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Anti-feedant activity of stilbenic components from bark of Picea glehnii against a subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10447
Stilbenic components, one of polyphenolic groups, widely distributed in plant bodies have been known as anti-microbial agents, but not known whether to have anti-termite activities. A stilbene glucoside, isorhapontin, from the bark of Picea glehnii was examined on the anti-feedant activity against a subterranean Reticulitermes speratus. Isorhapontigenin, the aglycone of isorhapontin, induced from it by hydrolysis using ß-glucosidase was also tested for comparison. From the results of choice and no choice feeding tests using paper disks, anti-feedant activity was shown in both the compounds. Isorhapontigenin had a larger anti-feedant activity than isorhapontin.
S Shibutani, M Samejima, S Doi


Chemical compositions and anti-termite activities of essential oils from Gabonese Canarium schweinfurthii Engl, Dacryodes buettneri Engl and Aucoumea klaineana Pierre wood resins.
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10895
Essential oil extract from resins of Canarium schweinfurthii, Dacryodes buettneri and Aucoumea klaineana woods from Cap Esterias and Oyem areas, Gabon, were prepared by Clevenger - steam distillation. The chemical compositions of these respective essential oils were analyzed by a Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Although monoterpenes were the main constituents of the three essential oils, each wood resins had a various essential oil yield after steam distillation process [6,92% (A. klaineana), 4,20% (C. schweinfurthii) and 13,19% (D. buettneri)] and their respective chemical compositions were slightly different. It results that monoterpenes, as α –pinene, o-cymene, alpha-phellandrene and D-limonene form the major constituents of terpenoides and phenylpropanoïdes compounds which are the most active substances against termite activity. The anti-termite activities of the three essential oils were evaluated, performing no-choice tests. 70 μL of each essential oil diluted in acetone with mass ratios of 50:50 and 25:75 [essential oil: acetone] were impregnated on Whatman papers and exposed to termite (Reticulitermes flavipes). Essential oil from Canarium schweinfurthii resin showed the strongest inhibitory activity against the termite with 100% mortality after 1 day at 50:50 and 25:75 concentrations followed by Aucoumea klaineana resin with the 100% mortality after 3 days at 50:50 and 25:75 concentrations. Finally, essential oil from Dacryodes buettneri resin showed the lowest termite resistance with 48.34 % and 58.34% mortalities after 14 days at 50:50 and 25:75 concentrations, respectively. The number of chemical components from each essential oil and their respective quantity, determined by GC-MS, are related to their anti-termite activity level.
Chemical compositions and anti-termite activities of essential oils from Gabonese Canarium schweinfurthii Engl, Dacryodes buettneri Engl and Aucoumea klaineana Pierre wood resins.


Differences in feeding activity among colonies of Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1983 - IRG/WP 1202
Feeding activities of 7 colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined. Wood-consumption rates among colonies differed significantly, ranging from 23.80-78.48 mg/g/day. This large intraspecific variation raised a question of whether differences in feeding activity reported for other termite species were due to interspecific differences. When rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by one g termite per day (mg/g/day), termites of larger body weight appeared to consume less wood. This negative correlation, however, was not significant when rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by an individual per day (mg/worker/day).
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Some tests on ES - AS 11, a novel anti-sapstain formulation, and its properties
1987 - IRG/WP 3399
The results of some tests with the formulation ES - AS 11 are given. The formulation is an attempt to improve the performance of an anti-sapstain chemical by: 1) increasing its penetrability 2) uniquely combining its active ingredients. Very short times of treatment (dipping not longer than 5 seconds), low concentrations of active ingredients, and lower toxicological and environmental risks may be a promising result.
U Straetmans


A Long-term Observation of Termite Activity in The Nest by Continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) Monitoring
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20280
In order to evaluate the influence of temperature on the termite activity, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was applied to two nests of Coptotermes formosanus SHIRAKI; a nest in the stem of a standing tree and a nest in the underground of a wooden house, respectively. Temperature change in and around the nests were continuously measured for about one year using thermocouples at four points; the centre of the nest, the periphery of the nest, the environment around the nest, and the underground, respectively. AEs were detected at the centre of nest and underneath the nest sphere by using wave-guides inserted into the nest of the standing tree and at the centre of nest. AEs were also detected at the wooden construction member near the nest in the wooden house. The termites in the nests were periodically stimulated by rotating, drawing and sticking the wave-guides. The temperatures in the both nests varied from 5 to 35 °C during the experiment. The highest and the lowest temperatures were recorded in August and February, respectively. The highest AEs event rate was recorded when the temperature of the nest in the tree was between 30 and 35 °C and when the temperature of the nest under the house was above 25 °C. In winter, when the nest temperature was below 10 °C, no significant numbers of AE were detected. These findings clearly show that AE generation has a close relation to the termite activities, which are influenced by the temperature in the nest.
Y Yanase, Y Fujii, S Okumura, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura


Longterm monitoring of termite activity on multiple feeding sites: a laboratory method intended for the determination of attractant/repellent properties of wood preservatives and baits
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20225
A method is introduced allowing the continuous monitoring of the activity of a small laboratory termite- colony at 8 different feeding sites simultaneously. The test assembly consists of a small central polycarbonate-tube containing a colonie of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) beeing connected with 8 external feeding sites by small glass-capillaries. The termites passing through the glass capillaries to and from the feeding sites are interrupting an infrared light-barrier. Each signal from the light-barriers is conditioned and fed to a PC-based signal-recognition-, monitoring- and storage-system. First results show that a colony of 500 individuals of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) will need approx. 2 to 3 weeks for establishing a new, full functional hierarchy. A well established Reticulitermes- colony will show 80 to 100 passings per minute to and from the eight feeding sites. The activity of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) shows no circadian activity rhythmic.
M Pallaske, E Graf, H Takiuchi


A preliminary assessment of the costs of termite activity in Australia: A discussion paper
1983 - IRG/WP 1207
A preliminary assessment has been made of the economic importance of termite activity in Australia and this paper is intended to serve as a starting point in discussing this topic. Damage to timber in service represents their greatest area of economic importance in urban and rural environments. Costs resulting from termite activity include timber replacements in buildings, railway sleepers, transmission poles, termite surveys, insecticides and wood preservatives. Indirect costs are briefly discussed, as are the beneficial roles of termites in our environment.
J R J French


Screening of the efficacy of tall oils against wood decaying fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30354
Tall oil is a by-product in pulping of resinous wood by the sulphate process. Tall oil contains a complex mixture of wood extractives. Some of these extractives act as natural protection against wood decaying fungi while other serve as nutrition for the fungi. This report describes a screening of the efficacy of four refined tall oils with different chemical composition on wood decaying fungi. Testing was performed as filter paper assay and mini-block assay. In the filter paper assay growth rates of the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor and the brown rot fungus Poria placenta were inhibited by the tall oils. None of the oils caused total inhibition of the fungi but there was a clear pattern towards increased efficacy with increased portion of resin acids in the oils. Impregnated mini-blocks with approximately 200 kg/m3 retention of tall oil after leaching showed an evident effect against Coniophora puteana and Poria placenta compared to untreated control samples. However, using the criteria from EN 113 requiring less than 3% mass loss, tall oil failed. The results indicate that decay resistance of tall oil impregnated Scots pine sapwood to the retention level used in this study is comparable with the decay resistance of Scots pine heartwood. It was expected that the efficacy of the tall oils was related to chemical composition of the oils. This was confirmed for the filter paper assay where the efficacy increased with increasing amount of resin acids. However, this pattern was not found for the mini-block assay. The protective effect of the tall oils in wood seems therefore to be more related to their hydrophobic properties than to their fungicidal properties.
G Alfredsen, P O Flæte, A Temiz, M Eikenes, H Militz


Control of termite attack using a trapping method and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring a case study at an electric power plant
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10224
To prevent subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe) from invading the buildings of an electric power plant and to control their attack, artificial traps were buried around the buildings. The attack of the termites in and around the traps was monitored by detecting acoustic emissions (AE) generated by the feeding behavior of the workers. The cylindrical artificial traps were 600 mm long and 300 mm in diameter, and consisted of pieces of Japanese red pine surrounded by slender polystyrene foam sticks. Termite inhabitation was observed in eight of the ten traps set, and particularly high levels were found in three traps. The traps were renewed every one or two months. The amount of termites inhabiting the traps decreased drastically after the first renewal, but varied only slightly over the following two and a half years. The amount of termites in the traps increased when the traps were not renewed. Termite activity was significantly restricted by installing artificial traps and no additional serious attacks were found in or around the buildings during the study period. AEs generated by feeding activities were monitored by piezoelectric AE sensors attached to the wooden sticks in the traps or to wooden bait stakes near the trap. The rate of AE events varied according to feeding activity which was associated with the number of termites in the trap and the temperature.
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Iwatsubo, S Yamamoto


Antifeedant activities of flavonoids and their related compounds against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10305
Antifeedant activities of some flavonoids and their related compounds against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were examined with no-choice and two-choice tests. The activities of these compounds were considered in relation to their chemical structures. All flavonoids tested showed antifeedant activities whereas catechinic acid without A-ring and pyran ring in the molecule showed attractant activity. As to the chemical structure-activity relationships, it was found that compounds containing two hydroxyl groups at C-5 and C-7 in A-rings showed the significant antifeedant activities. The presence of carbonyl group at C-4 in pyran rings was necessary for the occurrence of extreme activities. Flavonols and flavanonols with 3', 4'-dihydroxylated B-rings exhibited activities higher than those with 4'-hydroxylated or with 3',4',5'-trihydroxylated B-rings.
W Ohmura, S Doi, M Aoyama, S Ohara


New applications of silafluofen to termite control
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30274
Silafluofen-based termiticides are widely used for soil and timber treatments in Japan, as silafluofen possesses advantageous properties of low fish toxicity and high chemical stability (to light, in soil, in alkaline environments, etc) in addition to high termiticidal activity and low mammalian toxicity. As new applications of silafluofen to termite control, we have developed another type of products in the forms of practical anti-termitic plastic sheets and anti-termitic plastic heat insulators which are free from the exposure risk of termite control operators and inhabitants to the sprayed chemical. Anti-termitic plastic sheets containing silafluofen in ethylene vinylacetate copolymer film have already been put into practical use, showing a high anti-termitic effect. Plastic heat insulators made of such materials as polystylene and polyurethane have the problem of the decrease in their insulating effect due to termite damage, although they have been widely used as building materials. To solve this problem, we prepared anti-termitic plastic heat insulators by impregnating silafluofen at concentrations of 0.1 ~ 0.3% into plastic foam. As a result of anti-termitic efficacy tests against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, these plastic heat insulators were found to be effective in suppressing the termite damage.
K Nakayama, Y Minamite, S Koike, Y Katsuda, K Nishimoto


Termite resistance of twenty-eight Indonesian timbers
1982 - IRG/WP 1150
A comparative study of termite resistance of 28 Indonesian wood species has been conducted using small samples measuring 5 x 10 x 20 mm³. The drywood termite Cryptotermes cynocephallus (Kalotermitidae) and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Rhinotermitidae) were used in the study. A resistance classification was derived on the basis of cluster analysis. The result reveals that Albizia procera, Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Tectona grandis and Intsia bijuga are completely resistant to both species of termite. Albizia chinensis and Artocarpus integer are resistant only to Cryptotermes cynocephallus, but vary between resistant and moderately resistant to Coptotermes curvignathus. Other wood species are classified as moderately resistant, susceptible or very susceptible.
Nana Supriana, P E Howse


