure, mean termite and decay scores for replicate test specimens at each site reveal that the performance of all three retentions of each formulation, particularly the two highest retentions, is comparable to CCA.
J W Creffield, T L Woods, N Chew

Selective adsorption of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and movement of actives into wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30103
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, NeXgenâ and Busanâ Sap Stain Preventative (Busan 1009), at three product concentration levels. Concentrations of active ingredients (NeXgen: CTL (chloro-thalonil) and MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate); Busan 1009: TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole) and MTC) were monitored with respect to the amount of material dipped. Selective adsorption (removal of actives from the suspension at greater than simple volumetric transfer rates) varied with formulation and active ingredient, and increased with decreasing product concentration. Movement of active ingredients into dipped boards was monitored for 30 days after dipping. Mobility order was MTC >> TCMTB > CTL. Surface depletion characteristics were obtained for each active ingredient.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

A combination of chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos for more effective wood preservation
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30067
Chlorothalonil (tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is a highly effective fungicide and wood preservative. Chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)phosphorothioate) is an insecticide and is not generally considered to possess significant antifungal activity. However, a review of the literature revealed that chlorpyrifos effects in various ways the activity of microorganisms and is even registered for control of a fungal plant disease. Laboratory and field research trials were designed to study the wood preservative effectiveness of combinations of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos. In some tests the antifungal activity of the insecticide chlorpyrifos was confirmed; however in a fungus cellar test, chlorpyrifos by itself provided little protection. In laboratory termite testing, chlorothalonil was sufficiently effective that in most experiments the addition of chlorpyrifos had little effect, while in field tests the combination consistently outperforms chlorothalonil alone. In tests against various marine borer species, the combination of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos proved superior to chlorothalonil alone. The synergy of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos is demonstrated in field stake tests, where after eleven years in Florida the combination has given superior performance over stakes treated with pentachlorophenol or chlorothalonil alone. Chlorpyrifos alone provided little protection against decay in these field stake tests. Chlorpyrifos is a useful additive to wood preservative fungicides, conferring additional protection against both decay fungi and wood destroying insects.
T L Woods, P E Laks, T C Blewett, R D Fears

Effects of timber surface properties and dipping conditions on uptake of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and ultimate effects on efficacy against mould and staining organisms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30073
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, and the resultant surface retentions of active ingredients MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate), CTL (chlorothalonil) or TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole) were monitored by chemical analysis. Surface retentions increased with suspension concentration and surface roughness, and decreased with initial timber moisture content. Dipping time beyond 20 seconds, timber basic density and earlywood content had little effect. Relatively low surface retentions, produced by dipping smoother boards with higher initial moisture contents, provided lower protection against mould and stain during seasoning than higher retentions. Equations describing the effect of surface retention on efficacy were developed for both formulations, and retentions providing complete protection under the conditions of the test were determined.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

The use of chlorothalonil for protection against mold and sapstain fungi. Part 1: Laboratory evaluation
1989 - IRG/WP 3515
Laboratory screening of chlorothalonil alone and in combination with other fungicides was conducted against six mold and sapstain fungi. The most promising treatments appear to be chlorothalonil supplemented with CCA or copper-8-quinolinolate. Field tests have been implemented.
J A Micales, T L Highley, A L Richter

Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil formulation for stain and mold control on rubberwood and maple
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30175
We evaluated the efficacy of several chlorothalonil and carbendazim fungicides (F1 and F2), etc. in the control of mold and stain fungi on rubberwood and maple. The results showed that these formulations effectively inhibited the selected fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp. (P71H), Aureobasidium pullulans, Ceratocystis minor (C-188), Ceratocystis pilifera (RWD 9472) in laboratory tests.
Mingliang Jiang, T L Highley, L Ferge, T L Woods

A laboratory bioassay on the termiticidal efficacy of a chlorothalonil formulation and a chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos formulation to Mastotermes darwiniensis Frogatt
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30004
Results of a laboratory bioassay on the efficacy of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) to the Australian subterranean termite Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt are given. Specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood were treated to three retentions of each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. All specimens (including controls) were subjected to an artificial leaching/volatilisation weathering schedule prior to the bioassay. Results showed that all three retentions of each formulation were successful in protecting specimens from significant attack by Mastotermes darwiniensis. The results also indicated that the chlorothalonil in oil formulation appeared to have had an antifeedant effect on Mastotermes darwiniensis. The results of the bioassay were sufficiently encouraging to warrant an evaluation of the two preservative formulations in the field.
J W Creffield, N Chew

A study of decay type variability in variously treated Fagus sylvatica and Pinus radiata field test stakes exposed at a vineyard for 30 - 45 months
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10271
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 10 kg/m3 of CCA plus 4 lower retentions in a geometric series of 1.5. Fagus sylvatica was treated with 15 kg/m3 and 2 lower retentions. Both timber species were also treated with equivalent retentions of various new generation preservatives (P. radiata was also treated with creosote). Whilst these stakes were exposed at 11 sites in New Zealand (NZ) and 2 in Queensland Australia, this paper reports only data from a single NZ site where preservative and timber species effects on decay type were particularly pronounced. Of particular interest was the finding that copper-azole and copper-quat. treated pine was less susceptible to soft rot attack but more susceptible to attack from tunnelling bacteria, compared to CCA treated wood. Beech was not attacked by tunnelling bacteria but was attacked by an unusual type of fungal cavitation/erosion. These, and other preservative and timber species effects on decay type are discussed.
R N Wakeling, A P Singh

Effect of soil parameters on biocide depletion: laboratory and field studies of water- and emulsion-borne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30234
Two field test sites with different soils were selected. Soil analysis showed that the soil at the two sites had considerable texture, base saturation, acidity, and cation exchange capacity differences. Five sets of field stakes were treated as follows: three with water-borne CCA to about 0.4 pcf (6.4 kgm-3) retention, one with 0.75% DDAC, and one with 0.75% DDAC:0.25% chlorothalonil. The last two sets were treated using oil-in-water emulsions. Samples from all five sets were installed at both field sites. In addition, wood samples which had been co-treated with the five sets of field stakes were installed in a lab environment in fungus cellar tubs using soils from the two sites. All wood samples were defect-free southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood, with the field stakes measuring 19 x 19 x 457 mm3 and the fungus cellar samples measuring 5 x 19 x 250 mm3. The field samples were exposed for two or three years and the fungus cellar samples for 36 weeks, after which depletion of the various biocides was measured. No consistent pattern in CCA depletions between the two soils were observed in either the fungus cellar or field exposure tests, despite the large chemical and physical differences between the two soils. The fungus cellar method may be useful to conduct relatively rapid depletion studies. The authors also discuss problems with depletion studies, including possible influences by soil, wood, and microorganisms present in the soil.
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, D E Pettry, M G Kim

Sentry®, a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 2: protection of lumber
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30189
Recent research conducted by Forest Research, Chemcolour Industries (NZ) Ltd. and Fletcher Challenge Forest Ltd. has resulted in the development of antisapstain formulations that meet the efficacy requirements of the New Zealand Forest industry for export logs. One treatment, called Sentry®, is now poised for commercial use in New Zealand for treating export logs, having undergone an extensive suite of field and mill trials over a two year period. This paper presents results of field trials set up to determine the efficacy of Sentry® on block stacked radiata pine. Sawn timber was collected from a local mill, sawn into 1 meter lengths, dipped in antisapstain solution, and block stacked prior to assessment of surface fungal degrade after 6, 12 and 15 weeks over a period including a severe hazard New Zealand summer. The higher concentrations of the commercial standards were required to achieve adequate protection of block stacked radiata pine in storage for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, Sentry®, at the lowest concentration tested (equivalent to 0.125% methylene bis thiocyanate (MBT) plus 0.025% 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (isothiaz.), gave equivalent protection to the highest concentrations of all the commercial standards (0.6% 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) plus 4.8% didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC); 0.15% carbendazim plus 0.15% copper-8-quinolate (Cu-8): 0.6% MBT plus 0.6% chlorothalonil). The high level of protection achieved by Sentry® was in part attributed to the broad spectrum of fungicidal activity offered by MBT plus isothiaz. and the micro-emulsion system used.
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman

Chlorothalonil: A new ground contact wood preservative
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3712
Extensive investigations have been conducted in recent years on the performance of chlorothalonil (tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) as a ground contact wood preservative. Efficacy information is presented on a soil block test with 11 Basidiomycetes, a fungus cellar evaluation, above-ground field testing against termites in Australia and Hawaii, and ground-contact field stakes installed in Florida (9 years), Hawaii (5 years), and Mississippi (7 and 8 years). In general, chlorothalonil performed better than or equally to pentachlorophenol, which was usually used as a control treatment. Wood treated with chlorothalonil formulated in an AWPA P9 Type A oil was more resistant to water leaching that pentachlorophenol in diesel/KB3 carrier.
P E Laks, T L Woods

Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil against the Formosan subterannean termite
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1559
The fungicide chlorothalonil was evaluated as a wood preservative to prevent attack by the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Southern yellow pine wafers treated with chlorothalonil (CTL) in P9 oil, CTL + chlorpyrifos in P9 oil, or CTL in xylene were conditioned by evaporative aging at 40° C for 4 weeks and exposed to termite attack in a modified ASTM D3345 4-week laboratory test. Actual CTL retentions were assayed post-test by X-ray fluorescence, and an approximate 50% decrease in CTL concentration found from the pretest nominal CTL retentions. With all three treatments, termite feeding on wood with actual retentions of 0.05-0.10 pcf (corresponding to 0.10-0.21 pcf nominal) did not differ significantly from the respective solvent controls. CTL retentions of 0.13-0.15 pcf (0.41-0.45 pcf nominal) limited wood weight loss from termite feeding to 6-13%, and retentions of 0.26-0.39 pcf (0.81-0.94 pcf nominal) CTL resulted in only 3-4% wood weight loss. Termite mortality was correlated with CTL retention. These results demonstrate that chlorothalonil is toxic to termites, and at the appropriate retention will deter Coptotermes formosanus from feeding on treated wood.
J K Grace, P E Laks, R T Yamamoto

Mixtures of fungicides screened for the control of sapstain on Pinus radiata
1984 - IRG/WP 3307
Fourty nine mixtures of fungicides were evaluated in a rapid laboratory screen for the control of stain, mould and decay fungi on Pinus radiata (D.Don). The most effective mixture was thiophanate methyl plus chlorothalonil closely followed by the mixtures of thiophanate methyl plus benzisothiazolone and thiophanate methyl plus dithio-bis (benzmethylamide). Benzalkonium chloride, thiram and ziram, when mixed with other fungicides were not effective in controlling stain, mould and decay fungi.
P J Hayward, W Rae, J Duff

An evaluation of the efficacy of a chlorothalonil formulation and a chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos formulation in the field
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30005
Details on the treatment of Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. sapwood specimens to three retentions of each of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) and their installation below ground at three field test sites in Australia are given. Specimens were treated with each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2+0.2, 6.4+0.4 and 12.8+0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. For comparison, specimens of each timber species, treated to a commercial in-ground retention of a copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) formulation, were also installed. Treated specimens (including controls) have been scored for their condition annually for attack by subterranean termites and fungal decay using a scale ranging from 4 (sound) down to 0 (failed). After two years of exposure, mean termite and decay scores for replicate specimens at each site indicate that all three retentions of each formulation compare favourably with CCA.
J W Creffield, N Chew

Laboratory and Pilot Evaluation of Chlorothalonil Formulations for Mold and Stain Control on some Wood Species
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30317
Laboratory and pilot test of the efficacy of several fungicides such as chlorothalonil and carbendazim for control of mold and sap- stain on bamboo and slash pine and rubberwood were conducted in this paper. The result indicates that: -- Clorothalonil/carbendazim are more effective for controlling mold and stain than that of carbendazim alone in laboratory test. --Higher concentration at 0.1-0.2% of chlorothalonil with 0.05-0.1% carbendazim or 0.05-0.1% carbendazim alone are more effective for stain and mold control on slash pine than the formulations of lower concentration in the pilot test. The mixture formulations of 0.1-0.5% clorothalonil/carbendazim are more effective than 0.5%NaPCP or 0.2% carbendazim alone in controlling mold and fungi in rubberwood pilot test.
Mingliang Jiang, Zhaobang Li

