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Measuring Soil Respiration as a New Approach to Describe the Interaction Between Wood (Treated and Untreated) and Microbiologically Active Soil
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20344
Soil respirometry was employed to examine the relationship between both the performance of copper organic preservatives in contact with and the amount of carbon dioxide evolved from soil and the effect of wood treated with preservatives on carbon turnover in soil. Wood was treated with a range of copper organic preservatives intended for use in ground contact as well as an organic preservative intended for use above ground. The treated wood was incubated in columns of microbiologically active soil for 9 months. During the initial 6 months, carbon dioxide being evolved from the soil was measured on a continuous basis using an infrared gas analyser. Soil metabolism was stimulated at a number of ‘trigger’ points during the initial 6 months of the study and the impact of the presence of the treated wood on both basal soil respiration and substrate induced respiration was measured. After 9 months, the wood samples were removed from the soil column and any mass loss was recorded. The relationship between carbon dioxide evolved from the soil and mass loss was investigated. This paper presents initial data from this study. It describes the system employed and the outcome of a number of key events. Mass loss is described and initial correlation data is presented. The method appears to present a useful approach to investigating the impact of wood treatments of localised carbon turnover in soil and may provide a predictive model for assessing the performance of treatments intended for use in wood in contact with soil.
I Stephan, W Mierke


Detection of feeding behaviour of termites using AE monitoring
1991 - IRG/WP 1514
Using acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, the feeding activity of the termite inhabiting a wood specimen was investigated. The amplitude and the rate of AE from the specimen of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was larger than that of Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. The AE event rate was higher in the specimen with soldiers than without soldiers. The AE event rate decreased according to the resistance of wood specimens against termite attack.
Y Imamura, M Tokoro, M Owada, Y Fujii, M Noguchi


Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe


Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is due to differences in methodology employed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater used (e.g. temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen content) affect emission rate. So too do the specifics of the treatment process especially the preservative formulation used, and pre- and post-treatment handling of the wood. The nature of the treated wood samples is also important, with misleadingly high estimates being obtained from samples with unrepresentatively high proportions of cross-cut surfaces. A suggested strategy for developing an informative and standardised methodology is discussed. To form useful models of impacts of leaching, emission rates need to be considered in conjunction with site-specific information regarding a) water exchange rates between the area where leaching occurs and the sea, and b) the extent of partitioning of leachate between the water column, biota and sediment. The risk of environmental impact may be reduced by modification to treatment procedures and by careful planning of installation.
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton


Methane emission by termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10099
Association of methanogenic bacteria only with the smallest-sized symbiotic protozoa Spirotrichonympha leidyi Koidzumi was evidenced by epifluorescence microscopic observations. Workers, which were collected from a laboratory colony and placed in a test container with water supply emitted methane at a relatively constant rate with a peak of 0.76 nmol/termite/hr within the first 72 hrs after the initiation of measurement. Soldiers, as expected, produced less methane with a maximum rate of 0.019 nmol/termite/hr. Although methane formation is considered important to termites in order to keep physiological balance, that undesirably contributes to global warming.
K Tsunoda, W Ohmura, M Tokoro, T Yoshimura


How to determine what is a realistic emission from treated wood - basic reflections
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50105
Emissions from treated wood occur by evaporation and by leaching. Up to date by far more experience exists on leaching tests than on evaporation test. The methods applied will be of interest to give answers to the questions about the quantity of possible emissions. Standardisation on leaching started very early. One of the first attempts to quantify the effect of leaching on the remaining efficacy was the German DIN 52176-2 (1941) which was the basis for EN 84 first published by CEN in 1978. A specific German standard for the determination of leachates was published in 1972 (DIN 52172-2), however, the viewpoint was still the efficacy of wood preservatives. With respect to pollution of the environment EN 1250-2 (1995) has to be mentioned, however, this is more or less only a modification of EN 84 and as such not very satisfactory. Evaporation tests started as late as in the 50th mainly in connection with fluorides and later with PCP. Examples for a standard to determine the remaining efficacy are the German Pre-Standard DIN 52172-3 (1971) and EN 73, based on the German standard and first published in 1978. A specific standard for emissions is EN 1250-1 (1995). The reflections presented in the paper consider evaporation as well as leaching tests where the general requirements and the statements to the kind of specimens and to the treatment apply to both types of emissions at the same time. For the test procedure itself, however, different methods are needed.
H Willeitner, R-D Peek


