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Evaluation of copperised Cashew nut shell liquid and Neem oil as wood preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30368
An effort has been made to develop eco-friendly wood preservatives using naturally available plant by-products with less toxicity. Copper was incorporated into Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and Neem seed oil. Rubber wood samples were treated with these solutions employing dipping and pressure techniques in 3 different levels. These samples have been evaluated to find out the effectiveness as wood preservatives against decay fungi and termites. The combinations of copper & CNSL and copper & Neem in pressure treatment have resulted in discernibly high protection against wood rotters and termites.
D Venmalar, H C Nagaveni

Effect of bio-resin from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on decay resistance properties of wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40649
This study assesses the decay resistance properties of bio-resin modified wood against decay fungi of the Basidiomycota according to the EN 113 protocol. A bio-resin system was developed by ozonolysis process from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a naturally occurring mixture of phenolics. Small wood blocks from sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon) and Gmelina (Gmelina arborea) were vacuum impregnated with methanolic solutions containing CNSL resin and tested for decay resistance against the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Postia placenta, and white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus. The relationship of fungal species, extent of resin treatment (WPG) and mass loss (ML) induced by decay were examined. The ML caused by the decay fungi, however decreased with the increasing WPG in all of the wood species against all of the fungi tested but at the highest loading of resin the protection threshold was not reached. The increased decay resistance is attributed to polymerization of the CNSL resin either in the wood cell wall or in the cell lumen providing a barrier decay fungi. The effects of ML by decay fungi and level of resin modification (WPG) on the final moisture content of resin modified wood at the end of the decay test were also examined. The moisture content at the end of the decay test was influenced by the decay fungi and the extent of resin modification. All the wood species modified with CNSL resin enhanced the hydrophobic nature of wood. As the protection threshold was not reached higher treatment levels for CNSL resin are required for full protection.
M Ashaduzzaman, M D Hale, V Tverezovskiy, G A Ormondroyd

The evaluation of the effectiveness of wood preservatives by means of IUFRO's method for field tests with wooden stakes
1985 - IRG/WP 3348
Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus saligna stakes treated with CCA-A, CCA-C, CCB, Cashew Nut Shell Oil and Benzotar solutions were exposed in seven test sites in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After five years of exposure, between oil-borne preservatives Benzotar show better performance than CNSL (cashew nut shell liquid), and within waterborne preservatives the performance of CCB is not so good as that of CCA-A and CCA-C, which show similar performance.
G A C Lopez, A M F Oliveira, E S Lepage

Composition of urushiol and cardanol from Japanese lacquer tree and related origins
1991 - IRG/WP 3667
Wood may be protected against insects and weathering based on the paints. Japan has been used to protect wood from weathering, insects, checking that ordinarily develop when unprotected wood is exposed to the weather. Japaned wood gives a hard, durable, various gloss especially black. The yield of culture-urus hiol obtained from Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vermiciflua Stokes) was 0.6% based on the dry weight of Japanese lacquer root. 3-(pentadecatrienyl- 8' ,11' ,14') catechol and 3-(pentadecatrienyl- 8', 11' ,13')-phenol were obtained from lacquer-urushiol. The composition of urushiol and cardanol was investigated from different origins including adventitious root, natural root, Japanese lacquer and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Also, the composition of the olefinic components of urushiol and cardanol from different origins was examined. On the other hand, 0.4% of cardanol existed in Japanese lacquer. Cardanol exists in both Japanese lacquer and the tissue culture of Japanese lacquer tree. The isolation of cardanol from Japanese lacquer and the adventitious roots of tissue cultures supports the presumed path way of urushiol, cardanol, cardol, and anacardic acid.
Y Inoue

Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coatings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10035
The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans was previously examined, using agar plate tests, with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood (Sharpe and Dickinson, 1992). This study compared these findings with the nutritional capability of four other fungi (Alternaria sp., Cladosporium cladosporoides, Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) commonly isolated from wood surfaee coatings. The liquid culture techniques were used to assess the relative abilities of the fungi to utilise a range of simple sugars, wood sugar alcohols, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin degradation compounds. The observations were used to explain why Aureobasidium pullulans is able to occupy so successfully, often in monoculture, the wood-paint interface niche.
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson

Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two preparation techniques agreed in the test to determine the mean percentage of void volume filled by liquid both radially and longitudinally, while the preparation process (i.e. machining, sealing, etc.) of the experimental samples and the period of the data collection was quite longer in CES than that for PES in either flow direction.
I Usta

