Your search resulted in 530 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
The Effect of Heat on the Retention of Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ-AB) onto Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40390
In this study, the sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were treated with ammonical copper quat type (ACQ-AB), which is one of the environmentally friendly wood preservatives, by using soaking method as a functions of various temperatures and time. The results indicated that the retention behaviour of ACQ onto the wood was considerably affected by temperature of ACQ solution and treatment t...
M Hakki Alma, A Mukremin Kara
A study of decay type variability in variously treated Fagus sylvatica and Pinus radiata field test stakes exposed at a vineyard for 30 - 45 months
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10271
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 10 kg/m3 of CCA plus 4 lower retentions in a geometric series of 1.5. Fagus sylvatica was treated with 15 kg/m3 and 2 lower retentions. Both timber species were also treated with equivalent retentions of various new generation preservatives (P. radiata was also treated with creosote). Whilst these stakes were exposed at 11 sites in New Zealand (NZ) and 2...
R N Wakeling, A P Singh
Effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength and copper retention of spruce wood treated with copper azole and alkaline copper quat
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40362
This work investigates the effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength values and copper retention ratios of refractory spruce wood (Picea oriental L.) treated with the waterborne preservative Copper Azole, (CBA-A, Tanalith-E 3492) and alkaline copper quat (ACQ-2200). Before the copper azole and alkaline copper quat treatment, the samples were immersed in 500 ml of sodium hypochlorite s...
S Yildiz, E Dizman, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz
Micro-Distribution of Micronized Copper in Southern Pine
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30479
For copper-based preservatives to be used in ground contact, penetration of copper into the cell wall is believed to be important to protect the wood from soft rot fungi. Preservatives containing soluble copper are known to do this. It is not known whether preservatives containing particulate copper will also migrate into the cell wall in sufficient quantities to control soft rot decay. An AWPA st...
R Stirling, J Drummond, Jun Zhang, R J Ziobro
Biological efficacy of micronized copper systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30485
Soil block, fungal cellar and field stake test data will be presented for micronized copper systems. The copper portion of the formulations is present as a fine dispersion of "micro" particulates while the co-biocide is present as either a soluble quat or an azole containing emulsion. This testing generally used the amine based counterpart as the control preservative system and the micronized fo...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman
Comparison of laboratory and natural exposure leaching of copper from wood treated with three wood preservatives
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50258
Standard and non-standard laboratory and field leaching tests were used to compare copper leaching from wood treated to above ground and ground contact specified retentions for three wood preservative systems, CCA-C, ACQ-D and a micronized copper formulation with quat DDAC as co-biocide. Copper leaching was highest for the ACQ formulation. Percent leaching was lowest for the micronized copper sy...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung
Copper to quat ratio in alkaline copper quat (ACQ) wood preservative - Effects on fixation and leaching of preservative components in red pine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30496
This study investigates the effect of the relative proportion of copper oxide (CuO) to didecy dimethyl ammonium carbonate (DDACb) in an alkaline copper quat (ACQ) formulation on the rate of copper fixation or stabilization and the resistance of treated wood to leaching of copper and quat (DDACb). Red pine samples were treated with ACQ, having CuO to DDACb ratios of 2:1 (the normal ratio for ACQ-D...
S Pankras, P A Cooper, T Ung, L Awoyemi
Re-Distribution of Copper in the Cell Walls of Wood Treated with Micronized Copper Quat
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30506
Wood treated with copper-based preservatives to be used in ground contact may fail to inhibit soft rot fungi if penetration of copper into the cell wall is insufficient. Preservatives containing soluble copper are known to penetrate the cell wall; however, it is not known whether preservatives containing particulate copper will also migrate into the cell wall in sufficient quantities to control so...
R Stirling, J Drummond
Leaching of the copper component from full scale decking boards during one summer season
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50260
The leaching of copper has been tested in laboratory and in outside exposure for freshly treated pine sapwood samples with three different copper preservatives, Cu HDO, copper quat and copper triazoles. We found in the laboratory leaching test that a fixation with warming to 60 °C (140 °F) for 48 hours without drying and then drying in the laboratory in room temperature gave the lowest leaching of copper. We also found that surface treatments with wood oils reduced the leaching, and that washing of the surface before testing had no effect. Full scale decking board samples (0.25 m2) were then exposed outdoors for rain. The rain water was collected and analysed for copper. After one summer season (about 600 mm rain) we found that the leaching differ for the three preservatives. All samples with a water borne surface treatment had the lowest leaching, about half the amount of untreated.
