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Long-Term Release of Arsenic, Chromium, and Copper from CCA-Treated Wood and Ash
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50227
In this study, laboratory long-term leaching studies were conducted to characterize the leaching behavior of arsenic, chromium, and copper from CCA-treated wood samples (block, chip, and sawdust) and CCA-wood ash and to determine the rate of release of the metals from the CCA wood products. The leaching solutions were periodically collected and analyzed for the concentrations of arsenic, chromium,...
Hyunmyung Yoon, Heeseok Kang, Yong-Chul Jang


Creosote movement from treated wood immersed in fresh water: Initial PAH migration
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50201
Creosote has a long history of successful use as a wood preservative, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this preservative have raised environmental concerns, particularly when creosote-treated wood is used in aquatic environments. A number of models have been developed to predict the risk of creosote use in aquatic environments, but one limitation of these models is a lack of data o...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell, J Simonsen, S T Lebow


Supercritical fluid impregnation of Douglas-fir heartwood with cyproconazole using temperature induced deposition
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40259
A limited understanding of the fundamental aspects of supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation in wood remains an obstacle to the development of this technology. Developing a better understanding of the effects of various process parameters on treatment results would facilitate more rational development of SCF impregnation. In this project, the effect of treating period and specimen length on su...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell


Biological Safety Evaluation of Animal Contact of Preservative-Treated Wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50196
Biological safety of preservative-treated woods that could be contacted to human and animal was evaluated for rat and rabbit exposed to CCA-, ACQ- and CCFZ-treated woods. The accumulation of preservatives ingredient in the rat’s plasma and viscera, and the transforming function of replacing preservatives were examined in this study. The result indicated that preservative-treated wood did not bri...
Dong-heub Lee, Dong-won Son, Myung Jae Lee, Chang Ho Kang, Cheon Ho Kim, Eui-Bai Jeung


Potential for using dip/supercritical fluid treatments for wood impregnation
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40276
While supercritical fluid impregnation offers tremendous potential for impregnating wood species that resist conventional liquid preservative treatments, the resulting treatments are often not uniform among samples in a charge or between charges. One factor that influences treatment is the dynamic change in pressure that occurs during introduction of the biocide laden supercritical fluid into the ...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell


Effect of humidity and temperature on fastener withdrawal resistance from CCA and ACZA treated Douglas-fir
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20209
The effects of preservative treatment on fastener withdrawal was investigated in Douglas-fir lumber conditioned to two moisture regimes. In general, conditioning samples to 19% moisture content produced more substantial changes in withdrawal resistance of galvanized fasteners than did conditioning to 12%. Treatment had little or no effect on withdrawal resistance of stainless steel fasteners. With...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell


Development of preservative treatment method using sub and super critical carbon dioxide
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40385
Significant efforts have been devoted for developing biocide impregnation method into wood materials using supercritical fluid. Developing better understandings of fluid phase and its effect on treatment results would facilitate a more rational development of supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation. In this project, the preservative treatabilities under super- and sub-critical fluid conditions we...
Myeung-Won Cho, Sung-Mo Kang, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Kd values of Cu, Cr, As in different soil matrix
2007 - IRG/WP 07-50247
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a long history of successful preservative, have raised environmental concerns. Adsorption characteristics of domestic soils for chromium, copper, and arsenic were assessed by measuring distribution coefficient (Kd) values of these metal components. The results revealed that Kd values were higher in chromium, followed by arsenic and copper in soil matrix. Different...
Sung-Mo Kang, Seung-Hun Shin, Ja-Oon Koo


Characterization of protein patterns from decayed wood of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) by proteomic analysis
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10654
The primary biotic decomposers of wood belong to the basidiomycetes. The members of this group can attack and biodegrade both wood in the forest and in service. By the time wood decay is visible, there has already been a significant loss of strength. The identification of basidiomycetes and other organisms on wood only tell us what is present, not what is actively decaying the wood. When organisms...
Young-Min Kang, L Prewitt, S Diehl