An anti-termite formulation for soil treatment with natural products and its efficacy against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30319
An anti-termite formulation of an environmental conservation type for soil treatment was developed. The formulation was composed of decanoic acid (n-capric acid, an fatty acid derived from coconut oil with ten carbons) as an active ingredient and other natural products. Experiments to examine the efficacy of the formulation against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were conducted at the termite field test site in Kagosihima Japan and in our laboratory. The smallest concentration of decanoic acid in soil required for complete prevention of termite attack was estimated. Further the rate of disappearance of decanoic acid in the soil treated with the formulation under various conditions was measured. The formulation with natural products have been still keeping an complete performance after five years of the field test.
S Yoshida, T Nakagaki, A Igarashi, A Enoki


Accelerated anti-termite laboratory tests, simulation of field conditions and assessment of results for service life
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20034
Termites are one of the most serious biodegrading agents in the tropics. Though some species of termites occur in the warmer temperate regions, only a few species can withstand the rigours of colder regions. Testing of termite resistance of material is done either by field tests or by accelerated laboratory tests. Field tests, though realistic to assess service life, are elaborate, take a long time and are meant only against subterranean termites. The field tests also represent the collective and commulative effects of all kinds of abiotic and biotic degrading factors. Thus, results of field tests does not necessarily represent only termite resistance, as other biodegrading agents also operate in the field. In contrast, laboratory tests need short duration (10 days to a few months), are not elaborate, represent primarily termite resistance, are easily repeatable, tests are done under standardised conditions which permit formulating national and international standards. The last but not the least, the results can be presented in quantitative terms. However, laboratory tests are often handicapped due to lack of adequate technology to culture all species of termites that destroy material in the field and some of the biotic and abiotic factors are difficult to simulate under laboratory condition with unquestionable fidetily without which service life of a material can hardly be predicted accurately. Further, precise knowledge of social and biological behaviour of tests termite species toward the test material is an important factor in the laboratory culturing and testing. The test termites should also possess certain attributes like tolerance to fluctuations of temperatures and relative humidities, lower toxicities and short duration starvation. Laboratory tests need similar and uniform tests conditions to obtain comparable and repeatable test results. The paper deals with a review of various laboratory test methods in vogue in different countries and delineates simulation of field conditions and discussion on assessment and interpretation of results to predict service life.
P K Sen-Sarma


Feeding response of field populations of Coptotermes species to softwood blocks treated with non-toxic water-proofing and anti-microbial products.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10487
The feeding response of field populations of the subterranean termite, Coptotermes lacteus, to Pinus radiata wood blocks (50 x 40 x40 mm) treated with various combinations of non-toxic and odourless water-proofing materials based on natural high molecular weight esters (TimberTreatÒ) and a new water insoluble quaternary ammonium compound (‘anti-microbial’) is described. Treated wood blocks were inserted into tube containers (300 x 90 mm) and placed into active above-ground mound colonies of C. lacteus in the south east Queensland. A simple objective rating system of attack measured this response over a period of 28 days. During the periods of test, termites had ‘visited’ all the wood specimens in the containers. Specimens treated with 1.5% anti-microbial solution and one coat of the timber treatment (TimberTreat®) were not attacked or damaged. The termites completely encased these specimens in soil and faecal material but did not consume any of the blocks. Blocks treated with one coat of the timber treatment and blocks treated with 0.5 and 1.0% anti-microbial solutions were only slightly to moderately attacked. These results suggest a strong ‘anti-feeding’ reaction by the termites to these novel non-toxic and odourless products, and maybe a role for these products as potential termiticides and/or wood preservatives against Coptotermes species. Further field trials are currently in progress.
J R J French, T Pynsent, M Susic


Synthesis of a rosin amide and its resistance to wood decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30517
Rosin was reacted with diethyltriamine (DETA) after being modified by acryl acid with the weight ratio of 4.5:1 and a rosin amide (RA) derivative was produced at the conditions as follows: modified rosin and DETA mole ratio of 1:3.5, dimethylbenzene as water carrying agent, reaction temperature of 160-180°C, and reaction time of 8h. The chemical structure of the product as RA was identified by FTIR and MS analysis. The anti fungal activity of its derivative was determined by paper-disc method with wood decay fungi such as Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variot Bainier. The anti-fungal experiment results signified that the derivative is active to these fungi, especially Paecilomyces variot Bainier. Since it is produced easily from rosin, which is renewable and not expensive, RA could be a potential wood preservative. Further study is planning.
Shuangyue Li, Shujun Li, Jing Wang


