IRG Documents Database and Compendium

Search and Download IRG Documents:

Between and , sort by

Displaying your search results

Your search resulted in 578 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.

Effect of Nano and Micronized Particles as Wood Preservatives for Termite Control
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30620
Subterranean termites are a major factor in the biodegradation of wood constructor products. In this study the efficacy of wood treated with micronized copper, zinc oxide and their mixture was compared to that of wood treated with soluble amine copper oxide with subterranean termites in a laboratory test. All of the formulations tested were effective in controlling wood degradation by the termites...
M Akhtari, D Nicholas, A Rowlen, M Arefkhani

Effect of Nano and Micronized Particles as Wood Preservatives for Termite Control
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30620
Subterranean termites are a major factor in the biodegradation of wood constructor products. In this study the efficacy of wood treated with micronized copper, zinc oxide and their mixture was compared to that of wood treated with soluble amine copper oxide with subterranean termites in a laboratory test. All of the formulations tested were effective in controlling wood degradation by the term...
M Akhtari, D Nicholas, A Rowlen, M Arefkhani

Borate Redistribution in Glulam in an Above Ground Field Test
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30652
Researchers have refocused on the use of boratesin the wood protection industry in the last two decades due to their broad spectrum effectiveness against fungi and insects, and favourable environmental characteristics. This study was designed to determine borate distribution in a limited number of samples from a large field test of composites protected by a combination of coating and borate treatm...
P I Morris, A Temiz, J Ingram

Buffered Amine Oxide Treatment Systems for Ammonical Copper Wood Preservatives
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40685
Wood is the most versatile, practical and sustainable building material in the world. In modern countries, wood is a well-managed renewable resource that has a small carbon footprint. Wood does suffer from a lack of durability against invasive organisms such as insects and fungi. Steel, aluminum and composites have emerged as viable alternative building materials. These sectors market the defi...
R W Clawson Jr

Effectiveness and synergistic effects between copper and polymer betaine
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30097
Different formulations of "Copper Amine" and Polymer Betaine were studied. During laboratory tests a synergism between both active ingredients against soft rot and dry rot has been found. The efficacy against soft rot according to the "BAM method" and the European Standard ENV 807 depends only on the amount of copper. Long term tests in a fungus cellar for determining the relative protective effec...
H Härtner, V Barth

Rapid leaching test
1991 - IRG/WP 2367
An accelerated test which is suitable for measuring the extent of metal fixation in both chromium and non chromium containing preservatives is described....
J A Cornfield, M Bacon, A Lyman, C Waldie, M R Gayles

Contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30216
The contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine was investigated. Holocellulose, lignin and xylan absorbed significant amount of copper. The amount of copper absorbed by cellulose was almost negligible. The removal of extractive also decreased the amount of copper absorption. This study clearly indicates the importance of lignin, hemicellulose in the absorption of copper amin...
D P Kamdem, Jun Zhang

Evaluation of the corrosivity of the treated wood - Laboratory vs field test methodologies
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20211
The corrosivity of treated wood to fasteners has been evaluated using laboratory test procedures, including AWPA Standard E12-94. The standard method was modified in order to allow detailed study of commercial metal fasteners in terms of sample types, installation configuration and exposure conditions. Parallel field tests were also performed. The experimental results generated from these tests su...
L Jin, A F Preston

Adsorption of ACQ and CuMEA Wood Preservatives in Red pine
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30374
The rates of stabilization or fixation of ACQ subcomponents (CuO, DDAC and MEA) in red pine (Pinus resinosa) were compared for different solution concentrations (0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25% and 3% ACQ-D) and post treatment conditioning temperatures. Preservative solutions were impregnated into red pine sapwood by a full-cell treatment. Copper and MEA adsorptions from copper monoethanolamine solutions witho...
C Tascioglu, P A Cooper, Y T Ung

Tests with ammoniacal copper and alkyl ammonium compounds as wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 3299
Formulations based on copper and alkyl ammonium compounds in ammonia solution have been tested in a fungus cellar on Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica. This type of products gives promising results as wood preservatives, especially on hardwood and are safe to destroy by e.g. combustion. The best results were achieved with a dialkyl ammonium compound, Cu/octyldecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (NH3)....
C-E Sundman

Influence of carboxylic acids on LEACHING of copper amine based preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30365
The importance of chromium free preservatives is increasing. Leaching of copper from wood preserved with such solutions is still higher compared to leaching from wood impregnated with copper chromium ones. In order to decrease leaching, different carboxylic acids (octanoic, 2-etilheksanoic, decanoic) were added to copper/amine/boron aqueous solutions. Experiment of leaching of copper from Norway s...
M Humar, P Kalan, F Pohleven

Determination of the amine to copper ratio remaining in wood after leaching
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30285
The effectiveness of the protection and the environmental impact of the treated wood are two of the most important aspects that need to be understood for all preservatives. Both are particularly influenced by the loss of biocidal components from treated wood. For amine copper preservatives, copper fixation determines the leaching resistance of the copper and amine compounds formed in wood. Previou...
N Lucas, J N R Ruddick

Weathering of copper-amine treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40155
Copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated southern pine (SP) were artificially weathered with a QUV Weathering Tester. The weathering regime was composed of a continuous UV-light irradiation for 2 hours followed by a water spray for 18 minutes for a total time of 1200 hours. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis,...
J Zhang, D P Kamdem

Amine copper reaction with wood components: acidity versus copper adsorption
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30161
The bonding sites for copper in wood from CCA, as well as ammoniacal/amine based systems, has long been a topic of investigation. Both phenolic and carboxylic functional groups have been discussed as potential bonding sites for copper. However, no consensus on the adsorption mechanism has been realized. Thus, the selective adsorption of copper in southern yellow pine from ethanolamine-copper solut...
S M Thomason, E A Pasek

Interaction of copper-amine complexes with wood: Influence of copper source, amine ligands and amine to copper molar ratio on copper retention and leaching
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30203
The absorption and leachability of copper in copper amine (Cu-EA) treated wood are influenced by the formulation and the composition of copper amine treating solutions. The sources of copper used, Cu(OH)2, CuCO3, CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2, in the copper amine complex formulation affect the leachability of copper. Data show that copper amine from CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2 treated wood has less copper loss during...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem

Biological efficacy of micronized copper systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30485
Soil block, fungal cellar and field stake test data will be presented for micronized copper systems. The copper portion of the formulations is present as a fine dispersion of "micro" particulates while the co-biocide is present as either a soluble quat or an azole containing emulsion. This testing generally used the amine based counterpart as the control preservative system and the micronized fo...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman

Laboratory Studies on Copper Availability in Wood Treated with Soluble Amine Copper and Micronized Copper Systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30489
A laboratory method has been employed to investigate the level of soluble copper in wood treated with various copper-based preservative systems, such as micronized copper (particulate copper) and amine copper solutions. This report describes the methodology and preliminary results on determination of the soluble copper in the treating solutions and the treated wood by these systems, as well as th...
L Jin, P Walcheski, A Preston

Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9...
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper

Copper preservative systems: A rapid investigation into effects of co-biocides and used treating solutions
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30541
The efficacy of various micronized and amine copper preservative systems was evaluated using soil block testing with the copper tolerant brown rot fungi, Postia placenta. The American Wood Protection Association E22 protocol was used to compare the relative efficacy of preservatives by monitoring compressive strength losses of the systems in southern pine wood. As information, the weight losses ...
T F Shupe, K Ragon, Q Wu, M H Freeman, C R McIntyre

Laboratory evaluation of borate amine: Copper derivatives in wood for fungal decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30543
The aims of this study were to evaluate borate: amine: copper derivatives in wood for fungal decay protection as well as the permanence of copper and boron in wood. Wood treated with each of four derivatives of borate:amine:copper prevented fungal decay. Disodium tetraborate ecahydrate (Borax):amine:copper derivatives with retentions of 0.61 to 0.63% after water leaching prevented decay by Gloeo...
G Chen

Studies on Effect of pH on Copper Availability in Copper-Based Preservatives
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30549
Laboratory methods have been employed to investigate the pH effect on the copper solubility of basic copper carbonate. The pH was controlled using two different approaches. One was with the adjustment of pH of the solutions by acid or base using sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide until the solution equilibriums were obtained for each defined pH. A second approach was to control pH with buffer sol...
L Jin, P Walcheski, A F Preston

Influence of Copper Preservative Type on Earlywood and Latewood Distribution of Copper in Treated Wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40507
Some of the new water based copper containing wood preservative systems use particulate “micronized” copper as the primary biocide instead of the more traditional soluble amine copper based systems. Studies were conducted to investigate how this difference in the type of copper system might impact both initial and post drying distribution of the preservatives in wood. Of specific interest wa...
A Zahora

Standardized Field Trials with Micronized Copper
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30564
In 2008, an extensive review of all available data from standardized tests of micronized copper systems was published and there has been considerable work since then. This paper discusses over 20 field stake trials underway in well-known sites such as Gainesville, FL, Hilo, HI and the Dorman and Saucier sites in MS as well as tests from Australia and New Zealand. In addition, 4 ground proximity ...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman

The potential for using CuO nanoparticles as a wood preservative
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30569
The potential for using nano-copper particles for wood protection was investigated using mini-agar slant and wood block tests with Gloeophyllum trabeum or Trametes versicolor. Nano-copper was more effective against G. trabeum than T. versicolor, although neither of these fungi would be considered copper tolerant. Nano-copper solutions were stable over a 17 week storage period, but precipitated w...
I S Weitz, K Knani, M Maoz, C Freitag, J J Morrell

Further Studies on the Distribution of Copper in Treated Wood Using an XRF Microscope Technique
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40549
There are two distinct forms of copper in aqueous copper based wood preservative systems that are currently used in the United States for treatment of southern pine lumber. These are systems using either soluble copper (typically amine based) or the more recent particulate or “micronized” copper as the primary biocide. Studies reported last year showed that there were distinct differences in...
A Zahora

Next Page