Improvement of liquid penetration of wood by precompression under appropriate conditions and recovery process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40014
A new system for enhancing the penetration of liquid into wood using a precompression treatment was designed, and the effects of compressive deformation and recovery on liquid uptake were evaluated. Precompression of up to 60% under appropriate moisture and heat conditions effectively increased the penetration of liquid into refractory wood samples of practical sizes without producing any strength reduction. Water-saturated wood was compressed perpendicularly to the grain at temperature of 30 to 80°C, and two types of pretreated wood were prepared; i.e., set-recovered wood in which loading was released immediately after precompression, and preset-fixed wood which was dried under the influence of a decompressive force. The amount of liquid taken up by set-recovered wood was 2-3 times that taken up by untreated wood. When preset-fixed wood was dipped in liquid and the deforming force was released, liquid penetration was more than 25 times that seen in untreated softwood heartwood. Liquid effectively penetrated even long samples when pressure impregnation was applied to precompressed and preset-fixed wood. No significant reduction of strength was observed for treated wood except for that which had been precompressed up to 60%. Fracture of pit membranes during compression with little damage to unpitted cell-walls and an elastic recovery process were believed to improve liquid penetration with negligible compression defects.
I Iida, Y Imamura

Preservation of hyphal-forming brown- and white-rot wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10397
Lyophilization is an excellent technique for the long-term preservation of hyphal-forming brown- and white-rot wood-inhabiting basidiomycotina. However, vegetative mycelial isolates are not lyophilizable. In this study, 10 brown-rot and 10 white-rot basidiomycetous non-sporulating, non-chlamydosporulating, and non-bubillerferous basidiomycetes fungi were tested for viability after lyophilization. Optimization of the lyophilization involved (i) using mycelium agar plugs and mycelial fragments, (ii) improving physiological growth conditions, age of cultures, and growth medium components, (iii) adding to and adjusting the cold hardening period, initial-freezing rates, and dehydration and rehydration, and (iv) standardizing lyoprotectant type and concentration. All fungal growth on solid agar medium or in broth survived lyophilization. No noticeable changes in viability or morphological and biochemical characteristics occurred. Some mycelial isolates exhibited heavy filamentous mycelial growth and/or grew faster after lyophilization.
S C Croan

The effect of different concentrations of polesaver rods on the survival of selected decay fungi in liquid culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30166
An in-vitro method was developed to determine the effect of solutions of Polesaver Rods on the survival of selected decay fungi. Polesaver Rods are a diffusing preservative treatment containing fluorine and boron designed for the internal remedial treatment of power poles. Two white-rot fungi, Perenniporia tephropora and Trametes versicolor, and two brown-rot fungi, Polyporus verecundus and Gloeophyllum abietinum, were grown in flasks of liquid growth media containing one of eight different concentrations of Polesaver Rods. Subcultures were made from the mycelium in the flasks after 1 day, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks exposure. Sampled mycelium was inoculated onto a malt agar medium and emergent fungi were identified to determine survival of the original inoculum. Media aliquots were taken at each sample time for confirmatory analysis of boron and fluorine concentrations as well as the determination of residual glucose. All four test fungi exhibited increasing susceptibility to the Polesaver Rod solutions with time. Exposure for one week to the highest concentration (1.6% Polesaver Rod) was sufficient to kill all test fungi. Three of the fungi survived 2 weeks exposure to a 0.4% Polesaver Rod solution. After 8 weeks exposure to this concentration only one of the test fungi that was selected in this experiment for its known tolerance to boron, Polyporus verecundus, was able to survive.
M A Powell, T Deldot, C McEvoy

Application of roller-pressing method to the novel liquid impregnation treatment of green timber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40198
A transverse compression technique enabled us to impregnate liquid into green timber through replacement of the free water in the timber with a treatment liquid without any critical physical damage to the timber by the roller-pressing method. The roller-pressing is supposed to remove free water the cell cavities and to concurrently introduce the treatment solution into green timber in the treatment vessel. This process seems applicable to the preservative treatment of timber without drying prior to the treatment, and definitely contributes to both the reduction of production costs and the greater yield of the products due to the occurrence of the fewer undesirable checks. When Cryptomeria japonica D. Don was treated with an aqueous solution of phenolic-resin according to this process, weight gain exceeded 40% and anti-swelling efficiency went up to over 60% even for 1 min immersion period after pressing. Further trials are planned to evaluate biological resistance of the treated timber when fungicide(s) and/or termiticide(s) are incorporated into the treatment solution(s).
M Inoue, K Adachi, K Tsunoda, Y Imamura, S Kawai

Some factors affecting the treatability of spruce roundwood with ammoniacal preservative solutions
1976 - IRG/WP 371
Permeable wood species for use in preservative-treated commodities are becoming depleted in Canada. Spruce can be a convenient replacement for them from local resources provided it can be treated to levels adequate for protection of commodities in ground contact. Basically, two approaches were taken to improve treatability of difficult-to-penetrate softwood species; first, to improve the permeability of wood and second, to improve the penetrating properties of liquids. The first approach involves various means of wood pre-treatment: biological (enzymes, moulds and bacteria including ponding), chemical (removal of extractives), mechanical (precompression) and technological (presteaming of green wood, replacement of water in wood by solvents). There are a great many publications devoted to individual topics mentioned here indicating the significance of the subject. The second approach is the selection of a solvent capable of penetrating into the wood better than conventional solvents for, preservative compounds.
J Rak

Vertical distribution of fouling and wood-boring organisms in the Trondheimsfjord (Western Norway)
1981 - IRG/WP 476
Results of a detailed study on the vertical distribution of fouling and wood-boring organisme of Trondheimefjord at an interval of 3 m from intertidal level to a depth of 30 m, has been presented, based on data collected from two series of panels, exposed from 15-3-1977 to 15-7-1977 (Series I) and from 22-7-1977 to 13-3-1978 (Series II). The intensity of fouling generally decreased with increasing depth. Quantitatively fouling was heavy on panels of Series I than on Series II, although species-wise it was more heterogeneous on panels of Series II. The bulk of the fouling was constituted by Balanus crenatus, Laomedia sp., Mytilus edulis, Modiolus sp. and Hiatella arctica. Incidence of borers and the resultant destruction of timber were heavy on panels of Series II than on those of Series I. The influence of the period of exposure on the above pattern of infestation by foulers and borers has been discussed. Psiloteredo megotara concentrated at the upper levels upto a depth of 15 m, with more settlement between 3 m to 9 m depth. Although Xylophaga dorsalis was present on panels from 3 m to 30 m depth, their intensity abruptly changed from 9 m onwards and continued to increase with increasing depth, with maximum number near the mud level at 30 m. Attack of Limnoria lignorum also was heavy at mud level. On the same panel, while Psiloteredo megotara preferred to settle in more numbers on the lower surface, Xylophaga dorsalis did so on the upper silted surface. The importance of such selective vertical incidence of different borers and their cooperation in the destructive activity have been stressed from the point of wood destruction in the Trondheimsfjord.
L N Santhakumaran

Borate diffusion in wood from rods and liquid product. Application to laminated beams
1988 - IRG/WP 3482
In the aim to use borate preservatives (fused rods and boracol) in fields of building construction other than external joineries, tests of diffusion of borate rods and secondary boracol, were carried out on different species of woods exposed to different moisture conditions. Tests were also applied on laminated beams very often subjected to high moisture contents and thus decay of rot fungi. Diffusion was tested in different conditions and in relation, the action of these products was tried with stains and resins for improving strength properties. Diffusion tests on several species of wood confirm the proportionality already observed between moisture content and diffusion of borates in wood for all species. In a short time, test of diffusion on laminated wood showed a good diffusion in two lamella along the glue line leading to another way of boring. There is no problems between these borate products and stains or resins.
D Dirol

Aspects of the fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in liquid culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30160
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) that has found use as an anti-sapstain preservative for the transportation of softwood lumber from Canada to overseas markets. However, its use is limited by the knowledge that certain mould fungi seem capable of degrading it. The aim of this research was to gain knowledge about the fungal degradation of DDAC. The effects of Verticillium bulbillosum - a demonstrated QAC-degrading mould - on DDAC within a defined liquid culture were studied. Interactions between the liquid medium and DDAC; the degree of fungal tolerance under varying conditions; and rate of degradation paralleled with fungal growth were examined.
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick

Attempts to isolate tunnelling bacteria through physical separation from other bacteria by the use of cellophane
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1535
During attempts to isolate tunnelling bacteria in pure culture, physical separation from other bacteria was successfully achieved by the use of cellophane. Cellophane was used in liquid cultures as a substrate for tunnelling bacteria that were present in a mixture with other bacteria. By tunnelling into cellophane, TB were physically removed from contaminating bacteria which could then be removed by simple washing of the cellophane surface. The physically separated bacteria within the cellophane failed, however, to grow on various agar or liquid media. The reasons for this are discussed.
T Nilsson, G F Daniel