F G Evans
Component leaching from CCA, ACQ and a micronized copper quat (MCQ) system as affected by leaching protocol
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50261
Leaching results for Cu, Cr and As (CCA) and Cu (ACQ and MCQ) from southern pine are compared for laboratory tests (AWPA E11, and draft OECD methods I and II) and natural weathering of horizontally and vertically oriented lumber samples over two seasons. This paper expands on results and comparison of results presented at the IRG regional meeting in Costa Rica in Dec 2008 (Cooper and Ung 2008) a...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung
Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9...
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper
Evaluation of ACQ-D treated Chinese fir and Mongolian Scots pine with different post-treatments after 20 months of exposure
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30530
The performance of alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) treated Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linn. var. mongolica Litv.) stakes after 20 months exposure in Chengdu and Guangzhou of southern China were evaluated according to AWPA standard E07-07. The ACQ-D treatments used two concentration levels (0.5 and 1.0%) and four different post-treatme...
Lili Yu, Jinzhen Cao, Wei Gao, Haitao Su
A Comparison of the Performance of Related Copper Based Preservatives against Soft Rot
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30540
The performance of pine and beech wood treated with either a soluble copper + quat (ACQ type D) preservative system or a particulate copper + quat system was evaluated in unsterile soil using the European standard ENV 807 soft rot decay test procedure. In addition, to compare soft rot performance of soluble and particulate copper directly without the influence of co-biocides, beech and pine test...
M Ray, D Dickinson, K Archer
Copper distribution in soil leached from full scale decking boards during one year
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50265
The distribution of copper in the soil under exposed decking boards after one year has been analysed. The decking boards were impregnated with copper HDO, copper quat and copper triazoles. The decking boards were pine sapwood and pressure treated in a full cell process, fixed by heating and then dried. The samples were not surface treated. Each decking sample of five boards (0.25 m2) was placed on...
F G Evans
Mold Control for Treated Lumber in Block-Stack Storage Conditions
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30588
The mold development and control for freshly treated and block-stacked wood have been evaluated using a green house mold testing method. The results for the mold resistance of several commonly used water boron preservative treatment systems, such as ACQ, Copper Azole, and borates with and without inclusion of mold inhibitors are presented. The data suggest that the different preservative treatme...
L Jin, P Walcheski, A Preston
Combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D impregnation on properties of southern yellow pine wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40637
In this study, samples of southern yellow pine sapwood were first thermally modified and then treated by the alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) wood preservative. Two heating temperature (180℃ and 220℃) and two concentrations of ACQ-D solution (0.9% and 1.35%) were used in the experiments. The combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D on leaching performance, mechanical prope...
Wang Wang, Yuan Zhu, Jinzhen Cao
Removal of nano- and micronized-copper from treated wood by chelating agents
2013 - IRG/WP 13-50294
Micronized and nano-copper (Cu)-based and arsenic and chromium-free systems have received much attention for wood protection in recent years. Because they have different fixation, and micro-distribution properties, such copper systems may be more or less subject to release using known remediation methods than soluble forms of Cu. This study evaluated Cu recovery from wood treated with micronized- ...
S N Kartal, E Terzi, B Woodward, C A Clausen, S T Lebow
Buffered Amine Oxide Treatment Systems for Ammonical Copper Wood Preservatives
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40685
Wood is the most versatile, practical and sustainable building material in the world. In modern countries, wood is a well-managed renewable resource that has a small carbon footprint. Wood does suffer from a lack of durability against invasive organisms such as insects and fungi. Steel, aluminum and composites have emerged as viable alternative building materials. These sectors market the defi...
R W Clawson Jr
Effect of exposure site on metal migration from copper azole, alkaline copper quat or chromated copper arsenate treated southern pine decking
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50313
Metal migration from chromated copper arsenate, copper azole or alkaline copper quaternary compound treated southern pine lumber was assessed at sites in Mississippi and Oregon. Metal levels tended to be consistently higher in decks exposed in Mississippi. Rainfall characteristics did differ slightly at the two sites, but the levels did not appear to be of a magnitude that might affect metal mobi...
J J Morrell, H M Barnes
Overview of the treated wood quality control program in the United States with the recent challenges and advances
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20616
In the past two decades, there have been significant and rapid changes in wood protection technologies for residential applications which have moved away from long established heavy duty metal oxide based products such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The successor generation of wood protection systems usually contain copper as the primary biocide, in combination with carbon-based co-biocides s...
Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher
Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi ha...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner
International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterran...
J R J French
Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley