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An investigation to assess the feasibility of developing an accelerated laboratory test to determine the abrasion resistance of lesser-used timber species for use in marine constructio
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20317
The paper describes the evaluation of a laboratory-accelerated test to compare the shingle abrasion resistance of current and potential timbers for use in marine construction. Useful results were achieved in 47.5 hours, but identified a number of issues to be resolved for the test to be refined and the subsequent results to be interpreted correctly.
G S Sawyer, J R Williams


Investigation of the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) for thermal modification
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40275
In this study the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) was examined for thermal modification. Comparative experimental investigations were performed with silver fir and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) after thermal treatments. Besides properties, which characterize the quality of heat treatments, like dimensional stability and resistance against fungal attack, strength properties of the heat treated material were tested, i.e. bending strength, modulus of elasticity (MOE), impact bending strength and resistance to abrasion. Silver fir was found to be slightly more suitable for thermal modification than spruce, when treated at 180 °C, whereas thermal modification at 220°C showed a comparable suitability for both species. Advantages of silver fir were found for its impact bending strength, durability, and formation of cracks after weathering.
C Brischke, A O Rapp


Effect of CCA and Tanalith E on the performance of surface finishing
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40405
Effect of CCA and Tanalith E treatment on the performance of surface finishing properties was the objectives of this study. Sapwood of scots pine, (Pinus sylvestris L.) and oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsk.) specimens (300 x 100 x 15 mm along the grain) were impregnated with aqueous solution of CCA 2% and Tanalith E 2%. Surface roughness, dry film thickness, adhesion strength, gloss measurement, scratch and abrasion resistance were determined according to related standards for treated and untreated samples. Results indicated that surface roughness and adhesion strength depend on wood species and the chemical composition of preservatives. Wood preservatives did not affect the scratch resistance because it depends on properties of the coating. Treatments with CCA and Tanalith E affected only the abrasion test for beech samples. The highest gloss value was determined on untreated (control) pine samples while there was no clear difference on gloss values between CCA and Tanalith E treatment.
T Ozdemir, A Temiz, I Aydin


Assessment of the marine borer resistance and abrasion resistance of lesser known hardwood timber species for use in marine construction
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10711
Naturally durable species of timber are used as an alternative to preservative treated timber for marine structures, but many species have not been evaluated for their potential for use in this environment. EN 275 specifies a 5-year test period - too long a period for screening tests to be economically viable. In this study, candidate timber species were selected for testing both in the laboratory and in the sea to establish their resistance to marine borer and abrasion. Comparative resistance was assessed by comparing the rate of deterioration observed in candidate species of lesser known hardwoods against that for greenheart and ekki which were used as benchmark species. A number of lesser-known timber species originating from South America and West Africa performed comparatively well in laboratory tests and over an eighteen month exposure period in the sea. Resistance to marine borer attack did not necessarily correlate with resistance to abrasion.
J R Williams, G S Sawyer, G Malyon, S M Cragg, J D Icely, J Simm, M Meaden


Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also examined using Fenton's reagent. The enhancement of decay resistance by acetylation was revealed clearly for all cases of exposures but varying with fungal and wood species used. For a brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, the weight loss reached almost nil in all woods at 20 WPG (weight percent gain) of acetylation, after the striking decrease from 10 to 15 WPG. For a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, it was counted until 12-15 WPG in the perishable hardwoods used, but not in a softwood Cryptomeria japonica, even at 6 WPG. In cases of another brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and soil burial, effect of acetylation was intermediate between Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Anti-degradation mechanism by acetylation was discussed, from these weight loss - weight gain relationships, and the IR-and 13C-NMR spectral analyses of fungus-exposed wood.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi


Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional stability and decay resistance of the benzylated particleboard were evaluated. Particleboards made of benzylated particles having more than 38% of weight percent gain (WPG) showed that dimensional stability and decay resistance were superior to the conventional particleboard made by using phenolformaldehyde resin as a binder, because hydroxyl groups of wood were substituted by hydrophobic benzyl groups with benzylation. Though bending strength of the board was a little lower than control board due to the damage of benzylated particles during benzylation, its internal bonding strength was very high, because the hot-melting strengthened the inter-particle bonding.
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto


Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA treated posts smouldered until destruction of the majority of the posts occurred. Posts treated with CCA-oil took longer for destruction to occur than posts treated with CCA-C or CCA-wax. Creosote treated posts and untreated controls did not show prolonged smouldering and consequently were not destroyed by the burning test, although their strength was reduced. A high fuel load increased the time that posts were alight and smouldering, and for CCA treated posts decreased their time to destruction.
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham


Effects of acetylation on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiberboard
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40059
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated kenaf fiber, Phenol formaldehyde resin content level, and three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density non wood composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also determined. All specimens were exposed to decay chambers for 16 weeks. Test results indicated that most of the main factors significantly influence the thickness, length changes, and decay resistance of the high density kenaf fiberboards.
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Rowell


Comité International Permanent pour la Recherche sur la Préservation des Matériaux en Milieu Marin. Information from the Wood Group
1980 - IRG/WP 460
E G B Jones


Monographic information on Schizophyllum commune
1975 - IRG/WP 118 E
D Dirol, M Fougerousse


Screening-method for the examination of the resistance against contact-insecticides of Lyctus brunneus Steph. beetles
1981 - IRG/WP 2148
A serie of filter-paper rondelles is treated with different concentrations of an organic insecticide dissolved in aceton. Beetles of Lyctus brunneus are put onto the dry surfaces. During the impact of the poison the knock-down is observed and after a following poisonfree holding, the knock-down and mortality are registred.
E Graf, B Lanz


Mould resistance of lignocellulosic material treated with some protective chemicals
1984 - IRG/WP 3294
Effectiveness of preserving lignocellulosic material against moulding by treatement with water solutions of commercial wood preservatives and mixtures of various inorganic salts was investigated and compared with the effectivenes of sodium pentachlorophenoxide and boric acid.
K Lutomski


The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or solid wood samples with smooth glossy surfaces, while plastic-like wafers were obtained by hotpressing modified sawdust. Chemical modification alone was shown to enhance the biological resistance of Aspen to decay by Coriolus versicolor. In addition, hot-pressing enhanced decay resistance of both unmodified wood and esterified wood veneer samples, although no improvement was found by hot pressing oligoesterified wood. The most effective treatment for the improvement of decay resistance was chemical modification of the sawdust in conjunction with hot-pressing. A microscopic examination of chemically modified and control samples following exposure to the fungus showed more extensive colonisation and decay in untreated, unpressed samples.
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai


Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6.4 kg/m3 (0.4 pcf), coupled with complete termite mortality, demonstrates that the mode of action of CCA treatments relies upon toxicity rather than having any repellent effects against termites.
J K Grace


Insect resistance of preservative treated tropical plywood against Lyctus
1990 - IRG/WP 1453
Seven plywood types composed of tropical wood species, vulnerable to Lyctus, were treated with various commercial water-borne and oil-borne preservatives. A wide range of preservative retentions was obtained by treating boards with dip treatment, steeping, double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnations. Selected samples were subsequently tested for their insect resistance against Lyctus africanus during 6 to 8 months according to European Standard EN 20. All control samples were attacked, except one Obeche plywood exhibiting only 50% attack. Water-borne preservative solutions containing arsenic, boron or fluoride could not prevent attack at common retention levels for interior use e.g. lower than 5 kg/m³. Quaternary ammonium compounds showed no insecticidal efficiency, up to 3 kg/m³. TCMTB at 1.5-1.7 kg/m³ proved to be able to reduce slightly the susceptibility for insect attack. Organic insecticides gave the best results, with nearly no attack for plywood treated with lindane or cypermethrin. In spite of a preservative uptake of 25 to 30 kg/m³, endosulfan only could reduce attack by 50%. Protection by permethrin at 0.1% a.i. required a retention of 28 kg/m³. Besides the fact that variability in wood species and composition of the plywood are leading to different retention levels, variation in penetration and distribution of a.i., and as a consequence to a different insect resistance of the impregnated boards, some poor results were directly related to inadequate insecticidal activity and/or concentration of a.i. in some commercial formulations for Lyctus control.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, M Pallaske


Resistance of Alstonia scholaris vestures to degradation by tunnelling bacteria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1547
Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids in the wood of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunnelling bacteria (TB) in a liquid culture showed degradation of all areas of the secondary wall. The highly lignified middle lamella was also degraded in advanced stages of TB attack. However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when other wall areas in Alstonia scholaris wood cells were severely degraded. The size comparison indicated vestures to be considerably smaller than TB, and we suspect that this may primarily be the reason why vestures in Alstonia scholaris wood were found to be resistant to degradation by TB.
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Resistance to soft rot of hardwood plywood treated with CCA salt
1983 - IRG/WP 3258
Plywood made from indigenous hardwoods was treated at an average loading of 34 kg Celcure A per m³ and was installed in a field test. After 20 years the samples were only slightly attacked by soft rot and the glue bonds were still intact.
R S Johnstone


Preliminary attempts towards the development of a small scale termite rearing chamber. Progress report
1983 - IRG/WP 1203
The results suggest that there is no evidence that the volume of the rearing chamber plays a part in the settlement of a colony. These rearing chambers present a factor of productivity (final enumeration)/(initial enumeration) of roughly 2 after one year. 90% of the colony survived. This method of breeding can be considered as feasible and cheap.
M Argoud, J C Palla, R Sternalsky


