Your search resulted in 29 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Detection of Wood Destroying Fungi Using DNA Microarray Technology
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20435
Wood decay fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota cause serious damage to wooden constructions and building elements. The elimination and the appraisement of fungal decay require an assured species identification. Conventional fungal diagnostics are mainly based on morphological characteristics by macro- and microscopy analysis. For some years, standardised and highly sensitive molecular methods focuss...
K Jacobs, N Rangno, W Scheiding, B Weiss, D Müller, C Hiller, W Brabetz
Analyses of premature failure of utility poles
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40584
In this study a total number of 18 utility poles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) impregnated with a copper-chromium containing preservative were investigated. They were part of different lower voltage transmission lines in the western part of Germany and failed before predicted minimum service life. All poles in this study were less than 15 years in use. The type of decay and fungi were evaluated...
S Bollmus, N Rangno, H Militz, A Gellerich
What can DNA fingerprinting, aggression tests and morphometry contribute to the identification of colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10371
Multilocus DNA fingerprinting, aggression tests and morphometry were compared to evaluate their potential for the identification of colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Hawaii. DNA fingerprinting separates the termites from all studied collection sites. Since the genetic similarity between termites from different collection sites lies...
C Husseneder, J K Grace
Using DNA probes to characterize the metabolic pathway of pigment production in several wood-staining fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10146
During shipment and storage, lumber is susceptible to sapstain, a wood discoloration caused by fungi. Currently kiln drying and chemical applications are used to control sapstain. However, the chemicals used to protect wood have a broad range of action, and so can affect other organisms. In addition, in Canada most of these chemicals are under temporary registration. Thus there is a need to develo...
R Eagen, S Riecken, J Kronstad, C Breuil
Application of DNA fingerprinting methods to identify biocontrol strains of fungi imperfecti
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10068
We have analyzed a number of biocontrol strains of Trichoderma harzianum and other Trichoderma strains with the methods DNA fingerprinting and PCR fingerprinting to differentiate and identify these strain which is not possible with morphological or biochemical methods. We could differentiate even gamma-ray induced mutants from each other as well as different strains form the same and different spe...
A Schlick, K Kuhls, W Meyer, E Lieckfeld, T Börner, K Messner
rDNA-ITS sequence of Serpula lacrymans and other important indoor rot fungi and taxon-specific priming PCR for their detection
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10298
Taxon-specific priming polymerase chain reaction (TSPP) is a powerful molecular tool for fungal diagnosis. For its application to indoor rot fungi, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the main fungal species causing wood rot in European buildings was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ITS region was sequenced. The complete sequences are present...
O Schmidt, U Moreth
Aureobasidium or Hormonema? A Genetic Approach.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10529
Aureobasidium pullulans is the main organism causing disfigurement of coatings on wood and the surface of exposed timber. This disfigurement of timber in-service is referred to as “bluestain in-service”. A. pullulans is also associated with the sapstaining of dead wood in the forest and in-service. A. pullulans is noted for its highly variable growth forms (polymorphisms). This variability pre...
M J Ray, D J Dickinson, M Buck
Development and Implementation of a DNA – RFLP Database for Wood Decay and Wood Associated Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10527
We are developing Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence databases for wood decay basidiomycetes and other fungi associated with wood. These databases currently house information for 39 fungal species consisting of 9 brown-rot basidiomycetes, 12 white rot basidiomycetes, 1 soft rot, 1 stain fungi, and 16 molds or other ascomycetes or imperfe...
S V Diehl, T C McElroy, M L Prewitt
A comparison of fatty acid and molecular profiles for identification of wood colonizing basidiomycota
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20278
Two methods that are currently being employed to detect and identify wood decay fungi are Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) analysis and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. A FAME library and RFLP library for 9 species and up to 10 strains within each species have been developed. The profiles generated by these methods have been compared for each species and strain to test for...
T C McElroy, L Prewitt, S V Diehl
Detection of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10245
Isolates of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans and the wild merulius S. himantioides were investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analyses (ARDRA) of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS). The technique uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the variable region of the ITS between the conserved 18S and 28S genes of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The ITS region of all isolates of Serpula lacrymans and S. himantioides was successfully amplified. The length of the amplified product was about 630 bp. Subsequent double digest of the ITS with the restriction endonucleases Haelli and Taql separated the closely related fungi by species-specific fragments. Thus, ARDRA-ITS proved to be suited for the detection of the dry rot fungus.
O Schmidt, U Moreth
Detecting fungal DNA in treated and non-treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10621
Isolating fungi from wood has long involved culturing on selective media followed by identification using various keys. This process can be cumbersome, costly, and, most importantly, not always capable of detecting all of the fungi present. The recent development of molecular methods for isolation and identification of fungi has created tremendous opportunities for expanding our knowledge of the...
C Freitag, M Freitag, J Morrell
A step towards a better understanding of fungal colonization of modified wood - QRT-PCR studies
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10653
The area of wood protection is in a period of change. New wood protection systems have been developed while their mode of action remains insufficiently understood. The development of molecular methods provides potential tools to investigate the interaction between modified wood and decay fungi. One small step to tackle some of the unsolved questions about the mode of action of modified wood is tak...
