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Wood cement composites using spent CCA treated wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50126
The feasibility of using spent or out-of-service CCA treated wood as a component of wood/cement composites was evaluated. Cold pressed wood particle cement boards were made using CCA treated particles from a red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) pole removed from service and from untreated red pine wood from a new pole. Boards were manufactured using a range of wood to cement ratios and water to cement r...
Chen Huang, P A Cooper


A fixation model, based on the temperature dependence of CCA-C fixation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40163
A model was prepared for the fixation of 1% CCA-C in red pine that allows the prediction of extent of fixation based on the temperature history of the treated wood following pressure treatment. The reaction kinetics of the rapid initial reaction and the slower main reaction were characterized using the Van t'Hoff equation. The initial reaction could be represented by a 10th order chemical...
P A Cooper, K M F Kazi, Jianbin Chen, Y T Ung


Laboratory evaluation of phoxim in plywood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30264
Two types of phoxim treated plywood bonded by phenolic resin glue and urea resin glue were challenged with termites of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in laboratory. It was found that the sawdust of phoxim treated plywood bonded by phenolic resin glue was not active or did not kill termites of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki within the test period. Moreover, the phoxim treated plywood bonded by phen...
Zhong Junhong, Lin Liling, Huang Hong


Migration of Metals from Douglas-fir Lumber Treated with ACZA or Pentachlorophenol Using Best Management Practices: Preliminary Tests
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-4
The potential for migration of preservative components from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and pentachlorophenol treated Douglas-fir lumber in non-soil contact exposure was assessed in a simulated rainfall device. Metal levels from ACZA treated wood were elevated for the first 30 minutes of rainfall and then declined sharply. Repeated cycles of rainfall led to declines in initial metal l...
J J Morrell, Hua Chen, J Simonsen


Effect of borate on uptake and efficacy of an anti-sapstain treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30380
The potential for using borates to enhance uptake and efficacy of propiconazole-based anti-sapstain chemicals was assessed on ponderosa pine sapwood wafers. Borates had no consistent effect on either net solution absorption or propiconazole distribution in the wood. Even small amounts of borate, however, markedly improved the performance of propiconazole against fungal discoloration. These resul...
Jianju Luo, Hua Chen, J J Morrell


Tests on the effectiveness of concentrated borate wood preservative
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30500
Tests were carried out to examine the toxicity of concentrated borate wood preservative to termites, fungi and mammals. The results showed that the preservative treated timber had high resistance to termite or decay and its acute oral toxicity belonged to low grade. The research shows that concentrated borate solution is an environmentally sound preservative and can be used in non-pressure treatin...
Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Xie Guijun, Chen Lifang, He Xuexiang


Alternative timbers to Iroko (Milicia excelsa) for various end-uses: Ghana’s offer
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10518
There are hundreds of timber species indigenous to Ghana and several exotic species have been extensively planted. The timber industry in Ghana is very important to the country’s economy. Despite its small size relative to the world trade in timber products, it has the potential to be a driving force in the development of the Ghanaian economy. The industry is currently going through a period...
S A Amartey, Zeen Huang, A Attah


Heat transfer and wood moisture effects in moderate temperature fixation of CCA treated wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40022
Practical aspects of heat transfer and fixation of wood exposed to drying conditions after CCA treatment are considered. The rates of heat transfer and CCA fixation are substantially influenced by the cooling effect of water evaporating from the wood surface when drying occurs during fixation. At least in the early stages of fixation, the wood temperature approaches the wet bulb temperature, rathe...
J Chen, M Kaldas, Y T Ung, P A Cooper


Regulation of hyphal sheath formation iron-chelator production by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10074
Hyphal sheath formation and iron-chelator production by liquid cultures of the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta were monitored over time. The effects of incubation at various temperatures, pH's and concentrations of iron, manganese and nitrogen were determined. Hyphal sheath production was observed microscopically and quantified with JAVA video analysis. The hyphal...
Y Chen, J Jellison


Natural Durability studies and Changes in wood chemistry of some Ghanaian hardwoods during decay by white- and brown-rot fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10542
The natural decay resistance of Esa (Celtis mildbraedii), Wawabima (Sterculia rhinopetela) and Dahoma (Piptadeniastrum africanum) obtained from Ghana was determined according to BS EN 113 (1997). Esa was found not durable to the white-rot, but very durable to the brown-rot; Wawabima was very durable to both white- and brown-rots; and Dahoma was durable to the white-rot, and very durable to the bro...
Zeen Huang, K Maher, S A Amartey


Feeding stimulants to enhance bait acceptance by Formosan termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10055
Four nitrogenous compounds were found to increase feeding by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in the laboratory. Cardboard disks dipped in urea solutions were consumed significantly more than untreated cardboard disks. Cardboard dipped in 8% urea showed a significant change in weight due to termite feeding over other urea treated cardboards. Examination of 15 amino acids in no choice feeding tests i...
G Henderson, M Kirby, J Chen


An immunoassay for benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride, a multipurpose disinfectant and fungicide
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30149
A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), based on polyclonal antibodies, was developed to measure benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride (BDDAC). The anti-BDDAC polyclonal antibodies recognized free BDDAC in an indirect competitive ELISA. The detection limit. based on the 20% inhibition (IC20), was 0.18 µg/ml and the 50% inhibition (IC50) was 1.1 µg/ml. The antibodies recognised ...
J Bull, A N Serreqi, Tao Chen, C Breuil