A review of environmental emissions from building and construction materials in comparison with preserved wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-11
A review of the public domain literature concerning emissions to the environment from materials which are used in the construction of buildings (e.g. Concrete, Asphalt, Galvanised Steel), in comparison with preserved wood, and a review of the approaches taken by the construction sector in assessing the risk from environmental emissions, in comparison with the approaches taken by the wood preservation sector.
E F Baines


Measurement of VOC emissions from curative treated wood: A new emission test chamber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-13
A poor indoor air quality (IAQ) is now recognized as a potential factor affecting occupants health. There are three basic strategies to improve IAQ: source control, improvement of the ventilation and use of air cleaners. Usually, the most efficient way to improve IAQ is to eliminate the different pollutant sources or to reduce their emissions. In order to precisely measure emissions from building products and estimate the potential heath impact of emitted pollutants, standardised analytical methods are needed. The aim of this paper is to present the new standards prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for the measurement of indoor air pollutants and their application to the characterization of emissions from wood products. The prestandard ENV 13419, subdivided in three parts, has been prepared by the CEN technical committee 264 : ??ENV 13419-1 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 1 : Emission test chamber method, ??ENV 13419-2 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 2 : Emission test cell method, ??ENV 13419-3 : Building products - Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds - Part 3 : Procedure for sampling, storage of samples and preparation of test specimens. The two first parts of the prestandard ENV 13419 specify a general laboratory test method for the determination of the area specific emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from newly produced building products under defined climate conditions in a test chamber (Part 1) or cell (Part 2). The third part specifies for solid, liquid or combined products, the sampling procedure, transport and storage conditions and preparation of test specimens. In France, those European prestandards have been translated by the French Normalisation Association (AFNOR) in three experimental standards : XP ENV 13419-1, XP ENV 13419-2 and XP ENV 13419-3 [1-3]. In parallel to the ongoing work at CEN, the technical committee 146 of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has prepared the draft international standard ISO/DIS 16000 related to indoor air. Part 6 of this standard specifies a method for the determination of the emission of single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) from building materials using test chambers and cells [4]: ??ISO/DIS 16000-6 : Indoor air - Part 6 : Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and chamber air by active sampling on TENAX TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID. It is intended that, after the final voting stage, the CEN prestandards (Parts 1-3) will be taken over by ISO and that Part 6 of the ISO standard will be taken over by CEN as the fourth part of the ENV 13419 prestandard. As an example, the volatile organic compounds emissions from preservative treated wood samples were characterised according to the CEN ENV 13419-1 prestandard describing the emission test chamber method and to the ISO/DIS 16000-6 prestandard for the analytical method. Two representative wood preservatives (hydrodispersable and petroleum solvent formulation) were tested for this purpose. The VOCs concentrations in the test chamber were monitored during 6 days following a simulated curative wood treatment.
F Maupetit, O Ramalho, C Yrieix


Effect of leaching temperature and water acidity on the loss of metal elements from CCA treated timber in aquatic conditions. Part 2: Semi-industrial investigation
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-13
In continuation of previous leaching research on the quantification and modelling of metal elements released from CCA treated timber, a series of experiments has been carried out dealing with the influence of temperature and pH of the relative aquatic environment. The leaching method used is the Dutch prestandard for building materials, a long term static leaching test simulating practical bank-shoring situations. Parameters of study are type of fixation, wood species and specimen profiles. With decreasing water temperature, significantly less leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic is observed. An outdoors/indoors temperature ratio of 0.7 could be established. Increasing acidity of the leaching water mainly enhances the release of copper, whereas chromium and arsenic show a minimum leaching tendency at neutral pH. Both conditioning chamber fixation and steam fixation prove to be effective in fixing the metal elements in the wood substrate. With steam fixed timber, however, a higher loss of copper is observed during the early leaching cycles, due to the presence of copper salts on the wood surface. With regard to specimen profiles, boards in comparison with posts demonstrate a remarkable resistance to leaching of active ingredients, presumably due to the different heartwood/sapwood distribution and the specimen dimensions. In conclusion, the observations made confirm the results obtained from previous leaching studies. Converting the emission data into leaching fluxes, a highly correlated double logarithmic flux formula is regarded the best tool for curve fitting, however, for a limited time span. Other models which are more suitable for extrapolation of emitted quantities over a longer period of time are still under investigation. Likewise, proprotional metal ratios versus retention levels highlight the relativity of experimental data obtained with standard emission tests.
G M F Van Eetvelde, W J Homan, H Militz, M Stevens


