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Sample Origin Influencing the Leachability of Wood Preservatives
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20474
The aim of this study is to see if the raw material influences fixation and leachability of wood preservatives. Moving towards more eco-friendly and –concious society, the wood industries must adjust itself to new rules and regulations. Greener solutions in wood protection are being tested and introduced, older systems are being improved, but questions still arise concerning some elements curren...
K Kängsepp. E Larnøy, P Meier


Chitosan for wood protection - state of the art
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30378
The aim of this paper was to give a state of the art description of chitosan as a wood protecting agent. Chitosan is a metal free natural compound derived from crustacean shells and is under evaluation as an environmentally benign wood protecting agent. Information from journals states that chitosan may act both fungistatically and at higher concentrations, as fungitoxic, but the mode of action is...
M Eikenes, G Alfredsen, E Larnøy, H Militz, B Kreber, C Chittenden


Solution stability and Mechanical properties of Chitosan treated Pine
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30377
During the last years the research on chitosan as a wood preservative has been enhanced. Up to now, most of the research has been applied to the anti-fungal properties of chitosan, and no research was conducted on the solution stability of chitosan solutions in repeated trials by impregnation of wood, or on the mechanical properties of chitosan-treated wood. In this paper, the stability of high- a...
E Larnøy, M Eikenes, H Militz


Moisture correction for ultrasonic MOE measurements above fibre saturation point in Scots pine sapwood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20333
There is a high correlation between methods for dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) and static modulus of elasticity (MOEstat). MOEdyn methods have been found sensitive to detect early stages of decay and may be seen as an option for non-destructive wood durability testing. As the MOEstat measurements do not change after reaching the fibre saturation point, the uncorrected MOEdyn data from ultr...
E Larnøy, G Alfredsen, H Militz


Microwave curing of furfuryl alcohol modified wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40371
Furfurylated wood has shown to have promising properties for a wood modification agent during the last years. In this paper, an alternative curing method for furfuryl alcohol modified pine sapwood by means of microwave radiation was investigated. Different process parameters of microwave treatment such as output power, exposure time to microwave radiation, initial wood moisture content and evapor...
A Treu, E Larnøy, H Militz


Wood furfurylation process development. Part 1: Oscillating Pressure Method
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40376
Furfurylated wood (wood modified by furfuryl alcohol) has over the last years gained marked shares from both tropical wood and conventional preservative treated wood and this has, in turn, generated several research projects concerning process development. The impregnation of spruce is well known from literature to be a difficult task. Furthermore, the sapwood of Scandinavian-grown Scots pine is a...
E Larnøy, M Westin, B Källander, S Lande


Wood furfurylation process development. Part 2: Lowry impregnation trials
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40377
The objective was to evaluate whether Lowry-impregnation of Scots pine with FA100-mix, instead of the FA40-mix, would lead to similar or slightly higher WPGs and to investigate any potential changes in penetration pattern. The results indicate that the penetration was better, also penetrating the outer zone of the heartwood. Furthermore, it was possible to reduce the WPG-levels for pine down to 50...
M Westin, E Larnøy, S Lande


Variations of Furfuryl alcohol and Wolmanit CX-8 treatability of pine sapwood within and between trees
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40421
The variations on the ratio of filling (RoF) were investigated on Norwegian grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). The samples were taken from 10 different stands in south-east Norway, and treated with furfuryl alcohol and a copper-containing wood preservative. Both within tree variations, between tree variations and variations between stands were investigated for significant differences. Factors li...
E Larnøy, S Lande, G I Vestøl


Assessment of mould growth on coated wood - methods and application
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20423
Discolouring fungi reduce the service life of coated wooden claddings in façades and increase the total cost of ownership due to shorter maintenance intervals. The project “Enhanced service life on coated wooden facades” has as its main objective to develop new methods for early prediction of durability and longer aesthetic service life of coated wooden cladding related to consumer needs and ...
L Ross Gobakken, C M Whist, O Høibø, P J Hovde, E Larnøy


Wood properties influencing the penetration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood with the wood modification agent furfuryl alcohol
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40470
The European standard EN 350-2 classifies Scots pine sapwood as class 1 (easy to treat). However large variations in sapwood penetration exist which affect a homogenous distribution of preservatives. Hence individual penetration schemes have to be developed and adjusted to the material most difficult to treat in order to provide adequate sapwood penetration. To ensure better economic process con...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, G Koch


Trace chemicals used for studying fluid permeability of wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20442
Wood is a construction material and in its natural condition vulnerable to biological decay caused by fungi, insects and bacteria. To facilitate its outdoor application, wood protection systems are applied since ages. In the course of restrictions for well established but hazardous wood protection treatments, newer systems get utilized. Its uniform allocation within the wooden matrix is essential ...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, O Høibø


Wood protection by means of electro osmotic pulsing technology (PLEOT)
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40505
Wood protection is mainly based on chemical protection of wood. The disposal of wood preservative treated material causes restrictions in its later use or recirculation into the eco-cycle. A new protective system, electro-osmotic pulsing technology on wood, called PLEOT, is tested in a fungi test and in soil contact. Mass loss and moisture content of Scots pine sapwood samples was calculated after...
A Treu, E Larnøy


Quantification of four dark colored mould fungi by real time PCR
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10754
Coated wooden claddings in building facades are widely used in the Scandinavian countries, and are often preferred to other materials. Wood is facing increasing competition from other materials that are less labor intensive at the construction site and materials with less demand for maintenance thru service life, and makes further development of wooden claddings essential. Growth of discoloring mo...
E Larnøy, L Ross Gobakken, A M Hietala


