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The importance of proper taxonomic identification, a case study with Reticulitermes spp. from USA
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10774
Taxonomy has been evolving with recent advancement in molecular and internet technologies. The importance of a stable taxonomic foundation is unquestionable as this science provides crucial information about evolutionary relationships and allows questions about the life history and ecology of organisms to be asked. We hope to highlight the issues and lessons we have learned from revising the taxon...
Su Yee Lim, B T Forschler


Evidence supporting the use of termite baiting systems for long-term structural protection
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10377
The efficacy of the Sentricon Colony Elimination System containing Recruit II termite bait (0.5% hexaflumuron) in controlling active subterranean termite infestations has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This baiting system and other termite baiting systems are now widely used, and generally accepted, tools for remedial termite control in North America, Hawaii, and other parts of the world. ...
J K Grace, N-Y Su


Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supress...
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III


Studies on the foraging of subterranean termites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10345
To study the foraging galleries of subterranean termites in soil, early researchers painstakingly excavated underground tunneling system of these cryptic insects. Erhorn (1934) listed a report by Oahu Sugar Co., Ltd. in 1928 showing that runway of Coptotermes formosanus may extend up to 50 m long and 0.3 - 3 m deep. Ratcliffe & Greaves (1940) who excavated foraging galleries of Coptotermes lac...
N-Y Su


Tests on the effectiveness of concentrated borate wood preservative
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30500
Tests were carried out to examine the toxicity of concentrated borate wood preservative to termites, fungi and mammals. The results showed that the preservative treated timber had high resistance to termite or decay and its acute oral toxicity belonged to low grade. The research shows that concentrated borate solution is an environmentally sound preservative and can be used in non-pressure treatin...
Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Xie Guijun, Chen Lifang, He Xuexiang


Oxygen index levels and thermal analysis of wood treated with melamine-formaldehyde-boron combinations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30135
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin was impregnated into scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens with aqueous solutions of 5, 10 and 20% concs. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) was added to MF resin at the concentration levels of 0.25, 1.00 and 4.70% to each level of resin concs. BA and BX mixture was prepared at the 5:1 (w/w) ratio considering resultant pH of solutions and better fire resistance. U...
M K Yalinkilic, W-Y Su, Z Demirci, E Baysal, M Takahashi, S Ishihara


Differences in feeding activity among colonies of Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1983 - IRG/WP 1202
Feeding activities of 7 colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined. Wood-consumption rates among colonies differed significantly, ranging from 23.80-78.48 mg/g/day. This large intraspecific variation raised a question of whether differences in feeding activity reported for other termite species were due to interspecific differences. When rates were...
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Methods for testing fumigant efficacies against termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1297
Methodologies for testing fumigants against termites are reviewed and factors needed to be taken under consideration for standardization listed. Toxicity should be defined by both direct exposure to the gas and under more practical "barrier" conditions which include test enclosures simulating abiotic surroundings of the termites, i.e. wood, nest material, etc. To observe latent effects, mortality ...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


A behavioral assay for measuring feeding deterrency of a slow-acting biocide, A-9248, against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1988 - IRG/WP 1366
Concentration-dependent feeding deterrency of a slow-acting compound, A-9248 (diiodomethyl para-tolyl sulfone) was studied in a choice test against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. A-9248 was a feeding deterrent at concentrations ³8,000 ppm. Initially, Coptotermes formosanus fed on wood treated with 1,000-6,000 ppm A-9248 but learned to avoid the treatment as a r...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


Incorporation of phenyl boronic acid treatment with vapor phase formalization
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40083
Phenylboronic acid (PBA) treatment was incorporated with vapor phase formalization (VPF) in order to increase dimensional stability and boron fixation as well as enhancement of biological resistance. Five and ten hours VPF were applied after PBA treatment as 0.34, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00% concs. aqueous solutions. Anti swelling efficiency (ASE) attended to 71% in specimens impregnated with 0.50% PBA s...
M K Yalinkilic, S Yusuf, T Yoshimura, W-Y Su, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi


Wood protection by surface treatment of two borate preservatives, TIM-BOR® and BORA-CARE®, for the formosan subterranean termite and eastern subterrean termite
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10044
TIM-BOR® (disodium octaborate tetrahydrate: DOT, Na2B8O134H2O) and BORA-CARE® (40% DOT in ethylene glycol) are two borate products marketed for treating wood in use by brushing or spraying onto the wood surface. The active ingredients presumably diffuse into wood by the 10-15% existing wood moisture. Few data, however, are available to demonstrate the diffusion rate. Su & Scheffrahn (1991) s...
M Toroko, N-Y Su


A rapid method for collecting large numbers of subterranean termites from wood
1982 - IRG/WP 1165
A corrugated fiberboard trap is described which attracts large numbers of subterranean termites from infested logs. Single-trap collections in excess of 63 grams (wet wt.) for Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) and 43 grams for Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were taken one to three days following discovery by termites. If traps are removed from the source logs shortly after beeing attacked, termite...
J P La Fage, N-Y Su, M Jones, T Lawrence


Estimates of wood-consumption rates by termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1201
Effects of 2 components; termite-biomass and experiment duration on estimates of wood-consumption rates (mg wood/g termite/day), were examined. Three models; (1) no mortality, (2) linear mortality and (3) nonlinear mortality were used to calculate mean standing-crop biomass of termites. Model (1) predicted a significantly lower wood-consumption rate than those based on models (2) and (3). No signi...
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Do CCA treated support stakes cause increased arsenic level in crops?
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50204
Trial of using CCA-C treated eucalypts stakes for supporting banana plants in Guangdong Province, China, began in 1998 and later it was expanded as a demonstration program of a joint International Tropical Timber Organization–Chinese Government timber preservation project in 2000. The greatest concern was whether the crop would be contaminated by the preservatives, arsenic in particular. Data fr...
Li Zhaobang, Su Haitao, Liang Linqing