Emission of trimethyl borate and methanol from radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30088
Sawn and kiln dried radiata pine conditioned to 3, 6, and 12% moisture content was treated with trimethyl borate (TMB). The treated wood samples were placed in mini-desiccators maintained at 20 or 40°C. The air space within the mini-desiccator was analysed for TMB and methanol. An initial period of emission of TMB and methanol was observed. This was followed by a period of gradual dissipation of both TMB and alcohol. There was an equilibrium of 2 ppm and 60 ppm respectively of TMB and methanol for 12% moisture content timber stored at 20°C. Dissipation was slower for 6% and 3% moisture content timber. Higher temperatures resulted in higher concentrations of TMB and methanol during the emission and dissipation stage.
F J Romero, P Vinden, J A Drysdale


Feasibility of termite control using crushed cement-stabilized sludge (Polynite) as a physical barrier and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10381
In Japan, the damages by the subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe) are more common. Recently, the more attention is paid to the methods of the termite controls of less- or non-chemical. As one of the non- chemical treatment, physical barrier using particles as basalts 1) , granites, and gravels 2) were investigated in terms of its safety, cost effectiveness and duration of performance, and there were also examples that the physical barriers using some particles have been put to practical use in a few countries except in Japan. Ebeling and Pence showed that the relationship between particle size and termite body size is an important factor in controlling tunneling activity of subterranean termites, and the crushed volcanic cinders of 0.85-2.36 mm in diameter prevented R. hesperus from penetrating 3) . Tamashiro and co- workers indicated that the particles of particular sizes (1.70-2.40 mm in diameter) prevented C. formosanus from penetrating 4) . Su and co- workers investigated the penetration of the sand barrier consisting of crushed quartz rocks and fossilized coral by C. formosanus in laboratory- and field-testing 5, 6) . These results show that it is important to investigate the relationships between the size of termites and particles to evaluate the effects of the physical barrier using particles. On the other hand, in Japan surplus soils and sludge of sixty million tons per annum are discharged from construction sites. The recycle techniques using the surplus soils and sludge and the development of the market for these recycled products are the theme of importance. The crushed cement- stabilized sludge (Polynite) as one of the recycled products of surplus soils and sludge is one of the newly developed and recycled material. It is technically suitable for mass production, has grate cost effectiveness, and is easy to uniform the particle size. In this study, the feasibility of a physical barrier using Polynite uniformed the particle size for termite was examined in a laboratory testing. AE monitoring 7-13) as a method forthe detection of the penetration of termites into the Polynite barrier at an early stage was also investigated, for the application of Polynite barrier in the house.
Y Yanase, M Shibata, Y Fujii, S Okumura, K Iwamoto, T Nogiwa, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura


Feasibility of AE (Acoustic Emission) monitoring for the detection of the activities of wood-destroying insects
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2416
The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) as a nondestructive testing method for the detection of the wood destroying insects was investigated. AEs were detected from the wood specimens under feeding attack of sugi bark borers or powder-post beetles. However, the feasible monitoring area of an AE sensor is influenced by the attenuation of AE amplitude, so that this could be a problem in the practical AE measurements, especially with wood specimens of higher moisture content.
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Shibata, M Noguchi


Alternative technologies for wood wastes recycling - Part B: Biotreatment of PCP- and creosote-treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-18 b
Alternative technologies have been investigated to detoxify treated wood. Two classes of organic compounds are studied. Creosote-treated wood are classified in France as dangerous wood wastes. A conventional incineration could be provided for these wood wastes but the cost of this elimination could be very high (> 2000 FFR/ton). For these reasons, we have tested two kinds of new processes as alternative ways. The developed strategy is described in this paper and illustrated by a few examples. Part B - The second one is based on an oxidative degradation of organic compounds directly in the wood: oxidative degradation by fungi. Few examples are presented in this paper. Three fungi are tested directly on treated wood. High levels of contaminants are tested around 0.6 g of PCP/kg and 3.7 g of 8 PAH/kg of wood. Few oxidation products generated by this biological treatment are identified. An ecotoxicological assessment is performed to validate this process. Technical feasibility of these developed processes as well as economic aspects are discussed,
S Legay, P Marchal, G Labat