Effect of steam on fixation of Cu-amine preservative treated wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50251
The rates of copper fixation in copper amine preservative treated wood were investigated with different fixation conditions (20° with drying and 50° without drying) and post-steaming. We also measured the degree of leaching for other biocide components (azoles, quatz, and Cu-HDO). Treatments conditioned at 20° with drying required 50 days or more to fix in woods. While copper was stabilized i...
Sung-Mo Kang, In-Yong Hwang, Suk-Kuwon Kim


Wood Decay Research Using Molecular Procedures, What Can It Tell Us?
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10678
There are many unanswered questions in wood decay and protection research, and no single research technique will ever answer all of these questions. The process of wood decay is a very complex series of biochemical and chemical reactions that are heavily influenced by the hundreds of bacterial and fungal species found on environmental samples of wood. There are a variety of molecular techniques b...
S V Diehl, M. L Prewitt, Young-Min Kang, L Mangum, J D Tang


Gene expression of selected decay enzymes produced during biodeterioration of three wood types
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10702
Comparative studies were conducted on the expression of several decay enzyme genes during the decay of pine, cedar, and ACQ treated pine over 10 months. Measurements of MOE, decay rating, and moisture control were monitored for physical properties. Identification of decay fungi and the detection of decay enzymes were carried out before gene expression levels were measured. The MOE of wood stakes d...
Young-Min Kang, L Prewitt, S Diehl


The Present Situation and Future Development in Quality Assurance for Wood Protection in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20418
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the quality assurance program for wood protection industry in China in term of guiding policies, standardization and implementation activities. The potential deficiencies with the existing practices regarding to the quality of wood protection products and suggestions for the further research and development directions to improve the system are also dis...
Kang Hua Cheng


Structural changes, basidiomycete richness, enzyme activity and proteomic profiling of decay resistant and non-resistant woods over 18 months in soil contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10733
Wood decay fungi damage wood by production of enzymes that attack the structural components. The objective of this study was to better understand which suite of decay genes and proteins are expressed during biodeterioration of three different wood types in forest soil over time. Variation in decay genes and proteins were determined for pine (non-resistant), cedar (naturally durable), and ACQ-treat...
Youngmin Kang, S Diehl, L Prewitt, D Nicholas


Fire performance of the wood treated with retardant
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40591
To prepare the eco-friendly fire retardant wood, Japanese red pine (Pinus Densiflora), hemlock (Tsuga Heterophylla), and radiate pine (Pinus Radiata) were treated with inorganic chemicals, such as sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium boric acid. Different combination and concentration of those chemicals were injected by pressure treatment methods. The electron-beam treatment was used ...
Jong In Kim, Mi-ran kang, Sang bum Park, Dong won Son


Developing Analytical Methods for Determination of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (DDAC) using HPLC and HPLC-MS (Application to treating solution and preservatives treated wood)
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20516
Korea preservative treating industry has mainly used alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) expected over 80% of market share in Korea. ACQ employs dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) and benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (DBAC) for active ingredient along with copper. The strongly increasing domestic applications for wood preservatives require developing accurate and reproducible analytic...
Sung-Mo Kang, Kwon-Min Kim, Won-Mo Koo, Myeong-Won Cho


Effect of biodiesel on Performance of Isothiazolone
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30625
Biodiesel has a number of attractive properties, including the ability to readily solubilize a number of biocides and a tendency to reduce odors associated with other solvents such as petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesels, however, have also been implicated in reduced performance of some, but not all preservatives. It is important to assess the effects of biodiesel on each biocide. Soil block tests ...
Cheng Hua-Kang, L Jin, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Effect of electron beam irradiation on the fire retardant penetration into wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40642
Electron beam processing which can fast and easy change the nature of the material has received considerable attention recently. Studies using electron beam has been conducted in various fields and it has been applied in many industrial sectors. Electron beam has higher energy than other electromagnetic waves. It has excellent object permeability. It affects degradation of intermolecular cross-lin...
Dong won Son, Jong Sin Lee, Mee Ran Kang, Sang Bum Park