Coconut shell pyrolytic oil as wood protectant against biodeterioration
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30648
Extensive research on various plant and microbial extracts has been conducted as an alternative to using synthetic or inorganic chemicals for wood protection. Development of effective and low environmental impact products and technologies for wood protection is imperative. In the present study, the efficacy of coconut shell pyrolytic oil as a wood protectant is analysed in terms of its antifungal, antiborer and termiticidal activities. The antifungal, antiborer and antitermite activity of coconut shell pyrolytic oil was assessed by BIS standards IS 4873 (Part I: 2008), IS 4873 (Part II: 2008) and IS 4833 :( 1993) respectively. Wood decay fungi namely, Tyromyces versicolor (L.) Fr. and Polyporus sanguineus (L.) G. Mey (white rot) Polyporus meliae (Undrew.) Murrill. and Oligoporus placenta (Fr.) Gilb. & Ryvarden( brown rot) were used to determine the antifungal effect of coconut shell pyrolytic oil. The antiborer effect of coconut shell oil was indicated by its efficacy in protecting the treated test blocks against Lyctus africanus lesne. Grave yard test was performed to determine the termiticidal activity of coconut shell pyrolytic oil against the termite fauna identified at the test yard Odontotermes horni (Wasmann), Odontotermes obesus (Rambur), Odontotermes redemanni (Wasmann) and Microtermes obesi (Holmgren). The effectiveness of coconut shell pyrolytic oil was expressed as percentage weight loss of the treated test blocks compared to untreated blocks. It was observed that coconut shell pyrolytic oil gave better protection against wood decaying organisms. When treatment methods were compared dip treatment was found to be significantly better than brush coating method. Coconut shell pyrolytic oil has the potential to be a new wood protectant of natural origin which can replace synthetic wood preservatives in future. Being a waste bye product of coconut shell charcoal industry, its utilization as a wood protectant will be a value addition to such industries.
K S Shiny, O K Remadevi


Anti-Fungal Activity on Some Wood extracts as a Wood Protectant
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30684
In this study, six different wood barks were used, where obtained bark extracts were blended with potato-agar in order to investigate their antifungal properties. To determine the inhibition effectiveness of extractives, two different fungi; Coniophera puteana and Trametes versicolor were selected. Fungal activity was carefully observed for the duration of seven days. Following biological testing, extracts showed a significant inhibition against each fungus. Selected extract concentration is known to be more efficient on inhibition. As concentration increased, fungal growth slowed down and hindered. Bark extracts used in this study showed great efficiency against white-rot fungus, T. versicolor at low concentration. However, efficiency against fungal activity of extracts remained the same at high concentration. These bark extracts have a favorable chance to be used as a natural wood preservative according to results.
Ö Özgenç, S Durmaz


Anti-fungal activity of rutin and rutin-metal complexes as wood protectants
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30708
The anti-fungal activity of Rutin, a flavonoid, alone or complexed with copper or zinc was investigated in a petri dish test with Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor as the test fungi. Rutin and the Rutin-metal complexes showed significant inhibition against each fungus. Rutin-Cu and Rutin-Zn strongly inhibited the brown rot fungus, G. trabeum, while Rutin and Rutin-Zn inhibited T. versicolor. The results suggest that this flavonoid might be used for wood protection.
Li Yan, J J Morrell, Jie Zhong, Xiuzhu Mao