G Alfredsen, A Pilgård, A Hietala
Analysis on dynamics of basidiomycetes in decayed wood by a method using non-specific amplification of DNA
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20426
A combination of non-specific amplification of DNA by Phi29 DNA polymerase and specific amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to elucidate the ratio of basidiomycete species inhabiting decayed wood from an outdoor bench. After more than 8 hours incubation with Phi29 DNA polymerase, concentration of DNA ...
T Wada, K Igarashi, M Samejima
DNA-based tools for rapidly detecting, quantifying and monitoring ophiostomatoid fungi on beetles, in trees and wood products
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20450
Approximately half of the trees harvested for commercial purposes are lost because of native or introduced insects or insect-vectored microorganisms. Ophiostomatoid fungi, which are well adapted to dissemination by insects, include ~140 species of saprobes and pathogens. They are present worldwide, have high economical impact and many are subject to quarantine regulation. Thus, it is necessary to ...
L Khadempour, Young Woon Lim, S Massoumi Alamouti, C Breuil
The effects of acetylation level on the growth of Postia placenta
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10751
To understand the defence mechanisms utilized by decay fungi when exposed to different wood protection systems the study of gene expression can give us some answers. When the DNA sequences are known, primers can be designed to detect transcripts of genes with gene products related to basic cellular processes and hyphal growth. The characteristic gene products induced in different fungi by differen...
A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal, C J Long II
Variation in two Postia placenta strains, MAD-698-R and FPRL 280 – mass loss, DNA content and gene
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10781
Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and brown rot fungi are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used strains of Postia placenta – MAD-698-R and FPRL 280. Scots pine sapwood samples were exposed for two and eight weeks to both fungal strains. The following was inv...
N Thaler, G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal
The effects of acetylation level on the growth of Postia placenta over 36 weeks
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40589
Genomic sequencing gives us a tool to systematically and rapidly discover novel genes, how their products function in the cell, and explore their interactions. When the DNA sequences are known, primers can be designed to detect transcripts of genes with gene products related to basic cellular processes and hyphal growth. The characteristic gene products induced in different fungi by different wood...
A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal, C J Long II
Biodegration of treated wood waste by native fungal communities of tropical soil in French Guiana
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50285
Woods have been protected with fungicides for a long time, and the effects of these fungicides on soil after being leached into the ground have turned out to be a true environmental issue. It is in this perspective that we are proposing to study fungal communities of these contaminated woods in a purpose of bioremediation. Most of precedent studies have focused on ability of some Basidiomycetes an...
A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, F Chaffannel, J Beauchêne, G LeFloch
Characterization of test fields
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20508
Test field characteristics and impact of test fields on wood degradation is important when testing wood protection. The current EN 252 standard has no requirement for knowledge of decay hazards, but most commonly a test field is known as a “brown”,- “white”,- or “soft rot” field. To understand which decay hazard wood preservatives are tested against, each test field should be character...
U Råberg, N Terziev, G Daniel
Extraction and analysis of DNA from green and seasoned timber as basic methods for determination of wood species and origin
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20523
Against the background of the European timber trade regulation EUTR, commenced to law by March 2013, the determination of wood species and tracing of its origin is getting a great importance. A promising approach for establishing fast and reliable tracking systems for wood products is DNA analysis. A critical point is the extraction of analysable DNA from the wood and its lignified cell walls. Thu...
K Jacobs, H Mende, W Scheiding
Molecular characterization and biodiversity of wood-decaying fungi in French Guiana
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10825
Fungi from tropical regions are currently under-represented in the classification system. Indeed, difficult access to tropical forests and irregular occurrence carpophores make it complicated to study fungus species in such environments, unlike in European zones where fungal diversity and taxonomy are better known. The purpose of this work was to enhance classification by integrating new data that...
A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, J Beauchene
Microbial Community Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood in an Above Ground Field Test
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10826
This paper presents preliminary results of an above ground field test wherein eight naturally durable wood species were exposed concurrently at two sites in North America. Surface samples were taken at regular intervals from non-durable controls and compared to their more durable counterparts. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism was performed to characterize the microbial (bacteria, ...
G T Kirker, S V Diehl, P K Lebow
Communities of mold fungi in moisture damaged building materials
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20542
The critical conditions needed for the development of mould and decay fungi have been modelled for different building materials. However, current knowledge of indoor microbes growing on building materials relies on culture-based methods and more advanced molecular biological techniques should be employed to study the complex microbial communities in building materials. In this paper molecular biol...
E Sohlberg, H Viitanen
Estimation of wood degradation determined by visual inspection, mechanical testing and DNA characterisation – report after 3 years of exposure
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30700
The influence of two separate treatments, thermal modification and alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ, Silvanolin©) treatment, on fungal decay, visual disfigurement, deterioration in mechanical properties and fungal community structure was assessed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and compared with the performance of two naturally more resistant tree species native to North America: Douglas fir (Pseud...
N Thaler, T Martinović, M Bajc, D Finžgar, H Kraigher, A Sinha, J J Morrell, M Humar
Genetic characterisation of the deathwatch beetle – Call for support
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10890
The deathwatch beetle (Xestobium rufovillosum) is one of the most important pests of historical wood constructions. Further analysis of the exact nature of the feeding habits regarding diet and wood characteristics might deliver answers for controlling this pest. Also there is little known about genetic variability and population structure within the species. For analysis of infested wood and also...
M Höpken, E Melcher, J Trautner