Detection of Acoustic Emission (AE) generated by termite attack in a wooden house
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20166
Recently, considerable attention has been paid to methods for termite control, which involves few or no chemicals. To reduce the amount of termiticide needed, it is necessary to detect termite attack in wood as early as possible. The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring for the nondestructive detection of termite attack has been discussed previously. In this study, we propose some technical solution for the application of AE monitoring to practical control operations. Using a needle-type waveguide combined with an AE sensor (PZT sensor), AEs generated and propagated within floors and walls could be detected effectively. A 0.04 mm-thick sample of the piezoelectric polymer PVDF, which was inserted between the construction members of wooden houses, could detect Aes propagated both in such members and at joint surfaces, although PVDF film is less sensitive than a PZT sensor. The feasibility of using a portable AE detector as the input device for a total security system against termite attack in a house is also discussed.
Y Fujii, Y Yanase, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura, S Okumura, M Kozaki


Detection of termite attack in wood using AE monitoring
1990 - IRG/WP 2355
An acoustic emission (AE) monitoring method for detecting termite activity in wood was applied to lumber of 3 by 3 cm to 10 by 10 cm square, 1 m long. Furthermore, the propagation of AEs due to the feeding activities of termites in the specimens and the locations of AE sources were analyzed. Also discussed was the feasibility of the method applied to posts out in the field of subterranean termites. The results obtained from laboratory and field tests suggest that AE monitoring could be an effective non-destructive method to detect feeding activity of termites even in the incipient stages of the termite attack in wood.
Y Fujii, M Owada, M Noguchi, Y Imamura, M Tokoro


A Long-term Observation of Termite Activity in The Nest by Continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) Monitoring
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20280
In order to evaluate the influence of temperature on the termite activity, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was applied to two nests of Coptotermes formosanus SHIRAKI; a nest in the stem of a standing tree and a nest in the underground of a wooden house, respectively. Temperature change in and around the nests were continuously measured for about one year using thermocouples at four points; the centre of the nest, the periphery of the nest, the environment around the nest, and the underground, respectively. AEs were detected at the centre of nest and underneath the nest sphere by using wave-guides inserted into the nest of the standing tree and at the centre of nest. AEs were also detected at the wooden construction member near the nest in the wooden house. The termites in the nests were periodically stimulated by rotating, drawing and sticking the wave-guides. The temperatures in the both nests varied from 5 to 35 °C during the experiment. The highest and the lowest temperatures were recorded in August and February, respectively. The highest AEs event rate was recorded when the temperature of the nest in the tree was between 30 and 35 °C and when the temperature of the nest under the house was above 25 °C. In winter, when the nest temperature was below 10 °C, no significant numbers of AE were detected. These findings clearly show that AE generation has a close relation to the termite activities, which are influenced by the temperature in the nest.
Y Yanase, Y Fujii, S Okumura, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura


Environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service: The Environment Focus Group approach
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50162
In the context of the Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC), and of the OECD work on wood preservatives, the Environment Focus Group (EFG), comprising 8 institutes and the European Wood Preservative Manufacturers Group, has been working on the environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service. A literature review of emissions from treated timber has revealed that very little existing data is usable for environmental risk assessment; the most relevant data are kinetic curves of emissions over time, which show clearly the non-linear emissions behaviour of treated wood over time. The EFG has suggested real exposure conditions for treated timber in the environment, and listed typical exposure scenarios. Five representative scenarios are characterised in detail, for use in the calculation of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs). The existing methods to determine emissions from treated wood have been reviewed. Most existing experimental models cannot be used to predict environmental emissions. Monitoring of commodities in service has its specific constraints. Chemical analysis and ecotoxicity testing have also been reviewed and their relationship has been discussed. Principles for the design of experimental models, for the determination of emission fluxes from treated wood to the environment, have been established.
G Deroubaix, G Labat, I Le Bayon, S Legay, P Marchal, C Yrieix, E Melcher, R-D Peek, S De Geyter, J Van Acker, W J Homan, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy, E D Suttie, A J Nurmi, A-C Ritschkoff, D Rudolph, I Stephan, D Aston, E F Baines, J B Simonin


