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Your search resulted in 1216 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no...
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley


Decay resistance of wood removed from poles treated with Trichoderma
1989 - IRG/WP 1386
Wood blocks removed from a distribution pole previously treated with a biological control product (Binab FYT pellets) were exposed in soil block tests to selected basidiomycetes. The blocks were removed from regions of poles where Trichoderma colonization had been confirmed by extensive sampling and computer mapping of microbial inhabitants. The results indicate that material from pole interiors c...
A Bruce, B King, T L Highley


Biological control of decay in standing creosote-treated poles
1976 - IRG/WP 156
Internal decay caused by basidiomycetes in standing creosoted poles can be controlled biologically, it seems, by artificial inoculation near the ground line. For such inoculation IC-type facultative mycoparasites, Scytalidium sp FY strain or Trichoderma spp for example, may be used. Apparent residual action can be explained by the release of non water soluble chemically stable antibiotics from the...
J Ricard


Thirty-four year test of on-site preservative treatments to control decay in wood above ground
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30015
This research was initiated in 1958 to investigate efficacy of various preservatives and treating methods for new lumber going into exterior structures of buildings. Post-rail units (2x4 inches) constructed of Southern Pine sapwood, Douglas-fir heartwood, and mill run western hemlock were dip- or brush-treated before or after assembly. Units were trested with pentachlorophenol in various petroleum...
T L Highley, T C Scheffer


A baiting technique to monitor the development and control of decay in transmission poles
1981 - IRG/WP 2149
P I Morris, D J Dickinson


Report on biological control of decay in poles
1977 - IRG/WP 149
The following its a brief report on a preliminary experiment carried out for the United Kingdoms Midland Electricity Board during 1974-1975 to establish, under laboratory conditions, the potential controlling value of some non-decay fungi against Lentinus lepideus. Lentinus lepideus has been confirmed to be the commonest Basidiomycete causing decay in poles in the Boards area....
T A Oxley


The leachability and specificity of the biological protection of timber using Scytalidium sp. and Trichoderma spp
1986 - IRG/WP 1302
The results of field experiments, using biological control against internal decay of creosoted poles, are briefly reviewed and the evidence concerning the leachability of the antibiotics produced by these species is presented. A pure culture miniblock decay test on biological control treated pine sapwood is described and the results compared to previously published data. The protection against Len...
P I Morris, N A Summers, D J Dickinson


Modelling the control of decay in freshly felled pine poles
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10206
In a recent study investigating control of decay in freshly felled pine utility poles, it became apparent that the efficacy of different treatment methods was strongly related to the size of the material being treated. A topical application of 5% w/v disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), brush applied to the cut surfaces of logs with otherwise intact bark was just as effective at excluding white...
M W Schoeman, W Van der Werf, J F Webber, D J Dickinson


Effect of media composition on the antagonistic properties of Trichoderma spp. against wood decay fung
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1538
Most screening of potential biocontrol agents of wood decay fungi has previously been undertaken using artificial media. Similarly experiments designed to evaluate the mechanisms involved in antagonism between biological control agents and target fungi, have largely been carried out in conditions which do not accurately reflect the nutrient status of wood. This paper examines the influence of nutr...
U Srinivasan, A Bruce, H J Staines


An in-ground natural durability field test of Australian timbers and exotic reference species. Part 5: Extensive data from a site where both decay and termites are active. Results from a full-replicated set of heartwood specimens from each of ten myrtaceous hardwoods after 18, 19 and 20 years' exposure - A discussion paper
1988 - IRG/WP 2324
Extensive data are presented on the decay situation, the termite situation and the decay-termite associations; all gathered from a fully-replicated set of heartwood specimens of 10 hardwood timbers after 18, 19 and 20 years' exposure in the ground at a single test site, i.e. a semi-arid steppe site. Sixteen tables are presented in addition to the one table providing the rating data; the l...
J D Thornton, G C Johnson, J W Creffield


Preliminary studies to assess the effects of aeration and lowered humidity on the decay capacity, growth and survival of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans (Wulf ex. Fr.)
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10208
Novel microcosms were used to test separately the effects of aeration and humidity on the decay capacity, linear spread and survival of Serpula lacrymans. The application of a pumped air supply resulted in an effective cessation of fungal activity when all but the lowest of the air flow rates was used. Furthermore, the lowest air flow rate caused marked growth tropisms away from the stress. In sep...
G A Low, J W Palfreyman, N A White, H J Staines, A Bruce


Evaluation of bacteria for biological control of wood decay
1990 - IRG/WP 1426
Laboratory soil-block and agar-block tests were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of bacteria as biological control agents against 5 brown-rot and 3 white-rot fungi. Pretreatment of Southern pine and sweetgum with a bacterial solution prevented decay in agar-block tests. However, the bacteria were generally ineffective in preventing decay in Southern pine, Douglas-fir, sweetgum and yellow popla...
R Benko, T L Highley


The effect of precolonisation of blocks with common pole resident fungi on subsequent biological control of Lentinus lepideus by Trichoderma spp
1989 - IRG/WP 1387
Results of previous field studies have indicated that the spread of Trichoderma throughout the groundline regions of the interiors of creosoted poles are adversely influenced by the presence of large populations of resident mould organisms. Failure of the control fungus to develop and colonize all of the decay susceptible groundline region means that sucessful control of decay is most unlikely. Th...
A Bruce, T L Highley


