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An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditi...
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain

A novel guide for the determination of the physical properties of wood including kiln drying and full-cell preservative treatment
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20298
An ideal flow chart for the sequential experimental determination of a range of physical properties relevant to wood drying and subsequent preservation was designed as a novel guide to assist wood scientists. In this manner, data assembly and experimental processing are shown. This was designed according to experience and published literature. Aspects emphasised in this review were the physical p...
I Usta, M D C Hale

Trial to determine a suitable schedule for radial and longitudinal treatment of plug samples by comparison of changes in the fluid retention and the treated area
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40211
A full-cell process was carried out using different treatment schedules for radial and longitudinal samples because of the anisotrophy of flow. When timbers are impregnated with preservatives much better penetrations are obtained via the end grain than laterally (across the grain). Therefore, suitable schedules for radial and longitudinal flow directions were determined in an trial experiment usin...
I Usta

A note on te seasoning, preservative treatment and suitability of debdaru (Polyalthia longifolia Benth & Hooker.) for poles
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40056
The main work is to determining the suitability of Debdaru (Polyalthia longifolia Benth.) as poles from Government and Village forests are investigated. The poles of Debdaru are easily treatable with CCA preservative by full-cell pressure method, but difficult to dry (air & kiln). Proper quality control must be maintain from procurement to treatment, specially during physical selection & d...
G N M Ilias, M D Rokib-ul-Hafiz

Chemical treatment of ten Amazonian timber species of low natural durability
1991 - IRG/WP 3640
The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of 10 amazonian wood species of low natural durability, to treatment with CCA preservative (2% concentration): it was concluded that all species studied are easily treated with this preservative. The sapwood showed high absorption and total penetration. The heartwood is relatively easy to preserve, exception to Parkia nitidae (Fava), Quale...
C S Neta, B F Vianez

Tilting and vacuum treatment - two methods to obtain a non-dripping freshly treated timber
1989 - IRG/WP 3535
Modern impregnation plants are designed to prevent spread of impregnation solutions from the plant through leakage, etc. It is also important that freshly treated timber does not spread solutions through dripping on the storage area. To prevent this, the impregnation procedure is terminated with a vacuum period. In many plants in Sweden this period is minimized or even excluded to gain time. Inste...
I Johansson, M-L Edlund

Effects of concentration and temperature of CCA and CCB on wood strength of Turkish fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40450
The purpose of this study was to present evidence for the effects of concentration and temperature of solutions of water-borne preservatives (chromated copper arsenate, CCA and chromated copper boron, CCB) on the static bending properties (modulus of elasticity, MOE and modulus of rupture, MOR) of Turkish fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.). Wood samples were mechanically tested after a mild full ce...
I Usta, M Hale

Chapter 11 - Preservation of talla bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-11
Researches revealed that the talla bamboo (Bambusa tulda Roxb.)) in Bangladesh could be full-cell pressure treated with CCA in green and dry conditions. The dry bamboo gives higher loading absorptions than green one when impregnated at same treating conditions. Also higher absorptions are obtained at nodes rather than internodes. Adequate penetration and retention results for ground and wate...
A K Lahiry

Chapter 12 - Treatment Groups of Bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-12
Study on distribution of CCA in three major bamboo species in Bangladesh, full-cell pressure treated at green and dry conditions revealed two treatment groups and some treating principles. Higher adequate treatment for ground and water contact use is only possible by treating problematic bamboo species pre-kiln dried up to half of its FSP and non-problematic species pre-dried up to FSP (20% ...
A K Lahiry

Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two prep...
I Usta

Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 3: Full penetration of the refractory sapwood of white cypress
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40167
The heartwood of white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla, is renowned for its termite resistance and durability against decay. The sapwood, which can represent up to 30% of log volume, is non-durable and refractory to conventional preservative treatment. Previous work ascribes the lack of permeability to oily deposits within tracheids and ray cells. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was use...
M J Kennedy, L M Stephens, M A Powell

Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell pro...
I Usta

Water-based water repellents for treatment of wood
1987 - IRG/WP 3446
The water uptake by wood can be reduced by treatment with a water repellent. The water repellents most commonly used are solvent based. In the present work a new type of water repellent that is water-based has been investigated. Two different treatments have shown an effect of the same order as a commercial solvent based product. The cellular distribution of the water repellents has been investiga...
I G Svensson, G Hägglund, I Johansson, W B Banks

Copper naphthenate-treated Southern Pine pole stubs in field exposure. -Part 2: Chemical characterization of full size pole stubs 12 years after treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30246
This study examines the influence of pre-treatment and post-treatment steaming on the character and physio-chemical nature of copper naphthenate in hydrocarbon solvent treated pine in larger, pole diameter, pole stub-length samples. This work is the continuation of two projects that began almost a decade ago. Previous reports indicated that certain morphological changes might occur in small labora...
H M Barnes, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman

The effects of density on vertical variation of permeability of Sitka spruce within tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40156
Tree improvement of Sitka spruce is a combination of silviculture and tree breeding aimed at producing higher quality products including increased growth rate and timber yield, and wood density. It is useful to know annual ring structure and density distribution when studying the quality of wood, grading it, or determining how the wood structure affects residual flow in softwoods. Since density is...
I Usta.