Comparative study on leaching of CCA from treated timber: Modelling of emission data
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50027
Results of a comparative study on leaching of CCA from treated timber are reported. The study aims at investigating the applicability of prestandard leaching test methods for modelling purposes. Prestandards used are the European standard proposed by CEN/TC38/WG11 and NEN 7345 (Dutch prestandard for building materials). Parameters of study are type of fixation, wood species (pine - spruce), specimen dimensions and leaching pH. Due to the conditions of test, a higher level of metal emission is observed in the CEN procedure. Both methods show a similar time-related decrease in leaching flux, however. The CEN small wood block test using a dynamic stirring leaching system proves to be an accellerated version of the static NEN method in which pole sections are immersed in water over a long period of time. Steam fixation generally reduces the emitted quantities of chromium. When naturally fixated, the initial chromium flux exceeds the copper flux, while in accelerated (steam) fixation tests copper is leached out to a higher level. In most tests the initial arsenicum emission flux does not exceed one tenth of the respective copper flux. With regard to hazard assessment of CCA leaching from treated timber in surface waters, an emission model is worked out taking into account a number of controlable and verifiable parameters influencing the final environmental concentration. The PEC-formula used (predictable environmental concentration) is kept short and is based on time dependency of the emission data (curve fitting on experimental data) and substraction of calculated dilution factors.
G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens, L Van der Mijnsbrugge


Using AE monitoring for detecting economically important species of termites in California
1991 - IRG/WP 2375
Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was conducted on wooden samples containing three economically important species of termites in California (dampwood termite, Zootermopsis nevadensis, Western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor, and Western subterranean termite, Reticulitermes hesperus). Laboratory AE studies included varying termite species, as well as 7 day studies exploring the periodicity of termite behavior. The results from the laboratory tests revealed significant differences in AE events between species, days, and sensors used. In a second study, the distance that AE signals could be detected in 2.6 m (8 ft.) long, 52 x 102 mm² (2 by 4 in.) wooden studs was also explored for the dampwood termite. Acoustic emission signals were detectable for up to 2.2 m in wood for dampwood termites. This study is compared with other investigations exploring the feasibility of using AE to detect termites.
V R Lewis, R L Lemaster, F C Beall, D L Wood


Curing conditions for a low formaldehyde etherificated melamine resin
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40108
Waterbased methanol etherificated melamine formaldehyde resins have the potential to increase the resistance of impregnated wood against wood destroying fungi. Previous studies indicated that the resin with the lowest formaldehyde content tested showed the best results regarding fungal resistance, dimensional stability and formaldehyde emissions after curing. In the present paper the influence of curing-time and curing-temperature of the resin with the lowest formaldehyde content is presented. It is demonstrated, that a sufficient curing of the resin requires temperatures in the range between 120-140°C for a period of several hours. The addition of pure urea leads to reduced formaldehyde emissions while the anti-fungal effect of the resins increases or remains the same.
D Lukowsky, R-D Peek, A O Rapp


Detection of Termite Attack to Wood Stakes in a Monitoring Station Using Ceramic Gas Sensors and Acoustic Emission (AE) Sensor
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20271
To evaluate the termite activity in monitoring stations non-destructively, metabolic gas from termites and acoustic emission generated by feeding of termites were measured. Ten cylindrical stations with small wood stakes of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) were buried around a house attacked by Coptotermes formosanus SHIRAKI. A sample air in the station was collected by sucking through a drilled hole of the station lid and analyzed using two types of ceramic gas sensors (odour- and hydrogen-selective sensors). Acoustic emissions (AEs) were detected by a PZT sensor attached to the cross section of one of the small stakes in the station. The concentrations of two components of the collected gas, odour and hydrogen, and AE event rate per 2 minutes were measured periodically from December 2001 to February 2003. The infestation activity in the station was also evaluated by visual inspection. In the early stage of the experiment, from the first to the third measurements, neither AEs nor significant level of the gas concentration was detected, and no termite was found in any stations. A higher gas concentration of odour and hydrogen and a larger number of AE events were detected since termites have invaded in the stations. These findings suggest that termite attack in the monitoring station can be evaluated by using two types of the gas sensors and AE sensor.
Y Yanase, Y Fujii, S Okumura, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura, T Maekawa, K Suzuki