Effects of heart wood extractives in Dahoma (Piptadeniastrum africanum) on decay resistance to white- and brown-rot fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10536
Dahoma (Piptadeniastrum africanum) is a durable but a lesser utilised tropical hardwood species from Ghana that has the potential of being used as an alternative to Iroko (Milicia excelsa) for many end uses. However, the timber gives off a strong odour especially when wet and during processing. The high durability and the strong odour of the timber could be due to the presence of extractives in th...
Zeen Huang, K Maher, S A Amartey


New research data confirming the suitability of bifenthrin as a wood preservative
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30116
Bifenthrin has been further tested against wood destroying insects, and its behaviour in wood has been extensively studied. Bifenthrin proved to be highly effective as a curative and preventative treatment against Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus, after both leaching and evaporative ageing. Results of penetration tests with water and solvent based formulations, applied by brushing, dipping...
S Shires, P Héloir, B Chen, G Rustenburg


End Coating Masson Pine Grown in South China to Prevent the Development of Blue Stain
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30428
One end (randomly selected) of logs of mason pine (Pinus massoniana) were coated with a wax-type end coating called ANCHORSEAL® immediately after tree cutting. The logs were then stored in summer weather in Guangxi, China. During the storage, at week 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12, five logs of mason pine were sawn into lumber or veneer for the visual observation and measurement of blue stain at the coa...
Zhao Youke, Qin Li, Huang Rongfeng, Lu Jianxiong


Mold-resistance Effect of Bamboo Wood Treated with CCC-organic Complexes
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30514
Mold resistant effect of CCA, ACQ, CuAz, CCC and the compound of CCC and propiconazole were researched on bamboo wood of Phyllostachys pubescens were reported in this paper. Results showed that all of the test fungicides could protect bamboo wood better from Penicillam citrinum than from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger. The complex of CCC and propiconazole had the best resisting effect on...
Sun Fangli, Yang Le, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Li Qiao


Extensive review of fire-retardant wood composites researches
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40471
The increased demand for public safety has led to greater interest in fire retardant materials in the recently years. Legislation relating to safety in the home, in work locations, on transport facilities and in public places continues to produce new regulation. There is average 524 thousand structure fires occurred every year in US, 3757 civilian in death, about 20 thousand civilian in juries, di...
Zhilin Chen, Zhiyong Cai, Feng Fu


The natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 bamboo species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10708
Tests on the natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 common bamboo species were conducted. The results showed that there was a linear relation between bamboo density and its preservative retention by mass, and the preservative retention of bamboo reduced while its density increased. The test also showed that there were significant differences in the natural durability of bamboos, bu...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


Grading the Performance of 18 Common Bamboo Species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10723
A grading method for assessing the performance of 18 common bamboo species was introduced in this article. The method was based on 4 grade levels with corresponding scores of 4 reference indexes of bamboos including culm diameter, culm-wall thickness, natural durabiliy and preservative treatability. In comparison with the traditional utlilization of bamboo, the grading results showed that this gra...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


Laboratory evaluation of borate amine: Copper derivatives in wood for fungal decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30543
The aims of this study were to evaluate borate: amine: copper derivatives in wood for fungal decay protection as well as the permanence of copper and boron in wood. Wood treated with each of four derivatives of borate:amine:copper prevented fungal decay. Disodium tetraborate ecahydrate (Borax):amine:copper derivatives with retentions of 0.61 to 0.63% after water leaching prevented decay by Gloeo...
G Chen


Study on the thickness swelling of mould-resistant chemical treated bamboo strand woven outdoor flooring
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40489
To prevent bamboo strand woven flooring from mould, several preservatives were chosen to treat bamboo strand before dipping into adhesives and pressing. The thickness swelling and mould resistant effect of the finished board were studied. Results showed that different preservatives had different influences on the thickness swelling of BSWF, and in order to reduce the thickness swelling of the fini...
Fangli Sun, Binfu Bao, Shenyuan Fu, Anliang Chen


Theoretic discussion on the way and driving forces of moisture migration in wood during vacuum drying
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40538
Most of parameters in conventional drying cannot explain a lot of phenomena appeared in vacuum condition, so it is necessary to further explore the moisture migration way and driving forces in wood under vacuum condition. For the water movement channel in wood is very narrow, the characteristic of heat and mass transfer in wood is similar to that in microscale. This article applies theory of liqui...
Zhengbin He, Xueli Yao, Liqiong Chen, Songlin Yi


Mould resistance of bamboo timber treated with tebuconazole-loaded micells
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30586
In this paper both anti-mould test through inhibition zone and mould resistance test on bamboo samples were carried out evaluate mould resistant effect of tebuconazole (TBA) loaded micells. Results showed that TBA loaded micells prepared with a ratio of TBA to PEG113-b-PCL28 50:25 had the best mould resistance, followed by micells prepared with a ratio of TBA to PEG113-b-PCL28 50:50. PEG113-b-PCL2...
Sun Fangli, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Zhou Yueying, Zhang Shaoyong, Zhang Xu


Influence of selected additives on organic fungicides for control of bamboo mold fungi
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30626
In order to assess the long-term efficacy of supplemented organic fungicides in outdoor applications, additives - including the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and a UV absorber and free radical scavenger benzotriazole (BTA), were selected to mix with the fungicides propiconazole or tebuconazole. Freshly cut samples from four-year old bamboo stems were treated with combinations of the c...
Sun Fangli, B Goodell, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Zhang Shaoyong


Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40655
The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by weight HDPE and WF, first com...
R E Ibach, Yao Chen, N M Stark, M A Tshabalala, Yongming Fan, Jianmin Gao


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