The relationship between basic density and liquid absorption in fast, plantation grown 8 Year Old Eucalyptus pellita and E. Urophylla
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40220
The liquid absorption characteristics of 8 year old Eucalyptus pellita and E. urophylla were studied in order to gain insight into the treatability of this young, fast grown eucalypt plantation resource. The trees were grown in an experimental plantation trial near Innisfail in northeast Queensland. The study demonstrated that average sapwood basic density in young plantation grown E. pellita and E. urophylla is 24 and 31% respectively lower than the value quoted in the literature. This is not an unexpected result. This work established a link between basic density and liquid absorption highlighting the advantage of expressing retention in terms of mass/mass as opposed to mass/volume.
J Norton, A Muneri

Basidiospore germination threshold against borate in-vitro may vary between liquid and agar media
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2405
The concentration of disodium octaborate (BAE) which prevented mycelial growth of a common brown rot and 3 white rot fungi was compared to that required to prevent basidiospore germination on malt extract agar. Spore germination sensitivity was lower (50%) for only one of the white rot fungi. However, when spore germination thresholds were tested in malt extract-borate solutions in well slides (no agar), much lower thresholds were noted for 3 of 4 fungi. Neither set of threshold data predicted that noted in limited tests on aspen (Populus tremuloides).
E L Schmidt, Ya-Lih Lin

Determination of corrosive effect of liquid wood preservatives to metals – First experiences with a National Standard which is in revision
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20321
The development of standards is an essential tool to characterise different kind of materials and products. An important aspect during the development of a new product is to check the corrosion behaviour with other materials. Corrosion can cause several problems like pitting corrosion. Consequently the knowledge concerning the corrosive effect of liquid wood preservatives is important due to the selection of inert materials for the construction of treating cylinders for example. Standardised laboratory test methods for the determination of corrosivity of wood preservatives are accepted since decades. Although these standards are well established it is sometimes necessary to revise them regarding their up-to-dateness. The main objective of this investigation was to check the practicability of the revised DIN 52168. The results show that the repeatability of the test procedure between the laboratories was satisfying. However, the major problem consists in the discrepancy between the known corrosion behaviour of QAC and the outcome of the corrosion test.
E Melcher

Minimum inhibitory concentration of methylene bisthiocyanate towards selected wood inhabiting fungi in liquid culture and on radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30261
The objective of the current study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) towards wood inhabiting fungi common on unseasoned radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). The fungi used were Ophiostoma floccosum, Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma viride. Fungi were individually inoculated into nutrient media spiked with different concentrations of MBT. After 12 days of incubation, biomass and microscopy were used to determine the MIC value for each fungus tested. For wood, radiata pine wafers were inoculated with individual fungi prior to dip-treatment with different concentrations of MBT. Fungal growth over the surface of wafers was assessed visually over five weeks and used an indicator to define a MIC value. Of all fungi tested, T. viride exhibited the greatest fungicidal tolerance in liquid media and on wood. For all fungi, spores and hyphal fragments were more sensitive to MBT than established hyphae, and considerably higher levels of MBT were required to kill growth of test fungi on wood than in liquid culture.
T Singh, B Kreber, C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, A Stewart

Environmental characterisation of retification process by-products (liquid and gaseous wastes)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-10
In order to reduce environmental risks during the service life of the treated wood and to find new alternative developments on the durability of wood, some research and technology development have been made on thermal treatment. The retification process is one of these processes. The retification process induces chemical modification of the lignin and cellulosic components and modifies the intrinsic properties of wood : efficient increases the durability against fungi and insects, increases of the dimensional stability, decrease of the mechanical properties. The interest of this process is to reduce the environmental impact during the service life. In order to confirm the high interest of this process for the reduction of the environmental impact, an environmental characterisation of wastes on pilot plant have been carried out. chemical analysis on gaseous and liquid effluents have been performed. An energetic assessment has been realised. The results indicate the high interest of this process in terms of possible biodegradable wastes and chemical valorisation interest, interest on energetic consumption in comparison with other wood processing treatment, interest on using retification treated wood in flooring according to indoor air quality requirements.
G Labat, E Bucket, S Legay, C Yriex, P Marchal, E Raphalen, M Vernois, R Guyonnet, H Besset, E Fredon), G Vilarem, L Rigal, C Raynaud

Durability of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D.DoN ) wood treated in high temperature liquid paraffin
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40221
Sugi(Cryptomeria japonica D.DoN )wood was subject to a heat treatment in high-temperature liquid paraffin for the purpose of improving the resistance against fungi and termites without chemicals. The bath of paraffin liquid, which can provide a uniform heat transfer (±2?), was used at temperatures of 90?,120?and 150?.?ecay resistance according to JIS K 15711) was evaluated using a brown rot fungus(Fomitopsis palustris). Termite resistance according to JWPA standard 112) was conducted using a termite(Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki). Paraffin-treated wood had decay and termite resistance, however its effectiveness disappeared when the paraffin of wood surfaces was removed. The difference of durability didn’t depend on the treatment conditions of the temperature and time.
Y Matsuoka, W Ohmura, S Fujiwara, Y Kanagawa