Effect of test site, preservative and wood species on decay type Glenbervie pastoral and radiata pine forest sites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30248
Pinus radiata stakes were treated with 0.8, 1.2, 1.8, 2.7 and 4.1 kg/m3 of CCA and Fagus sylvatica with 2.7, 4.1 and 6.1 kg/m3 of CCA. Both wood species were also treated with equivalent retentions of a copper plus triazole preservative (CT) (0.89, 1.3, 2 and 3 kg/m3 of copper for pine & 2.5 and 4 for beech) and chlorothalonil plus chlorpyriphos in oil (CC) (1.4, 2.1, 3.2 and 4.8 kg/m3 of chlorothalonil for pine and 3.2 and 7.2 for beech). Furthermore, P. radiata was treated with ammoniacal copper plus a quaternary ammmonium compound (ACQ) (0.8, 1.1, 1.7 and 2.6 kg/m3 copper) and a 60/40 mixture of high temperature creosote plus oil (C) (18, 27, 41 and 61 kg/m3). Treated and untreated stakes were exposed in the ground at 13 sites in New Zealand and Australia for between 4 and 6 years. This paper reports the significance of site, timber species, preservative and its concentration and time of exposure, on extent and type of decay, at two sites in Northland, New Zealand. The two sites were adjacent (200 metres), appeared to have essentially similar clay loam soil and climate but one was pastoral and the other was situated within a radiata pine forest. Most types of decay reported in the literature, were observed in this study but other undescribed or only partially characterised types were also found. The decay types found differed between test sites, preservative and timber species. The significance of tunnelling hyphae, which often caused severe decay of wood treated with the higher retentions of various preservatives, appears much greater than the prior literature would suggest. For pine the highest retentions of CC, CT and ACQ gave at least equivalent performance to the reference standards creosote and CCA, after approximately 5 years, at both test sites. For beech CC and CT both gave superior protection to CCA, at both sites. All the preservatives tested exhibited some weaknesses in terms of resistance to the various decay types observed.
R N Wakeling

Evaluation of chlorothalonil for stain and mould control on lumber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3713
Chlorothalonil is a commercially important fungicide with many industrial and agricultural applications. It has a very low mammalian toxicity and is considered to be an environmentally benign material. This paper describes the laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil as a wood antisapstain treatment. Chlorothalonil was tested as three formulation types - an emulsifiable concentrate (EC), a water-based flowable, and a micromilled (small particle size) flowable. In general, the EC had the best performance against surface growth of mold, stain, and Basidiomycete fungi. The activity of chlorothalonil against mold and stain fungi could be significantly enhanced by the incorporation of an additional fungicide. Copper-8-quinolinolate and diiodomethyl-p-tolylsulfone performed particularly well as complementary fungicides. Chlorothalonil was very effective by itself in controlling surface growth of Basidiomycetes. The chlorothalonil EC formulation performed better than or equal to sodium pentachlorophenate, except against the mold fungi, where the NaPCP was somewhat more effective at lower concentrations.
P E Laks, T L Woods, D L Richter

Efficacy of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride (DDAC), Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate (DOT), and Chlorothalonil (CTL) against Common Mold Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30338
The fungitoxic properties of four fungicides, alone and in combination, against four different mold fungi commonly associated with indoor air quality problems were evaluated on two different wood species and sheetrock. The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in two different forms - a 40% glycol solution and a 98% wettable powder, and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) in an 80% solution. The fungi were Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium brevicompactum, and Stachybotrys chartarum. All fungicide treatments on wood reduced growth, sporulation and discoloration of the mold fungi when compared to nontreated specimens. No single fungicide provided total control of all four fungi on wood. CTL provided the best single-agent protection by totally preventing the growth of C. cladosporioides and S. chartarum and reducing growth of A. niger and P. brevicompactum to low levels. DOT in both forms was very effective against A. niger, but provided only sporadic protection against other fungi. DDAC provided good protection against S. chartarum but was not as effective against the other molds. Combinations of the different biocides were more effective than any single agent. DOT + DDAC totally prevented or greatly reduced growth of A. niger, P. brevicompactum and S. chartarum. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the most difficult organism to control, but even this was achieved when DDAC was increased to 1.0% with DOT. The most consistent control of discoloration, sporulation, and growth of the fungi on wood was obtained with the combination of DOT and CTL. DOT, alone or in combination with DDAC or CTL, was also very effective against the fungi on sheetrock. The results suggest that by using appropriate products, during construction or after water damage, problems associated with the growth of common molds and their potential health effects can be avoided.
J A Micales-Glaeser, J D Lloyd, T L Woods