Remedial wood preservative efficacy of BORA-CARE against the Formosan subterranean termite and eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1991 - IRG/WP 1504
When a spruce board (3.8 cm x 8.8 cm x 2.4 m) was surface-sprayed with BORA-CARETM solution (containing 23% disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and stored in an air-conditioned room (24 ± 2°C and 60 ± 5% RH) for eight months, ca. 40% of the wood (measured by the cross section surface proportion) contained borates at the rate of >2,500 ppm BAE (boric acid equivalent). In a choice bioassay, term...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


Methodologies for termiticide testing and standardization
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10043
Standardization of testing methodologies for termiticides has been one of the main topics of discussion for Working Group 1b in recent IRG meetings. While it is agreed that there is a need to provide a standardized testing procedure for industry and regulatory agencies, concerns remain that such a standardized procedure may become an obstacle for developing better testing methods or innovations in...
N-Y Su


Oral toxicity of a slow-acting insecticide Amdro® to the Formosan subterranean termite
1982 - IRG/WP 1162
The use of toxic baits to control the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki requires an insecticide that is non-repellent and sufficiently slow acting that poisoned termites leave treated areas before dying. Of the many insecticides screened, only Amdro® exhibited these characteristics. The oral toxicity (LD 50) of Amdro® to Coptotermes formosanus was estimated at 12.33 µ...
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III


Oral toxicity of TIM-BOR®, Bora-Careä, boric acid and ethylene glycol against the formosan subterrean termite and easter subterrean termite
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10045
Oral toxicities (LD50) of boric acid, TIM-BOR® (disodium octaborate tetrahydrate: DOT) and BORA-CAREä (40% DOT in ethylene glycol) and ethylene glycol (ca. 80% monoethylene and ca. 20% polyethylene glycol) were estimated. Oral toxicities of BORA-CAREä were significantly higher (LD50: 256.2 µg/g DOT and 304.9 mg/g BAE) than TIM-BOR® alone (LD50: 408.2 µg/g DOT and 485.7 µg/g BAE); indicating...
M Tokoro, N-Y Su


Laboratory evaluation of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (TIM-BORÒ ) as a wood preservative or a bait-toxicant against the Formosan and eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1991 - IRG/WP 1513
A no-choice bioassay indicated that termite feeding was significantly reduced when wood was treated with TIM-BORÒ at retentions of >3600 ppm and >900 ppm (w/w) for Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes, respectively, and thus these wood preservative retention rates may be considered for these termite species. Results of a choice bioassay suggested retention rates of 450-1800 pp...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


Laboratory Leaching Tests to Study the Effects of Post-Treatment Storage Periods on CCA Leachability and Fixation in Treated Permeable and Refractory Malaysian Hardwoods
2006 - IRG/WP 06-50240
The biological resistance and environmental safety of CCA-treated wood relies on the extent of post-treatment storage fixation of CCA in wood prior to being utilized. A study on the comparative leachability (fixation) of CCA-treated refractory and permeable heartwoods of 3 Malaysian hardwoods subjected to different post-treatment storage (fixation) periods of up to 4 weeks, at 2 laboratory leachin...
A H H Wong, H C Lai, N P T Lim


Effect of juglone from Juglans mandshurica bark activity of wood decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30502
Juglone was extracted from Juglans mandshurica bark via vacuum-assisted steam stripping. The extract was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction process was easy to perform and produced excellent yields (0.22 g juglone/100 g of bark) of a high purity extract (96.42% juglone...
Dongmei Yang, Shuangyue Li, Shujun Li, Wenqiang Su, Yan Jin, Molong Sun


The natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 bamboo species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10708
Tests on the natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 common bamboo species were conducted. The results showed that there was a linear relation between bamboo density and its preservative retention by mass, and the preservative retention of bamboo reduced while its density increased. The test also showed that there were significant differences in the natural durability of bamboos, bu...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


Grading the Performance of 18 Common Bamboo Species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10723
A grading method for assessing the performance of 18 common bamboo species was introduced in this article. The method was based on 4 grade levels with corresponding scores of 4 reference indexes of bamboos including culm diameter, culm-wall thickness, natural durabiliy and preservative treatability. In comparison with the traditional utlilization of bamboo, the grading results showed that this gra...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


DNA-based tools for rapidly detecting, quantifying and monitoring ophiostomatoid fungi on beetles, in trees and wood products
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20450
Approximately half of the trees harvested for commercial purposes are lost because of native or introduced insects or insect-vectored microorganisms. Ophiostomatoid fungi, which are well adapted to dissemination by insects, include ~140 species of saprobes and pathogens. They are present worldwide, have high economical impact and many are subject to quarantine regulation. Thus, it is necessary to ...
L Khadempour, Young Woon Lim, S Massoumi Alamouti, C Breuil


Evaluation of ACQ-D treated Chinese fir and Mongolian Scots pine with different post-treatments after 20 months of exposure
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30530
The performance of alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) treated Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linn. var. mongolica Litv.) stakes after 20 months exposure in Chengdu and Guangzhou of southern China were evaluated according to AWPA standard E07-07. The ACQ-D treatments used two concentration levels (0.5 and 1.0%) and four different post-treatme...
Lili Yu, Jinzhen Cao, Wei Gao, Haitao Su


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