Questionnaire pour la préparation de fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores
1972 - IRG/WP 103 F
C Jacquiot


Physical and biological properties of albizzia waferboards modified with cross-linking agents
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40043
Chemically-modified low-density waferboards with cross-linking agents were produced using a fast-growing species of hardwood albizzia (Paraserienthes falcata Becker) as a raw materials and isocyanate resin as a glue adhesive. For the chemical modification, the vapor-phase formalization of the boards and the pad-dry-cure treatment of wafers with cross-linking agents were employed. The vapor-phase formalization was conducted for 5, 10 and 24 hours using tetraoxane as a source of formaldehyde, and the pad-dry-cure treatments with glutaraldehyde and ethyleneurea compound (DMDHEU) were made after impregnation of their 5 and 10% aqueous solutions of each chemical. Sulfur dioxide was used as a catalyst in both treatments. About 70% of antiswelling efficiency (ASE) was gained in all treated boards irrespective of reaction time or solution concentration. All treated boards were very stable to water soaking even in the 2-hour boiling on thickness swelling as well as linear expansion. Laboratory tests with brown-rot and white-rot fungi revealed that decay was completely suppressed in formaldehyde-treated boards, and small losses in weight were counted in other treated boards. All treated boards were also effective in resisting to the attack by the destructive termite Coptotermes formosanus.
S Yusuf, Y Imamura, M Takahashi, K Minato


Resistance of the wood of Eucalyptus saligna and Paulownia tomentosa against some wood rotting fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10238
Paulownia tomentosa and Eucalyptus saligna are not autochthonous species in Slovenia and we determined the resistance of their wood against our most common wood rotting fungi. The resistance against Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor was determined according to EN 113 and compared to the resistance of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. It was stated, that both paulownia and eucalypt wood samples are much more resistant than beech wood. Especially paulownia wood was outstanding by its natural resistance against tested basidiomycetes.
F Pohleven, M Petric


An attempt to evaluate wood resistance against fungal decay in non-sterile conditions by measuring the variation of resistance to bending test
1988 - IRG/WP 2308
The main object of this work was to determine the variation of strength on large test specimens of wood (800 x 45 x 45 mm³) when exposed to accelerated fungal attacks close to natural conditions, out of test vessels. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and the modulus of rupture (MOR) have been assessed. Thereby, the natural resistance of the wood species to fungal decay, the efficiency of preservative as well as the treatment applied are discussed. The wood tested is a guianese secondary species (Couma guianensis). The fungi tested are two guianese strains of brown and white rot. The exposure time is 12 weeks. No mould contamination has been recorded by use of a selective fungicide. The results obtained show that it is possible to infest in nonsterile conditions large wood specimens. Furthermore, modulus of rupture appears to be the most reliable criterion. The investigation, that requires limited equipment and staff could be performed in any tropical research station as it has been done at CTFT, French Guiana center.
L N Trong


The resistance of painting materials and consolidants against wood-destroying insects
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10239
Natural and synthetic adhesives, varnishes, painting materials and consolidants were used in investigations of bioresistance against newly hatched larvae and beetles of Hylotrupes bajulus (L.). Animal glues, casein, drying oils and natural resins such as dammar resin and shellac, were not resistant to attack by these larvae. Similarly, semi- and all-synthetic polymers tested including hydroxypropylcellulose, acrylate and methacrylate compounds, are also subject to attack by newly hatched larvae of the House Longhorn Beetle. In contrast, addition of inorganic pigments provides a significant improvement in bioresistance. This effect is influenced by the thickness and the hardness of the paintlayer. The test with beetles of Hylotrupes bajulus show that the restoration materials which are not resistant against an attack by newly hatched larvae are preferred for the egg depositions by the females.
W Unger, H Fritsche, A Unger


Natural Resistance of timbers to marine borer attack. COIPM/IRG CO-OPERATION. Final report concerning panels exposed in the sea at Sekondi, Ghana
1979 - IRG/WP 449
The test was carried out according to Document COIPM/72.044, Revised procedure for the testing of naturally durable timbers against marine borers. The panels of the three species remaining in the test at the end of 1978 were removed and assessed visually. An average rating was given to the panels of each species.
F F K Ampong


A critical review of the AWPA standard method (M12-72) for laboratory evaluation to determine resistance to subterranean termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1298
The American Wood Preservers' Association standard (M12-72) for evaluation of candidate wood preservatives against subterranean termites is reviewed and suggestions for revision are made. The most serious flaws in the current test procedure involve a failure to recognize inter- and intraspecific variation and a lack of quantification of test results.
J P La Fage, M Jones


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