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Comparative performance of pentachlorophenol and copper naphthenate in a long term field stake test
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30243
In this study the performance of copper naphthenate (Cu-Nap) and pentachlorophenol (Penta) treated pine stakes against decay and termite attack were compared at two test sites in Mississippi. Four different petroleum oils meeting AWPA Standard P9-A were used as carriers for these wood preservatives. After ten years exposure, the efficacy of Cu-Nap at a retention level of 0.05 pcf Cu was equivalent...
D D Nicholas, M H Freeman


Copper naphthenate-treated Southern Pine pole stubs in field exposure. -Part 2: Chemical characterization of full size pole stubs 12 years after treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30246
This study examines the influence of pre-treatment and post-treatment steaming on the character and physio-chemical nature of copper naphthenate in hydrocarbon solvent treated pine in larger, pole diameter, pole stub-length samples. This work is the continuation of two projects that began almost a decade ago. Previous reports indicated that certain morphological changes might occur in small labora...
H M Barnes, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman


The effect of steam conditioning on Southern yellow pine treated with copper naphthenate
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40086
The current study was undertaken to investigate the influence of steam conditioning on Southern yellow pine treated with copper naphthenate (Cu-N). Pre-steamed and /or kiln-dried Southern yellow pine were pressure treated with Cu-N. After treatment, one group of samples were post-steamed. It was found that samples changed color from green to dark-brown after post-steaming. To elucidate the effect ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman, R D Arsenault


A wood preservative for the future: Copper dimethyldithiocarbamate
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30045
The development of a new wood preservative, copper dimethyl-dithiocarbamate (CDDC) is reviewed in this paper. CDDC is formed in situ by dual pressure treatments. Laboratory and field efficacy trials, physical and chemical properties of the preservative solutions and treated wood, and plant handling characteristics of the system are examined....
D K Stokes, M H Freeman, T L Woods, R D Arsenault


Ten year field test with a copper-borate ground line treatment for poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30017
A wood preservative paste consisting of borax and copper naphthenate has been tested to determine its efficiency in protecting wood from decay fungi and insects. The paste was applied to polyethylene-backed wraps that were fastened to the below-ground portions of unseasoned southern pine pole stubs. After 4 years of exposure in Mississippi, the untreated control stubs were completely deteriorated....
T L Amburgey, M H Freeman


Copper naphthenate: An analysis of the materials found in the worldwide marketplace using a new analytical technique
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30224
Naphthenic acid has been recovered from products of petroleum refining for well over 100 years. The metal soaps, specifically copper and zinc naphthenate, have been evaluated and used as commercial wood preservatives for in excess of 60 years. Most of the early data supporting the continued use of copper naphthenate as a wood preservative was based on materials manufactured from naturally occurrin...
J A Brient, R E Moyer, M H Freeman, H Jiang


Serviceability of copper naphthenate-treated poles
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30214
Copper naphthenate-treated poles in service were inspected for deterioration, penetration, retention, and serviceability. The study to date has included poles in all hazard zones in the United States. Poles installed by 12 different utilities and eight different treating companies are included in the survey. Both southern pine and Douglas-fir poles and distribution and transmission poles are inclu...
H M Barnes, M H Freeman, J A Brient, C N Kerr Jr


Copper naphthenate-treated Southern Pine pole stubs in field exposure: - Part 1: Gradient & biodeterioration analysis 12 years after treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30242
Naphthenates have been used for the preservation of timber and cellulose since their original identification in Russia in the early 1880's as part of a series of petroleum characterizations. Later work in the development of copper naphthenate as a heavy-duty preservative for poles led to the development of various treating cycles similar to other oil-borne systems. Recent work concerning ...
H M Barnes, M H Freeman


Trials of new treatments for prevention of kiln brownstain of white pine (Pinus strobus)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30068
White pine (Pinus strobus) often develops a surface brown oxidative stain when kiln dried. Such stain downgrades high quality lumber and is most likely to occur when fresh, unseasoned lumber is stacked during warm weather prior to kiln drying. Use of reducing agents or pH alteration has been successful, but may have some practical limitations for general use. This study attempted to prevent browns...
E L Schmidt, E Christopherson, T L Highley, M H Freeman


Water-Borne Copper Naphthenate: An Emerging Wood Preservative
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30280
Waterborne copper naphthenate (WB Cu-N) was used to treat southern yellow pine (Pinus spp) and red maple (Acer rubrum) stakes. The treated stakes were exposed in test sites located in Florida, Michigan and Mississippi for 3 to 6 years. Copper Chromium Arsenate (CCA), Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ) and Oil-borne Copper Naphthenate (OB Cu-N) were also used to treat some stakes for comparison. Results...
P Nzokou, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman


Performance of copper naphthenate-treated hardwoods
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30269
Copper naphthenate (CuNap) is a historically proven, commercially produced and industry utilized preservative for many wooden commodities including poles, fence posts, lumber, timber and wood shakes/shingles. Historically, most wood preservatives are tested using the sapwood of softwood species like pine (Pinus spp.) and or Douglas-fir (Pseudosuga menziesii) and even though the railroads of the wo...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, H M Freeman, J A Brient


Sampling and analysis of NeXgen-treated timber
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20134
Green sawn timber surfaces of the softwood Caribbean pine and the hardwood white cheesewood were treated by dipping, spraying, and precise spiking with the antisapstain product NeXgen. After storing for either two hours or two weeks, the treated surfaces were sampled by one of four alternative protocols, which included two involving a square wad sampling punch (one hit or six hits), one involving ...
M J Kennedy, D E Ferlazzo, T L Woods, M H Freeman


