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The leachability, biological resistance, and mechanical properties of wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) treated with CCA and CCB preservatives
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30207
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens treated with CCA and CCB preservative solutions (1.0%) were subjected to several fixation processes and leached elements from the specimens were determined. In addition, the specimens exposed to different fixation temperatures were subjected to soil-block test using two brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungus in order to investigate the effects of fixati...
S N Kartal


Effect of EDTA on removal of CCA from treated wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50182
Since substantial amounts of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) remain in the wood for many years, the disposal of CCA-treated wood causes escalating environmental concerns. Additionally, wood waste is generated when treated wood is put into service, for which environmentally benign disposal technologies need to be developed. Novel approaches to remove copper, chromium, and arsenic from CCA-treated w...
S N Kartal


300 years water-logged wood: Treatability with CCA-C
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40103
The treatability of 300 years water-logged and recent wood (Abies bornmülleriana M.) was assessed by dip treatment and vacuum and pressure cycling with CCA-C. Treatment runs were evaluated on the basis of weight gain retention and radial and tangential penetration measurements. The preservative penetration and retention levels in the 300 years water-logged wood were higher than in the recent wood...
S N Kartal, N Yilgör


Leaching characteristics, decay and termite resistance of treated wood with boron compounds, N'-N-(1,8-Naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA-Na), and hydroxynaphthalimide (NHA-H)
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30307
Despite many advantages of boron wood preservatives, boron itself does not adequately protect wood in ground contact and exterior applications because its natural diffusibility and susceptibility to leaching. As a result of previous studies to limit or decrease boron leaching, several fixation systems have been developed. In this study, we evaluated the effects of N'-N-(1, 8-Naphthalyl) h...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura


Fungal remediation of CCA-treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50210
This study evaluates oxalic acid accumulation and bioremediation chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood by three brown-rot fungi, Fomitopsis palustris, Coniophora puteana, and Laetiporus sulphureus and ten mold and staining fungi, Aspergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans, Gliocladium virens, Penicillium funiculosum, Rhizopus javanicus, Ceratocystis pilifera, C. peceae, Alternaria alternata...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura


Remediation of CCA-treated wood by chitin and chitosan
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50229
Chitin and chitosan are naturally abundant biopolymers which are interest of to research concerning the sorption of metal ions since the amine and hydroxyl groups on their chemical structures act as chelation sites for metal ions. This study evaluated the removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic elements from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood via biosorption by chitin and chitosan. Expo...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura


Removal of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA treated wood using boron compounds
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50230
This study evaluates the copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) removal from CCA treated wood using boron compounds such as boric acid, borax (sodium tetraborate), and Timbor (DOT, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) at varying (3 and 5%) concentrations. Remediation processes were taken at 1, 5 and 10 day intervals. Metals in remediated chips or sawdust were then analyzed using ICP and XRF. Res...
B Tarakanadha, T Hata, S N Kartal, W J Hwang, Y Imamura


Decay and termite resistance of wood treated with boron-containing quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) incorporated with acryl-silicon type resin
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30334
This study evaluates the decay and termite resistance of surface-treated wood with didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) incorporated with acryl-silicon type resin emulsion. DBF is a quaternary ammonia compound and contains boric tetrafluoride (BF4-) as a counter ion in its chemical structure. In the study, DBF was incorporated with an acryl-silicon type resin to increase water-resista...
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, K Shinoda, Y Imamura


Properties of particleboard made from recycled CCA-treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50146
Recovery of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood for reuse ha s been the focus of several international research groups due to the imminent disposal problem created when large quantities of CCA-treated wood ultimately come out of service. Bioleaching with Bacillus licheniformis CC01 and oxalic acid extraction are two methods known to remove significant quantities of metals from CCA-treated...
C A Clausen, S N Kartal, J H Muehl


Effect of compression wood on leaching of chromium, copper, and arsenic from CCA-C treated red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30232
In this study, the effect of compression wood formation on the release rate of chromium, copper, and arsenic elements from red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait) was investigated. Wood blocks from red pine containing compression and normal wood portions were treated with a 1.0% CCA-C solution and were then allowed to fix at 23 ± ??2°C (74 ± 4°F) for 0, 6, 24, 48, 96, 192, and 336 hours. After each fixa...
S N Kartal, S T Lebow


The content and mobility of copper, chromium and arsenic in the soil of a wood preserving plant using CCA
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50122
Analyses were carried out on soil and water samples obtained from a wood preserving plant using CCA-type preservatives. The plant has been in operation since 1969. The soil samples were obtained on 8 points from 4 different depths. The estimation of the type of soil was followed by investigations of copper, chromium and arsenic contents, and the mobility of these elements. The soil samples were al...
N Erdin, S N Kartal, A Dilek Dogu, M O Engür


Accidental mold/termite testing of high density fiberboard (HDF) treated with borates and N’N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA)
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10462
High density fibreboard (HDF) was made from beech and pine furnish (50:50) and treated with boric acid (0.1-3%), borax (0.1-3%) or N'-N-(1,8-naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA) (0.1-1%) prior to gluing with urea formaldehyde (UF) resin in order to determine resistance to Eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar), the most economically important termite species in North Am...
S N Kartal, H H Burdsall Jr, F Green III


Preliminary evaluation of new quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate for preventing fungal decay and termite attack
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30375
This study evaluates the decay and termite resistance of wood treated with didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF), a recently developed quaternary ammonia compound containing boron. DBF contains boric tetrafluoride as a counter ion in its chemical structure. Laboratory decay resistance tests were performed using brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris and white-rot fungus, Trametes versi...
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, Y Imamura