Chemical composition, antitermite and antifungal activity of Dacryodes edulis oleoresin
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20653
Damages to wood structures and other cellulosic materials caused by wood destroying insects and fungi are estimated to several billions of dollars each year in the world. Among these, termites are considered as one of the most economically important pests for wooden structures. In the past, several wood protection chemicals like CCA, creosote, lindane or pentachlorophenol have been used. However, even if some of these products are still in use depending of the countries and of their own regulations, most of them have been largely limited in Europe (and Northern America or even banned because of their impact on the environment and the human health. Growing environmental pressures associated to the decrease of fossil resources has contributed to significant changes in the field of wood preservation leading to the research of more environmentally acceptable wood preservation solutions. In this context, products issued from renewable biomass present several advantages: they require less energy to be produced limiting carbon dioxide emissions, biodegradability of biomass make them generally less harmful to the environment. The use of natural products derived from renewable raw materials, replacing chemicals of petrochemical origin, is therefore of growing interest. Some wood species are naturally resistant to termites and fungi attacks, due to the presence of secondary metabolites produced by trees as natural defense system. Dacryodes edulis, also known as African plum tree (En) or Safoutier (Fr), occurs naturally in Gabon, where it is widely used for its fruits. Its wood is reported to present similar properties to African mahogany, but it is still mainly used as firewood, even if it is reported by local populations to be resistant to termites. The tree is also able to exudate oleoresin in response to different stress or injuries. Indeed, exudation is a natural mechanism that plants use to heal their wounds. In addition, some authors consider it to be a protection in response to mechanical lesions or microbial invasion. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of Dacryodes edulis oleoresin as potential anti-termite and fungicide agents to develop more acceptable wood protection systems based on used of bio-pesticides. For this purpose, essential oil was separated from oleoresin using steam distillation with a Clevenger apparatus, while oleoresin was purified using different solvents. Each fraction was analyzed using GC-MS and subjected to different biological tests to evaluate their anti-termite and fungicidal properties.
W F Bedounguindzi, K Candelier, P E Engonga, Se Dumarcay, M-F Thevenon, P Gerardin


Chemical composition and performances of slow pyrolysis by-product from sugarcane bagasse for wood protection
2020 - IRG/WP 20-30752
Pyrolysis distillate or bio-oil, a by-product of biomasses’ slow pyrolysis in the char-making process, has been traditionally used as bio-pesticides by Asian farmers. Due to its large composition of bio-active chemicals, bio-oil obtained from various biomass has become of interest in many applications, including wood protectants. This study aims to characterize the chemical composition of bio-oil obtained from the slow pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at the temperatures of 400 °C and 500 °C, along with the efficacy test against two Basidiomycete fungi (Coniophora puteana, a cubic rot, and Trametes versicolor, a fibrous rot) and subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes). The test on wood was also conducted by impregnating the bio-oil to the beech wood samples. Treated samples were dried at various temperatures (ambient, 40°C, 60°C, 80°C and 103°C), and leached before being exposed to termites R. flavipes. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis revealed that bio-oil is composed mainly of oxygenated compounds such as carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, furans, and anhydrosugars. In contrast, about 40% of the bio-oil consisted of water. At the concentration of 0.25% (v/v), bio-oil were observed to be able to inhibit the growth of both Basidiomycete fungi, when performing inhibition growth tests in Petri dishes. Further, no termites survived when exposed to a filter paper with a 10% concentration of bio-oil. All the wood samples have been shown durable against R. flavipes. However, bio-oil remains leachable from the wood, which indicates that future studies should be conducted in order to find out how to decrease its leachability.
F D Boer, M-F Thévenon, J-M Commandre, M Fournier