Efficacy of waterborne copper naphthenate as preservative for northern hardwood species
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30091
Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and red maple (Acer rubrum) cubes pressure treated with waterborne formulation of copper naphthenate were evaluated for resistance to attack by brown fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr. (Madison 617 ATCC 11539) and Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke (Madison 698, ATCC 11538), white rot fungi Trametes versicolor (L. ex Fr.) Pilat (R-105 from Jeff Morrell), Irpex...
D P Kamdem, R Fair, M H Freeman


A comparison of analytical techniques
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20061
This paper compares carefully-controlled weight retentions and analysis by XRF, ICP, combustion methods and a new extraction procedure for the new preservative, Copper(II) Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC). Various experimental parameters such as particle size and drying conditions were investigated. In general, the correlations between and among the procedures are very high. The extraction-colorimet...
A C Gallacher, C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, D K Stokes, W B Smith


PXTS; A Metal Free Oligomer Wood Preserving System - A Summary of Data To Date
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30350
The world is continually looking for new wood preservative technology, especially to address environmental concerns. Recent changes in the USA have limited the use of arsenical containing formulations to industrial use through a negotiated voluntary cancellation of most residential label uses. PXTS (Polymeric Alkylphenol Polysulfide) offers a brand new technology that is an all organic system, lik...
M H Freeman, D D Nicholas, D Renz, R Buff


Bioefficacy of Cunapsol® treated western cedar and southern yellow pine
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30120
Western red cedar and southern yellow pine sapwood were dip treated with a new formulation of waterborne copper naphthenate (Cunapsol®) which complies with VOC regulations. Cunapsol dip treated samples were oven dried at 50°C for 48 hours and then water leached for two weeks. Decay resistance and leachability of preservatives from dip treated specimens were evaluated according to AWPA (American ...
D P Kamdem, M H Freeman, T L Woods


Assaying Pentachlorophenol-treated Wood Using XRF
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20362
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oil type on the performance of test posts treated with oil-penta and exposed in DeQueen, AR for forty years in ground contact. The original assays for the poles were done by lime ignition, a practice used sparingly today in treating plants or by independent inspectors, in part due to the complicated analysis procedure and chances for error. XRF ins...
H M Barnes, C R McIntyre, D W Bullock , M H Freeman, G B Lindsey


Permethrin: A Critical Review of an Effective Wood Preservative Insecticide
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30413
Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used in the wood preservation industry. The generally favorable environmental profile of pyrethroids coupled with their high efficacy led to their wide substitution of the chemically resistant organochlorines dieldrin, lindane, and chlordane formerly used for protection of buildings against wood destroying organisms. Much of the research on performance of perm...
M H Freeman, D N Obanda, T F Shupe


Use of Moisture Meters with Treated Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40382
Drying wood treated with waterborne preservatives after treatment to near outdoor EMC conditions improves its physical performance characteristics. This is primarily due to the reduced checking, splitting and warping which can occur when wet wood, particularly if restrained from shrinking by being nailed or otherwise fastened, shrinks in use. Monitoring of the drying process, rate, and end point...
W B Smith, Hwan Myeong Yeo, C Stark, B Morey, C Tascioglu, P Schneider, D Herdman, M Freeman


Biological efficacy of micronized copper systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30485
Soil block, fungal cellar and field stake test data will be presented for micronized copper systems. The copper portion of the formulations is present as a fine dispersion of "micro" particulates while the co-biocide is present as either a soluble quat or an azole containing emulsion. This testing generally used the amine based counterpart as the control preservative system and the micronized fo...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman


A Comprehensive Review of Copper as a Biocide, with a Focus on Micronized Copper
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30486
This paper reviews the wood preservative biocide active ingredient copper and delvers into new and previously unpublished data regarding the new micronized formulations which are now in vogue and widespread use in N. America in all residential treated lumber markets. Included in this review is the overall discussion of copper containing formulations used for pressure treated wood used over the las...
M H Freeman, C R McIntyre


Field Stake Performance of Parallel Strand Lumber Treated with Waterborne Copper Naphthenate
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40435
Wood and wood products have been considered a premium building material for residential and industrial structures for many centuries. More recently, structural composite lumber (SCL) products have played an increasing role in satisfying the needs of the building industry. However, both wood and wood composites are naturally biodegradable materials which require enhanced durability when used in ce...
G P Merrick, M H Freeman, J A Brient


The Form of Copper: Does It Really Matter?
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30513
In recent years, several micronized copper formulations for lumber treatment have supplanted the solubilized copper formulations that in turn replaced CCA after its voluntary relabeling in 2004. The micronized or dispersed copper systems use finely ground but solid copper particles and deposit those particles within the wood framework. In contrast, copper in the soluble formulations is relativel...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, T F Shupe, Q Wu, D P Kamdem


Performance of Fasteners in Treated Wood: A Comparative Study
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40465
Fastener performance is an important property for treated wood. Published data on screw and nail performance for different preservative systems currently on the market are, however, limited. In this study, screw and nail withdrawal strength for southern pine wood treated with ACQ (above ground and ground contact), MCQ (above ground and ground contact), borate (disodium octaborate tetrahydrate – ...
Q Wu, T Shupe, J Curole, K Ragon, M Voitier, M Freeman, D Ring


Termite Resistant Properties of Wood and Natural Fiber Plastic Composites - AWPA E1 Test Data
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40466
This paper deals with resistance properties of wood plastic composites against Formosan Subterranean Termites (FSTs) based on the AWPA E1 test standard. Sixteen laboratory WPC formulations, four WPC commercial materials, and southern pine (Pinus sp.) wood control were tested for termite mortality, sample weight loss, and sample damage rating. The results show that FSTs did attack WPC products in ...
Q Wu, T Shupe, J Curole, K Ragon, M Voitier, M Freeman, D Ring


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