Assessing the leachability of chlorothalonil and methylene bis thiocyanate from antisapstain treated radiata pine
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30176
Rain wash-off and leaching of antisapstain fungicides from wood may cause pollution of waterways and may also lead to a decrease in the efficacy of a formulation against fungal degrade as chemicals deplete from the timber surface. In the current study, the leachability of chlorothalonil (CTL) and methylene bis thiocyanate (MBT), the active ingredients of a commercial antisapstain formulation, was determined. Freshly sawn radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood boards (500 x 70 x 12mm3) were dip-treated, assembled with and without fillets into packets, and subjected to artificial rain after 1, 3 and 6 days of post-treatment fixation time. Chemical analysis were performed on the leachate from each packet using HPLC. In addition, wood samples were taken from various locations within each packet to determine surface retention levels of CTL and MBT before and after raining. The study showed that minute amounts of CTL leached after artificial raining, but MBT did not leach. Initial wood surface retention analysis demonstrated higher levels of CTL than MBT prior to raining, although in the working solution the active ingredients were present in similar concentrations. This suggests that CTL has a higher affinity for radiata pine than MBT. Resistance of CTL leaching increased with post-treatment fixation time. Regardless of posttreatment fixation time, similar MBT losses were observed from the wood surface after raining and they were about the same order of magnitude as CTL. The lack of MBT in the leachate is perhaps related to the diffusion of MBT into the interior of the wood. Furthermore, breakdown of MBT is probably or likely in the leachate.
B Kreber, T L Woods

Susceptibility of antisapstain fungicides to rain wash-off
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30046
Results of trials using miniature timber packets and simulated rain wash-off are described. Six fungicidal actives in five commercial antisapstain formulations were involved, and a clear influence of rainfall timing after antisapstain treatment was demonstrated. Differences between actives and formulations were most marked where water-spray was applied in the first hour after treatment, though even when applied after a 48 hour delay there were up to ten-fold differences in the percentages mobilised. Possible mechanisms of fixation are discussed in relation to known formulation properties. Results from a full scale trial at a sawmill are also given, and comparison made with the small-scale packet experiments. It is concluded that the results were very similar. The work is extrapolated to the 'real-life' sawmill situation, and conclusions drawn as to the likely results of heavy rain exposure at different times after fungicidal treatment of timber.
R N Wakeling, D J Cross, D R Eden, P N Maynard

Sampling and analysis of NeXgen-treated timber
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20134
Green sawn timber surfaces of the softwood Caribbean pine and the hardwood white cheesewood were treated by dipping, spraying, and precise spiking with the antisapstain product NeXgen. After storing for either two hours or two weeks, the treated surfaces were sampled by one of four alternative protocols, which included two involving a square wad sampling punch (one hit or six hits), one involving an electric planer, and one reference technique where the surface zone was removed and cut on a band-saw. Surface samples were extracted into an azeotropic mixture of acetonitrile and methanol before analysis by high performance liquid chromatography for the active ingredient chlorothalonil. There was little difference in variability between the protocols; coefficients of variation from spiked surfaces varied f rom 3% to 9%. Recovery of spikes varied from 49% to 101%, with efficiency generally better from fresh than dried surfaces, better from softwood than from hardwood surfaces, and better using the single-punch than alternative protocols. Efficiencies of the single-punch protocol were 92% (fresh hardwood), 93% (dried hardwood), 100% (dried softwood) and 101% (fresh softwood). As expected, the inherent variability of surface concentrations produced under dipping and spraying conditions prevented firm conclusions being drawn from these studies, but the single-punch protocol which was superior in the spiking studies generally ranked higher than the alternatives in efficiency on dipped and sprayed surfaces also. The single-punch protocol is recommended for use on both softwood and hardwood surfaces in both freshly-treated and dried condition.
M J Kennedy, D E Ferlazzo, T L Woods, M H Freeman