Antifungal and antitermite activities of acetonic extractives from Cedrus Atlantica heartwood
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10990
Cedrus atlantica is a woody species present in France, which in a context of climate change can be privileged in the next years. In addition, this woody species presents great ecological and socio-economic interest as it is mainly recognized for its durable timbers and its essential oil presenting some interesting chemical properties. Therefore, the studies of its heartwood formation and properties of its extractives are interesting, spite of very few studies have been conducted till now. The radial repartition of water/acetone extractives within the tree (bark, sapwood, transition wood, outer heartwood and inner heartwood), at different tree height levels, were screened. HPLC analyses were performed, especially to characterized flavonoid compounds of these extractives fractions. The radial variation of the extractive composition obtained, highlighted the phenomenon of heartwood formation. Hypotheses on the metabolic pathways involved in the heartwood formation process of cedar wood were suggested, especially based on the occurrence and the radial evolution of catechin, taxifolin and flavan compounds. Then, the antifungal and anti-termite activities of the extracts were tested. The water/acetone extractives from Cedrus atlantica showed a strong repellent activity against termites and a moderate antifungal activity against crops and fruits pathogens. Thus, the results show a possible valorisation of the extractives of the Atlas cedar, as wood preservatives and/or as biocontrol products against pathogens of lignocellulosic agricultural crops.
R Dijoux, R Ducruet, E Kieny, D Aznar, C Cayzac, L Bidel, C J Allemand, K Candelier


Comparative study on the efficacy of biobased wood preservative over conventional wood preservatives against fungi and termites
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30761
The current focus of wood preservation research is on developing wood preservatives from natural and environmentally compatible compounds for industrial application. Liquefaction of wood is one of the promising approaches to utilize woody waste where the wood powder is converted into a chemically active liquid with the help of a liquefying agent like phenol, cresol, plant-based solvent as CNSL and Cardanol. These Liquefied wood polyols and conventional wood preservatives like CCA, CCB, and Chlorpyriphos as synthetic chemicals were in use for a long time and used in prescribed proportion. The efficacy and economic suitability of liquefied wood as a wood preservative and conventional wood preservative against termite and fungi have been studied. Wood samples were impregnated with both conventional and liquefied wood preservatives and evaluated as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) in terms of its antifungal (IS 4873, Part I:2008) and termiticidal activities (IS 4833:1993) through accelerated termite graveyard test and fungal resistance test. The level of impregnation of liquefied wood in wood was estimated by determining the weight percent gain. In the graveyard test, samples were periodically observed weekly intervals. The results indicated that Samples treated with phenol, CNSL, Cardanol based liquefied wood polyols exhibited better results as compared to conventional synthetic wood preservatives both in visual observation and percentage weight loss as compared to initial condition and untreated control samples. The percentage weight loss of liquefied wood polyols (phenol, CNSL and cardanol individually) treated wood sample was ranging from only 5-20% of its initial weight; wood treated with preservatives (CCA, CCB, and chlorpyriphos) shows % weight loss varied from 40- 60% and did not exhibit better resistance against termite and fungi as compared to the untreated samples. The treated samples were also exposed to fungus for 16 weeks. The fungicidal traits of liquefied wood polyols (phenolated, CNSL, and cardanol individually) treated wood showed higher antifungal efficacy against both white rot and brown rot of wood, conventionally wood treated preservatives (CCA, CCB, and chlorpyriphos) shows low efficacy against termite and fungus. The utilization of liquefied wood polyols for timber protection against termite and fungi as one of suitable option for valorizations of wood waste which is being generated during primary & secondary processing of wood by wood-based industry in large scale. The liquefied wood polyols (CNSL & Cardanol) based proved as the best wood preservative among all categories and having potential for commercialization over conventional wood preservatives at large scale by wood-based industry.
A Kumar, A John, B N Hazarika


Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ) or zinc borate (Firebrake ZB-FineÒ). With Reticulitermes flavipes, significant mortality (85-93%) resulted from workers tunneling through sand treated with 5000 ppm disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (higher concentrations were also effective), or 15000 ppm zinc borate. Responses of Coptotermes formosanus workers were lesser and more variable, with only concentrations of 10000 and 15000 ppm zinc borate resulting in mortality 70-89%) significantly different from that in the control groups. These results suggest that differences between these two species in tunneling behavior may reduce exposure of Coptotermes formosanus to the borate-treated sand.
J K Grace


Problems caused by termites in buildings in the State of Sao Paulo
1976 - IRG/WP 150
Termites are the main insects attacking buildings in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Their attack occurs in wood and wooden materials as well as paper, textile, leather and so on.
M S Cavalcante


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