Slice - Cut and Analyze Laser Microdissection (LMD): A method to produce sample material from modified wood for chemical quality analysis
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20478
Wood modification with its various systems is an established way to enhance a wood products’ service life in outdoor applications. Per definition, selected material properties are enhanced by means of modification without producing toxic substances or residues during service life and combustion afterwards. The systems of impregnation modification include a physical and often chemical alteration ...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, A Treu, M Fongen


Challenges and new developments in testing electro osmotic pulsing technology (PLEOT) by means of conventional laboratory methods
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40555
A new wood protection system, electro-osmotic pulsing technology, called PLEOT, is tested in lab trials using different test setup. The technology is tested on Scots pine sapwood and beech wood samples exposed to brown- and white rot fungi. Mass loss and moisture content is calculated after testing and a chitin analysis are performed on the sample powder. Two different electrodes are used in ord...
A Treu, E Larnøy


Treatability variation of scots pine heartwood from Northern Europe
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40563
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most common construction materials for general exterior applications in northern Europe. It has a wide natural geographical distribution, a good availability and it is low-priced compared to other materials. According to EN 350-2 Scots pine heartwood is considered being “untreatable” and having durability class 3. This means that its durability co...
G Behr, E Larnøy, C-T Bues


Utilization of TG-DSC to study thermal degradation of beech and silver fir
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40628
Thermal treatment of wood is, besides other wood modification system, used to improve the decay resistance and dimensional stability. However, the chemical changes that are caused by treatment process are still difficult to quantify, characterize and control. Previous studies have shown that thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS is an attractive tool to characterize and quantify products formed during...
K Candelier, A Treu, J Dibdiakova, E Larnøy, A Petrissans, S Dumarçay, M Pétrissans, P Gérardin


A screening of factors that might influence the result of laboratory decay tests
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20548
Laboratory fungal decay tests provide important tools for performance testing of wood materials. But they are also hampered with some uncertainties regarding reproducibility. In addition to variation between fungal species and strains the test conditions are also believed to have some influence. The aim of this study was to screen the effect of a selection of test parameters that might influence t...
E Larnøy, G Alfredsen, A Treu, S Kolstad


A guideline for sorting easy to impregnate Scots pine sapwood based on three treatability studies from Northern Europe
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40669
Scots pine sapwood is generally considered an easy to impregnate wood species, though it reportedly faces challenges towards a homogeneous impregnation and large variations in treatability are reported for the material. This study comprises the results of three treatability tests that were performed on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood. The material impregnated was originated from a large ...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, A Treu


Accessibility of hydroxyl groups in anhydride modified wood as measured by deuterium exchange
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40784
Acetylated wood shows improved properties largely due to the reduced amount of water in the acetylated cell wall. However, the exact mechanism by which water is excluded in acetylated wood remains unclear. Acetylation reduces hydroxyl content by substitution of hydroxyl groups in wood polymers but may also hinder access to unmodified hydroxyls by physical bulking. This work assesses hydroxyl acces...
G Beck, S Strohbusch, E Larnøy, H Militz, C Hill


Hibernation or spring awakening? – The research on wood durability and protection in marine environment
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10929
Wooden structures in marine applications are exposed to severe degradation conditions caused by mechanical loads and wood degrading organisms. The present paper presents the use of wood in marine environments in Europe from a wood protection perspective and gives an overview over relevant research topics. It compiles the most relevant literature with an emphasis on new wood protection methods and ...
A Treu, K Zimmer, C Brischke, E Larnøy, L R Gobakken, F Aloui, S M Cragg, P-O Flæte, M Humar, M Westin


An examination of the potential for the use of the Maillard reaction to modify wood
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40829
Finding efficient ways to decrease wood decay caused by fungi and increasing its dimensional stability is an important issue in the timber construction. A possible way to avoid wood decay by fungi is by reducing the water content of wood, since water is a primary condition for fungal growth. Bulking of the wood cell wall by chemical reagents occupies the space where water normally occurs. At the s...
K Peeters, E Larnøy, A Kutnar, Č Tavzes, C A S Hill


Polyesterification of wood using sorbitol and citric acid under aqueous conditions
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40851
The aim of this research is to determine if the polyesterification of sorbitol and citric acid in wood has a future potential as a wood modification process. Pine wood was impregnated with an aqueous solution containing citric acid and sorbitol and was thereafter cured at 103, or 140°C for 18 hours. The dimensional stability and leaching resistance were studied for both modification temperatures....
E Larnøy, A Karaca, L R Gobakken, C A S Hill


Water interactions in wood polyesterified with sorbitol and citric acid
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40888
Polyesterifcation of wood with sorbitol and citric acid seems to be a promising chemical wood modification technique that is both low-cost and produced from bio-based chemicals. An interesting aspect of the modification is the interaction of water with the polyesterified wood since the relationship with moisture appears to be unique compared to other wood modification systems. This communication p...
G Beck, A Treu, E Larnøy


A summary of decay performance with citric acid and sorbitol modification
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40898
Application of wood-based products as construction materials is one piece of the big puzzle to mitigate climate change. Wood is susceptible to biological deterioration. Environmentally motivated legislation is making the use of biocides less attractive from a commercial perspective. Ideally, a wood modification technology should be of low cost, water based and make use of thermal curing. This rese...
G Alfredsen, E Larnøy, G Beck, J Biørnstad, L R Gobakken, C A S Hill, A Treu


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