Laboratory Evaluation and Field Trial of Chlorothalonil and Copper-based Preservatives and Leaching Performance of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30279
Soil block test and field trial of some Chinese plantation wood species pine and poplar treated with chlorothalonil formulations and copper-based preservatives such as ACQ-B and copper citrate (CC) were conducted. The results of soil block test indicated that chlorothalonil formulations and ACQ-B as well as CC are very effective for controlling the 2 fungi species Corious versicolor and Poria placenta at different retention. There is no significant difference of weight loss among retention level range 2.54-23.1 kg/m3 of ACQ-B and CC in our test. The durability of wood treated with chlorothalonil oil formulation is better than that of treated with emulsion formulation. ACQ-B and CC treated wood at different retention level are effectively resistant to decay and termite after 36 monthr field trial at Guangzhou, south China. Leaching rate of copper of CC treated wood is much higher than that of CCA and ACQ-B treated wood by the 2 wood species Pinus massoniana and Eucalyptus urophylla according to AWPA standard M11-87.
Mingliang Jiang, Ping Wang, Chungen Piao, Zhaobang Li, Quan Lu, Lei Liu

Ten Year Marine Borer Exposure Trial of Chlorothalonil and Emulsified Preservatives in Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30314
Results of a ten-year marine exposure trial at Townsville and Port Stephens are presented. Sawn Pinus radiata and natural round Eucalyptus obliqua specimens were treated with preservatives including creosote (HTC), pigment emulsified creosote (PEC), chlorothalonil, and the oil emulsions of CCA called PROCCA and HYCON. Basic zinc chloride treatment was also exposed at Townsville. Some of the findings were that P9 oil treatment of Pinus radiata prevented teredinid attack over ten years, although specimens had failed to Limnoria. A double treatment of CCA plus oil may therefore be effective. PEC performed sightly better than HTC on an equivalent creosote retention basis. Treatment using 5% chlorothalonil in oil generally gave similar performance to HTC. PROCCA performed better than CCA at equivalent CCA retentions against teredinids, most likely due to the small amount of oil (5%) present in the formulation. Basic zinc chloride provided resistance to marine borers, although treated P. radiata was softened due to the acidity of the treatment solution. One of the better performing timbers was PEC treated turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera), which was unexpected as retentions achieved were below standard requirements for hardwoods. In the tidal zone, Sphaeroma caused more damage to CCA treated P. radiata at Townsville than Port Stephens, while Limnoria tripunctata was more active at Port Stephens than Townsville.
L J Cookson, D Scown

Antisapstain field trials of NeXgen in New Zealand
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30145
This document covers the results of summer and winter log trials of NeXgen, an antisapstain formulation containing methylene bis thiocyanate plus chlorothalonil. Log billets (20 - 25cm diameter) were stripped of bark using a commercial maul debarker and antisapstain treated within 8 hours of felling by dip application. Billets were stored in a pole barn and assessed for internal sapstain and decay and surface mould at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. The performance of NeXgen was compared with two commercial standards tested at 5% (IPBC at 0.35% plus DDAC at 3%v) and 20% (acid solubilised oxine copper at 0.75%). These two formulations are used for protecting export radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) logs in New Zealand. For 24 weeks of winter storage and 16 weeks of summer storage, NeXgen applied to radiata pine log billets at a concentration of 2%w/v (MBT at 0.29% plus chlorothalonil at 0.29%) gave significantly (5% level of probability) better protection against sapstain and at least equivalent protection against decay and surface mould compared to two commercial standards tested at 5%w/v (IPBC at 0.35% plus DDAC 3%) and 20% (oxine copper at 0.75%).
R N Wakeling, T L Woods, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter

The performance of chlorothalonil after 4.5 years in the accelerated field simulator
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30041
The decay resistance of chlorothalonil in oil was examined in an accelerated field simulator (AFS). Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. sapwood stakes were treated, placed in soil in the AFS, and monitored over 4.5 years. CCA type C treated stakes were included for comparison. Water and toluene treated control stakes were heavily decayed after 1-2.5 years. Oil treated controls, though moderately decayed, were still serviceable after 4-4.5 years. At each equivalent retention, chlorothalonil performed better than CCA in treated Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus regnans stakes. Pinus radiata stakes treated to 3.6 kg/m³ with CCA were heavily decayed after 4 years, while 3.1 kg chlorothalonil/m³ treated stakes were only lightly decayed. Similary for Eucalyptus regnans, 6.6 kg CCA/m³ treated stakes were heavily decayed after 4 years, while 6.1 kg clorothalonil/m³ treated stakes were lightly decayed. Most of the decay was due to soft rot. When soil in the AFS was 1.5 years old, it had half to three-quarters the number of microbial propagules as could be cultured from fresh soil, that was collected from the same site as the AFS soil was originally taken.
L J Cookson

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