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Migration of Metals from Douglas-fir Lumber Treated with ACZA or Pentachlorophenol Using Best Management Practices: Preliminary Tests
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-4
The potential for migration of preservative components from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and pentachlorophenol treated Douglas-fir lumber in non-soil contact exposure was assessed in a simulated rainfall device. Metal levels from ACZA treated wood were elevated for the first 30 minutes of rainfall and then declined sharply. Repeated cycles of rainfall led to declines in initial metal l...
J J Morrell, Hua Chen, J Simonsen


Effect of borate on uptake and efficacy of an anti-sapstain treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30380
The potential for using borates to enhance uptake and efficacy of propiconazole-based anti-sapstain chemicals was assessed on ponderosa pine sapwood wafers. Borates had no consistent effect on either net solution absorption or propiconazole distribution in the wood. Even small amounts of borate, however, markedly improved the performance of propiconazole against fungal discoloration. These resul...
Jianju Luo, Hua Chen, J J Morrell


A fixation model, based on the temperature dependence of CCA-C fixation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40163
A model was prepared for the fixation of 1% CCA-C in red pine that allows the prediction of extent of fixation based on the temperature history of the treated wood following pressure treatment. The reaction kinetics of the rapid initial reaction and the slower main reaction were characterized using the Van t'Hoff equation. The initial reaction could be represented by a 10th order chemical...
P A Cooper, K M F Kazi, Jianbin Chen, Y T Ung


Tests on the effectiveness of concentrated borate wood preservative
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30500
Tests were carried out to examine the toxicity of concentrated borate wood preservative to termites, fungi and mammals. The results showed that the preservative treated timber had high resistance to termite or decay and its acute oral toxicity belonged to low grade. The research shows that concentrated borate solution is an environmentally sound preservative and can be used in non-pressure treatin...
Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Xie Guijun, Chen Lifang, He Xuexiang


Heat transfer and wood moisture effects in moderate temperature fixation of CCA treated wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40022
Practical aspects of heat transfer and fixation of wood exposed to drying conditions after CCA treatment are considered. The rates of heat transfer and CCA fixation are substantially influenced by the cooling effect of water evaporating from the wood surface when drying occurs during fixation. At least in the early stages of fixation, the wood temperature approaches the wet bulb temperature, rathe...
J Chen, M Kaldas, Y T Ung, P A Cooper


Regulation of hyphal sheath formation iron-chelator production by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10074
Hyphal sheath formation and iron-chelator production by liquid cultures of the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta were monitored over time. The effects of incubation at various temperatures, pH's and concentrations of iron, manganese and nitrogen were determined. Hyphal sheath production was observed microscopically and quantified with JAVA video analysis. The hyphal...
Y Chen, J Jellison


Feeding stimulants to enhance bait acceptance by Formosan termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10055
Four nitrogenous compounds were found to increase feeding by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in the laboratory. Cardboard disks dipped in urea solutions were consumed significantly more than untreated cardboard disks. Cardboard dipped in 8% urea showed a significant change in weight due to termite feeding over other urea treated cardboards. Examination of 15 amino acids in no choice feeding tests i...
G Henderson, M Kirby, J Chen


An immunoassay for benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride, a multipurpose disinfectant and fungicide
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30149
A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), based on polyclonal antibodies, was developed to measure benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride (BDDAC). The anti-BDDAC polyclonal antibodies recognized free BDDAC in an indirect competitive ELISA. The detection limit. based on the 20% inhibition (IC20), was 0.18 µg/ml and the 50% inhibition (IC50) was 1.1 µg/ml. The antibodies recognised ...
J Bull, A N Serreqi, Tao Chen, C Breuil


Wood cement composites using spent CCA treated wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50126
The feasibility of using spent or out-of-service CCA treated wood as a component of wood/cement composites was evaluated. Cold pressed wood particle cement boards were made using CCA treated particles from a red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) pole removed from service and from untreated red pine wood from a new pole. Boards were manufactured using a range of wood to cement ratios and water to cement r...
Chen Huang, P A Cooper


New research data confirming the suitability of bifenthrin as a wood preservative
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30116
Bifenthrin has been further tested against wood destroying insects, and its behaviour in wood has been extensively studied. Bifenthrin proved to be highly effective as a curative and preventative treatment against Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus, after both leaching and evaporative ageing. Results of penetration tests with water and solvent based formulations, applied by brushing, dipping...
S Shires, P Héloir, B Chen, G Rustenburg


The Present Situation and Future Development in Quality Assurance for Wood Protection in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20418
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the quality assurance program for wood protection industry in China in term of guiding policies, standardization and implementation activities. The potential deficiencies with the existing practices regarding to the quality of wood protection products and suggestions for the further research and development directions to improve the system are also dis...
Kang Hua Cheng


Mold-resistance Effect of Bamboo Wood Treated with CCC-organic Complexes
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30514
Mold resistant effect of CCA, ACQ, CuAz, CCC and the compound of CCC and propiconazole were researched on bamboo wood of Phyllostachys pubescens were reported in this paper. Results showed that all of the test fungicides could protect bamboo wood better from Penicillam citrinum than from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger. The complex of CCC and propiconazole had the best resisting effect on...
Sun Fangli, Yang Le, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Li Qiao