A behaviour of CCA penetration of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40346
A behaviour of CCA penetration of Bornmulleriana fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications was illustrated for the main flow directions by the experimental pictures....
I Usta, R Despot, M Hasan

Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated slash pine heartwood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50020
Drying green slash pine with any of three high temperature drying schedules produced a product in which both the sapwood and the heartwood could be penetrated with CCA using a modified Bethell treatment schedule. Required H3 retentions were achieved in both sapwood and heartwood, from 200 litres per m³ charge uptake. Post-treatment fixation/drying was accomplished by three different regimes, incl...
M J Kennedy, G Palmer

Preservation of two Indonesian timber species for marine environment purposes
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10079
This paper deal with the experiment of CCA full cell processed two non-durable Indonesian species for placed in the marine environment. 80 samples of 5 x 5 x 60 cm³ dried durian (Durio zibethinus) and mahogany (Swietenia mahagony) timber were CCA-full cell processed using 4 combination treatment of: without steaming; one hour steaming; 3% and 5% CCA solution concentration. 40 samples of them were...
P Permadi, I M Padlinurjaji, F Rasmita

Wood protection processes in the Asean countries
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40034
This paper presents the wood processing practices in the Asean countries composing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand except Brunei. The development of wood preservation industry in these countries started as early as 1922 to 1960. As in other industrial countries, treatment pressure with creosote of utility poles, railway sleepers, and marine pilings are the prime commoditi...
F R Siriban

The multi-phase pressure (MPP) process. One stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process - Concepts proved by repetitive pilot plant treatments
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40079
Twenty-four charges of radiate pine roundwood or sawn timber were treated using the MPP Process and hot CCA solution. Treated timber met the CCA retention and penetration requirements of the NZ Timber Preservation Council for Hazard Classes H3 to H5. The objectives of the trials were: (1) To "stress" CCA solution by repetitive heating, treating and cooling to determine its stability in the process...
A J Pendlebury, J A Drysdale, K Nasheri, H Pearson, M E Hedley

A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence posts with CCA preservatives. Part 1
1988 - IRG/WP 3470
This paper describes the impregnation with CCA preservatives by full-cell process of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts. Several treatments were made for different times of initial vacuum and treating pressure, with fence-posts from two coppice plantations (1st and 2nd rotations), assembled into three diameter classes: small, medium, large. The results concerning the absorption and lateral penetratio...
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, L Nunes

Investigation of temperature effect on fixation of Celcure preservative (ACC) in beech (Fagus orientalis)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40200
In this research, the fixation speed of Celcure 2% (ACC) preservative salt, under temperature of 17°C, 27°C and 50°C, on intact and stained wood specimens of beech was investigated. For this purpose, blocks of wood with 5x5x7 cm dimensions were prepared and saturated with 2% ACC concentration by full-cell process. The specimens were put in three incubators at the above-mentioned temperatures. F...
A Karimi, M Ghorbani

Effect of treating process on efficacy of CCA in a laboratory decay test
1990 - IRG/WP 3628
Test samples of Pinus radiata sapwood measuring 40x40x500 mm³ were treated with a range of concentrations of the copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) formulation "Tanalith C" using Rueping (empty cell), Lowry (empty cell) and Bethell (full cell) treatment processes. Samples were then reduced to 40x40x7 mm³ test blocks and exposed to the decay fungus Coniophora puteana using an agar/block technique. Repl...
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, J G Van der Waals

A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3514
This paper describes the second part of a study on pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives presented at the IRG 19th Meeting. Fence-posts of three diameter classes, were treated, considering only one treatment schedule. The results show possibility of vacuum-pressure impregnation of blue gum fence-posts, with diameter less than 9 cm, though mainly by longitu...
L Nunes, D De Sousa Castro Reimão

Notes on a wood preservation industry in Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia
1987 - IRG/WP 3405
This paper deals with a descriptive account on the development of a wood preservation industry in Medan, North Sumatera (Indonesia). The industry was established in 1974 when the State Owned Electicity Corporation decided to use wooden power poles for their distribution network in North Sumatera province. However, the use of wooden power poles was discontinued in 1981, so as the preservation indus...
N Supriana, A Murad

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