The emission of boron compounds from treated particleboard
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40179
The emission of chemical vapours can be harmful both during treatment and service of wood and wood products. Samples of Standard particleboard (for interior use) were treated with trimethylborate, and a number of modified organo-boron compounds. Treated samples were placed immediately under a desiccator lid and air was drawn across each samples to 3 water traps. Water samples were taken after 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes and tested for elemental boron content. Samples treated with trimethylborate emitted the greatest amount of boron into the water traps recording 434.8 mg/L after 30 minutes reducing to 144.4 mg/L after 180 minutes. Samples treated with modified organo-boron compound showed negligible boron emissions and samples treated with mixtures of trimethylborate and modified organo-boron compound emitted 35.1 mg/L boron after 30 minutes increasing to 362.5 mg/L after 180 minutes. The results show that samples containing trimethylborate have much higher emissions of boron over the 180 minute period.
K M Filcock, P Vinden


Respiration measurement of dry-rot
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10095
Methods for measuring the production of carbondioxide from wood infected with the dry-rot fungus were evaluated. By enclosing whole wood blocks and measuring the concentration of gas in the headspace by gas chromatography, an exponential increase in the concentration of CO2 was observed for at least 2 months. This technique could therefore present a method for evaluating various treatments of dry-rot in the laboratory. Collecting headspace gas from GC-vials inserted in drilled holes in infected wood showed an increase in CO2 concentration for 2 weeks, whereafter it decreased. This method will be evaluated for use in naturally infected timber in buildings to measure the activity of attacks where the viability of the fungus is in doubt. A specific growth rate of 0.037 days-1 for dry-rot in infected wood was calculated. It was also shown that the growth of dry-rot was inhibited by either CO2 partial pressures higher than 100 mbar or O2 partial pressures lower than 100 mbar.
L Toft


Control of termite attack using a trapping method and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring a case study at an electric power plant
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10224
To prevent subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe) from invading the buildings of an electric power plant and to control their attack, artificial traps were buried around the buildings. The attack of the termites in and around the traps was monitored by detecting acoustic emissions (AE) generated by the feeding behavior of the workers. The cylindrical artificial traps were 600 mm long and 300 mm in diameter, and consisted of pieces of Japanese red pine surrounded by slender polystyrene foam sticks. Termite inhabitation was observed in eight of the ten traps set, and particularly high levels were found in three traps. The traps were renewed every one or two months. The amount of termites inhabiting the traps decreased drastically after the first renewal, but varied only slightly over the following two and a half years. The amount of termites in the traps increased when the traps were not renewed. Termite activity was significantly restricted by installing artificial traps and no additional serious attacks were found in or around the buildings during the study period. AEs generated by feeding activities were monitored by piezoelectric AE sensors attached to the wooden sticks in the traps or to wooden bait stakes near the trap. The rate of AE events varied according to feeding activity which was associated with the number of termites in the trap and the temperature.
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Iwatsubo, S Yamamoto


Experiences with the OECD guideline proposals for the estimation of emissions from preservative-treated wood in the environment
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50209
The practicability of 2 CEN proposals for OECD guidelines on the estimation of emissions from preservative treated wood by laboratory methods for either wood held in storage after treatment and for wooden commodities that are not covered, and are not in contact with ground (guideline 1) or wooden commodities that are not covered and are in contact with ground, fresh water or seawater (guideline 2) was tested during a research project in Germany. The influence of several test parameters was investigated for different types of preservatives, i.e. duration of the dipping time for guideline 1 experiments as well as size and surface structure of the specimens, comparability with EN 84 experiments and the influence of the ratio of the water volume per emitting surface area in guideline 2 experiments. Parallel tests in two laboratories allow the assessment of the repeatability of the laboratory tests. The results of the experiments with a solvent based preservative containing propiconazole are presented and compared with experiences from field experiments. The emissions were lower if less water was available per surface area and time. Different specimens yielded similar losses per surface area and the results from leaching experiments according to EN 84 were similar to the results from guideline 2 experiments. Emission rates and total losses can be estimated according to the calculation model of the OECD ESD for Wood Preservatives. Calculated data fit the experimental data. Emission rates of propiconazole estimated in guideline 2 experiments were generally higher than losses by natural rain. Minimum emission rates in these experiments were similar to the maximum values estimated in the field experiment. Losses by guideline 1 experi¬ments were in the range of the field data.
U Schoknecht, R Wegner, E Melcher


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