Effect of remediation on the release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from particleboard made from CCA treated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50170
This study sought to determine the effect of remediation with oxalic acid (OA) extraction and Bacillus licheniformis fermentation on the release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from particleboard made from remediated wood particles and also investigates durability of the particleboard against white and brown- rot fungi. Particleboard samples were manufactured using untreated, CCA-treated, OA-extr...
S N Kartal, C A Clausen


Effects of hard water, sea water and humic acid on the release of CCA components from treated wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50228
Leaching medium is an important factor affecting release of preservative components from treated wood because physical and chemical characteristics of medium increase or decrease the solubility of fixed preservative components. This study evaluated the leaching properties of copper, chromium and arsenic elements from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood specimens subjected to laboratory le...
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, Y Imamura


Biological resistance of didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF)-treated wood in soil-bed and Basidiomycetes tests
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30393
This study evaluated the decay resistance of treated wood with a new quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) in laboratory soil bed and Basidiomycetes tests. Treated sugi sapwood specimens with DBF at various concentration levels were first subjected to soil bed tests using two types of soil. The specimens subjected to soil bed tests were then used for Basidi...
S N Kartal, C Brischke, A O Rapp, Y Imamura


Synthesis of boric acid ammonium oleate salt for wood preservation: Leachability and termite resistance test
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30435
A new chemical compound coupling boric acid and oleic acid through a joint of ammonium salt has been produced and its synthesis followed and validated by Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR). This compound named ammonium borate oleate (BAO) combining biocidal properties of boron and water repellence of fatty acids has then been studied as a wood preservative. Synthesis of BAO involved different...
F Lyon, A Pizzi, Y Imamura, M F Thevenon, S N Kartal, J Gril


Mold resistance of heat-treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40358
The resistance of heat-treated sugi sapwood against three mold fungi was evaluated. Wood specimens were first subjected to heat treatments at 180 and 220ºC for 2 and 4 hours. Mold growth on the surface of the specimens was measured 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the inoculation with the fungi in laboratory conditions. Laboratory decay tests were performed using two brown and white-rot fungi along with...
S N Kartal


Brief introduction of a research project on the wood materials from an ancient Byzantine port unearthed during drilling for underground rail tunnel in Istanbul
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10641
A research project has been recently started to evaluate some properties of wooden materials from the biggest port of ancient times called Port of Theodosius I in Istanbul, Turkey. The ruins of the ancient Byzantine port during the excavations were recently uncovered in the Yenikapi site where an underground rail tunnel construction has been in progress in Istanbul. The wooden objects unearthed fr...
A D Dogu, C Köse, S N Kartal, N Erdin


Preliminary evaluation of efficacy of copper in combination with boron and NHA (N'-N-(1, 8-naphthalyl) hydroxylamine) against wood decay
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30452
In this study, efficacy of various combinations of copper sulfate with either boric acid or calcium precipitating agent, NHA-Na (N'-N-(1, 8-naphthalyl) hydroxylamine) was evaluated. Wood specimens were treated with either 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% concentrations of copper sulfate, boric acid, NHA-Na, copper sulfate + boric acid, or copper sulfate + NHA-Na mixtures. Treated specimens were subjecte...
E Terzi, C Köse, S N Kartal


Preliminary investigation of biological resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed pine wood panels
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40396
Wood can be modified by compressive, thermal and chemical treatments. Compression of wood under thermal conditions is resulted in densification of wood. This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels at either 5 or 7 MPa and at either 120 or 150?C for one hour. The process caused increases in density and decreases in thickness of the panels; however, lab...
Ö Ünsal, S N Kartal, Z Candan, R Arango, C A Clausen, F Green III


Thermal behavior of zinc borate-treated wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30511
The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal behavior of zinc borate (ZnB)-treated solid wood by thermal analysis (TA). Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curves obtained from TA showed that ZnB-treated wood specimens had higher char yields and lower maximum thermal decomposition temperature than untreated wood specimens. Reducing thermal decomposition temp...
E Terzi, H Sutcu, S N Kartal


Modification of Wood by a Water-Repellent Compound Used in the Textile Industry: Boron Release and Termite Resistance
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40447
In the study, wood specimens were treated with disodium octoborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and a commercial water and oil repellent compound, FORGUARD M®, a weak cationic emulsion containing dipropylene glycol monomethylether, water and solids in its formulation and used in the textile industry. There were two different processes for preservative treatments: double and single treatments. The leaching ...
S N Kartal, E Terzi, B Erilkun, Y Imamura


Biological performance of wood treated with tar-oil recovered during slow pyrolysis of macadamia nut shells
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30523
This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of wood treated with tar oil obtained from a commercial pyrolysis process of macadamia nut shells. Vacuum-treated pine wood specimens were subjected to various brown and white rot fungi based on the soil-block test method specified by the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) after leaching process. Treated specimens were also subjected to th...
S Nami Kartal, E Terzi, C Kose, J Hofmeyr, Y Imamura


Decay and termite resistance of particleboard and MDF panels made from pinecones
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40493
Particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels were produced by using pinecone from stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) tress and wood particles from pine and beech wood at various ratios. Specimens from the panels were subjected to slightly modified soil-block tests according to AWPA E10-06 standard method by using two brown-rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta and two white rot ...
C Köse, E Terzi, Ü Büyüksar, Erkan Avcı, Nadir Ayrılmış, S Nami Kartal, Y Imamura


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