Extensive review of fire-retardant wood composites researches
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40471
The increased demand for public safety has led to greater interest in fire retardant materials in the recently years. Legislation relating to safety in the home, in work locations, on transport facilities and in public places continues to produce new regulation. There is average 524 thousand structure fires occurred every year in US, 3757 civilian in death, about 20 thousand civilian in juries, di...
Zhilin Chen, Zhiyong Cai, Feng Fu


The natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 bamboo species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10708
Tests on the natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 common bamboo species were conducted. The results showed that there was a linear relation between bamboo density and its preservative retention by mass, and the preservative retention of bamboo reduced while its density increased. The test also showed that there were significant differences in the natural durability of bamboos, bu...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


Grading the Performance of 18 Common Bamboo Species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10723
A grading method for assessing the performance of 18 common bamboo species was introduced in this article. The method was based on 4 grade levels with corresponding scores of 4 reference indexes of bamboos including culm diameter, culm-wall thickness, natural durabiliy and preservative treatability. In comparison with the traditional utlilization of bamboo, the grading results showed that this gra...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


Laboratory evaluation of borate amine: Copper derivatives in wood for fungal decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30543
The aims of this study were to evaluate borate: amine: copper derivatives in wood for fungal decay protection as well as the permanence of copper and boron in wood. Wood treated with each of four derivatives of borate:amine:copper prevented fungal decay. Disodium tetraborate ecahydrate (Borax):amine:copper derivatives with retentions of 0.61 to 0.63% after water leaching prevented decay by Gloeo...
G Chen


Study on the thickness swelling of mould-resistant chemical treated bamboo strand woven outdoor flooring
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40489
To prevent bamboo strand woven flooring from mould, several preservatives were chosen to treat bamboo strand before dipping into adhesives and pressing. The thickness swelling and mould resistant effect of the finished board were studied. Results showed that different preservatives had different influences on the thickness swelling of BSWF, and in order to reduce the thickness swelling of the fini...
Fangli Sun, Binfu Bao, Shenyuan Fu, Anliang Chen


Theoretic discussion on the way and driving forces of moisture migration in wood during vacuum drying
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40538
Most of parameters in conventional drying cannot explain a lot of phenomena appeared in vacuum condition, so it is necessary to further explore the moisture migration way and driving forces in wood under vacuum condition. For the water movement channel in wood is very narrow, the characteristic of heat and mass transfer in wood is similar to that in microscale. This article applies theory of liqui...
Zhengbin He, Xueli Yao, Liqiong Chen, Songlin Yi


Mould resistance of bamboo timber treated with tebuconazole-loaded micells
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30586
In this paper both anti-mould test through inhibition zone and mould resistance test on bamboo samples were carried out evaluate mould resistant effect of tebuconazole (TBA) loaded micells. Results showed that TBA loaded micells prepared with a ratio of TBA to PEG113-b-PCL28 50:25 had the best mould resistance, followed by micells prepared with a ratio of TBA to PEG113-b-PCL28 50:50. PEG113-b-PCL2...
Sun Fangli, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Zhou Yueying, Zhang Shaoyong, Zhang Xu


Effect of biodiesel on Performance of Isothiazolone
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30625
Biodiesel has a number of attractive properties, including the ability to readily solubilize a number of biocides and a tendency to reduce odors associated with other solvents such as petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesels, however, have also been implicated in reduced performance of some, but not all preservatives. It is important to assess the effects of biodiesel on each biocide. Soil block tests ...
Cheng Hua-Kang, L Jin, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Influence of selected additives on organic fungicides for control of bamboo mold fungi
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30626
In order to assess the long-term efficacy of supplemented organic fungicides in outdoor applications, additives - including the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and a UV absorber and free radical scavenger benzotriazole (BTA), were selected to mix with the fungicides propiconazole or tebuconazole. Freshly cut samples from four-year old bamboo stems were treated with combinations of the c...
Sun Fangli, B Goodell, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Zhang Shaoyong


Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40655
The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by weight HDPE and WF, first com...
R E Ibach, Yao Chen, N M Stark, M A Tshabalala, Yongming Fan, Jianmin Gao


Study of in-situ gel polymerization established by Si-O-Si framework within wood micropores
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40672
Sodium silicate was used to form Si–O–Si framework by gel process and optimize the effect of the methylolurea impregnation on poplar wood. The modifier cured within the wood micropores by in-situ gel polymerization during the kiln drying. The results showed that treated wood acquired higher mechanical strength, but lower hygroscopicity. New positions of the XRD peaks appeared which caused by s...
Zeng Bi, Qian Lang, Heyu Chen, Junwen Pu


A Green and Novel Technology for Recovering Copper and Wood from Treated Waste - Part I
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50309
Preservative treatment of wood extends its service life. The US consumes about 70 million pounds of copper and produces about 7 billion board feet of treated wood annually. Burning and reusing CCA and copper treated wood wastes are disallowed by US EPA due to health and environmental concerns. Millions of pounds of copper and wood are disposed by landfill annually. The objective of this study was...
S Chen


Modifying wood with paraffin wax emulsion impregnation and thermal modification: hydrophobization effect and mechanism of the combined treatment
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40726
The aim of this study was to enhance the water repellency of wood by a combined treatment of paraffin wax emulsion (PWE) impregnation and thermal modification. Two different treating procedures were used to modify the southern pine (pinus spp.). One is first PWE impregnation and then thermal modification, another is first thermal modification and then PWE impregnation. The treated samples were imm...
Wang Wang, Jinzhen Cao, Cong Chen


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