Feasibility of using biological control agents to arrest and prevent colonization of Douglas fir and southern pine by decay fungi
1988 - IRG/WP 1345
The use of microfungi to control basidiomycetous decay has been evaluated in Europe for many years, where it has produced mixed results against Lentinus lepideus Fries, the fungus presumed to be the major cause of decay in Scots Pine poles. In the United States, remedial decay control has been largely chemical, with little use of alternative decay control strategies. Increasing restrictions on che...
J J Morrell, C M Sexton


Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, alone and in conjunction with a selected isolate of Trichoderma viride, reduces decay of fresh felled pine independent of the effect of weathering
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10054
Unpeeled billets of Corsican pine were treated with the following: 5% aqueous disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) solution; 5% DOT solution with an isolate of Trichoderma viride with a low susceptibility to borate; the Trichoderma viride isolate alone. Half of the billets in each treatment group were also placed in large-diameter plastic pipes to protect the billets from the weather. All three ...
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson, J F Webber


Assessment of the Inhibition of wood decay fungi by volatile organic compounds identified from Trichoderma spp.
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10302
Previous research identified five volatile organic compounds produced by Trichoderma spp. that may be inhibitory to wood decay fungi. The effects of four of these volatile organic compounds, 2-propanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, heptanal and octanal were tested over a range of concentrations against four selected wood decay fungi. The fungi were incubated in malt extract broth under appropriate conditi...
S N Humphris, R E Wheatley, A Bruce, C Payne


A non-pressure method of protection based on hurdle theory to control the spectrum of internal environmental factors which affect the decay of poles in soil contact
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20005
A field trial was conducted to establish whether superficial barrier linings on poles in soil contact could function as environmental hurdles against the growth of biological agents and thus provide preventative methodology to preclude premature failure of vineyard poles under flood-irrigation. Assessment after 52 weeks exposure to the prevailing conditions and sub-tropical environment showed that...
A A W Baecker


Computer-assisted ranking of potential biocontrol fungi based on data from laboratory screening trials
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10023
Forty two fungal isolates were screened for antibiotic activity. In these sceering tests inhibition of target wood decay fungi was expressed as a series of numerical scores for each isolate. These scores, along with values for 5 other charactetistics, were used to assess the isolates. Using selection indices, isolates were judged on the basis of all the characteristics combined and, ranked in orde...
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson


Siderophore production by Trichoderma spp. and its importance in the biological control of wood decay fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10070
Competition for iron as well as other micro-nutrients is an essential component of the microbial ecology of many ecosystems. A wide range of micro-organisms including fungi and bacteria have been shown to increase their ability to efficiently capture iron through the production of specialised iron chelating compounds called siderophores. Since iron is in low supply in wood and has been implicated ...
U Srinivasan, A Bruce, T L Highley


Biological control of decay
1975 - IRG/WP 135
One approach to the biological control of decay in standing poles, live trees or seedlings is with microbial immunising commensals or IC.·These are microorganisms able to grow in the wood without damaging it and as a result of such growth to protect against certain types of decay. Scytalidium and Trichoderma spp have been tested in the field. The latter species have shown an establishment rate in...
J Ricard


Biological control of wood decay
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1531
This paper provides a general discussion of the principles underlying the concept of using biological control agents for the protection of wooden materials from decay. The rationale for the current upsurge in interest in biological control is discussed and a critical appraisal of the technology compared with the use of chemical wood preservatives is included. The advantages and limitations associa...
A Bruce


Field studies investigating the efficacy of biological treatments in preventing decay of freshly-felled pine
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10022
Four species of fungi (Trichoderma viride, Ascocoryne sarcoides, Potebniamyces conifererum and Cryptosporiopsis terraconensis) and sterile distilled water were applied separately to unpeeled, freshly-felled pine billets. The fungi were all in the form of concentrated aqueous spore suspensions, and were spread onto the end-grains of the logs by brush. Destructive sampling of the billets was carried...
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson


Biological control of wood decay fungi. - Part II. Effects of exogenous nitrogen on effectiveness
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10360
The effects of nitrogen (urea and ammonium nitrate) on the ability of Trichoderma harzianum to inhibit the enzyme capabilities and decay capacities of Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum were investigated using a small wood sandwich decay test. The biocontrol fungus generally had a greater effect on the brown rot fungus, confirming previous reports. Nitrogen produced inconsistent effects ...
E A Canessa, J J Morrell


Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from Trichoderma spp.: effect of media composition on VOC production and level of inhibition of wood decay fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10207
Production of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by two Trichoderma isolates grown on either malt extract or minimal media was examined and statistically assessed to identify which VOC's were predominantly produced on each of the two media types. The VOC's were captured onto chromatographic absorbent from above the cultures of the fungi before being analysed by integrate...
A Bruce, R E Wheatley, C Hackett, A Kundzewicz


Effects of chemical pretreatment of Douglas-fir heartwood on efficacy of potential bioprotection agents
1990 - IRG/WP 1440
Biological protection against wood decay fungi represents an environmentally attractive alternative to the use of chemicals; however, the process of identifying suitable candidates and the conditions that ensure successful protection pose major challenges. One critical aspect of this problem is to identify organisms that can rapidly and uniformly colonize the wood. Wood contains low levels of nutr...
B Dawson-Andoh, J J Morrell


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