"XYLOPHENE ANTI-TERMITES" :A complete range of treatment products against termites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30230
Dyrup-Xylochimie purpose for several years efficient treatment products for timber and wood materials, with its trade mark : "Xylophèn". As everybody know, termites become an important problem for construction in France. So important that, a national law was voted in May 1999, to define areas where termites are present, in order to protect future landowner. To prevent efficiently termites damages, Dyrup-Xylochimie has developped, with its suppliers, a complete range of treatment product, included wood treatment products : - An anti-termites polyurethane foam : "Xylophèn Anti-Termites Mousse Polyuréthane" - An anti-termites bitumi nous emulsion products for the protection of underground walls : "Xylophèn Anti-Termites Fondations et murs enterrés" - A range of liquid treatment for soil and/or wall treatment : "Xylophèn Biflex", "Xylophèn sols attaqués", "Xylophèn sols sains" - Bait treatment based on an active ingredient named Sulfluramid : "Xylophèn FirstLine GT" and "Xylophèn FirstLine". This paper describe products, included in this range, concerning their efficacy, their function and their application. The aim of this range is to purpose different kind of solution to prevent termites damages, regarding environmental aspect, feasibility aspect, effiency aspect and cost aspect. Xylophèn: Trade Mark of Dyrup-Xylochimie Biflex and FirstLine: Trade Mark of FMC Corporation.
L Cubizolles, E Wozniak

The effect of an ionic liquid of imidazolium tetrafluoroborates series on Scots pine wood properties
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40357
Ionic liquids (ILs) of imidazolium tetrafluoroborates series penetrate Scots pine wood very well and are active against wood destroying fungi. The requirement to use ILs as wood preservatives is determined by the liquid influence on the functional properties of wood. Investigations were undertaken to clarify the influence of an ionic liquid, 3-heptyloxymethyl-1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate = [(C7Om)mim][BF4], on selected physical and mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood. The miniature sapwood samples were subjected to sorption and brushing with [(C7Om)mim][BF4]. The properties of the treated wood were compared with those of control wood, i.e. untreated wood. [(C7Om)mim][BF4] exerted only a very small influence on wood color – the total color change, ?E, amounted to about 5, which facilitated visual distinction of the wood texture, however, the color change of the treated wood was lower when irradiated with a xenon lamp. This demonstrated the resistance of IL-treated wood against color change at exposure to light. In comparison with control wood samples the IL-treated wood samples manifested also lower hygroscopic and absorptive potential. In addition, the relative differences in tensile strength, bending strength and modulus of elasticity between the treated and control samples were statistically insignificant. Compression strength along the grain of treated wood was greater by 1.6% than that of control wood, while the impact strength of treated wood was lower by 7.8% in comparison with control samples. The influence of [(C7Om)mim][BF4] treatment on physical and mechanical properties of wood, although insignificant, was generally positive if the IL is intended for biocidal protection.
A Fojutowski, R Szukala, J Pernak

Primary Study on Compressed Preservative-treated Wood (CPW) for Outdoor Applications
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40412
In this study, the compressed wood samples pre-treated with hot water bath or water spraying were immersed in the ammoniacal copper quat –type D (ACQ-D) preservative solution to get compressed preservative-treated wood (CPW). The liquid absorption and the recovery rate of compression deformation of the compressed wood was determined, as well as the surface hardness, the distribution of density and CuO retention in the thickness direction of CPW. The results showed that: (1) the recovery rate and liquid absorption were closely related with each other. Generally a higher recovery rate of compressed deformation corresponded to a higher liquid absorption; (2) the liquid absorption of compressed wood with pre-treatments was about 1.5 times of the untreated control samples, and the surface hardness of the CWP prepared with this method was 3~4 times of that of the untreated control samples; while the corresponding values of those without pre-treatments were more than 2.0 times and about 1.6 times, respectively; (3) the density distribution of the CWP with pre-treatments were much more uniform in the thickness direction, additionally the retention of CuO appeared to be much higher and had a clear trend of higher retention on surfaces and lower inside compared with that of the CWP without pre-treatments. In conclusion, the CPW prepared in this study can achieve both surface densification and preservation, which are suitable for outdoor applications.
Jinzhen Cao, Jia Mao

Effects of Moisture Content and Species on Penetration of Liquid in Laser Incised Lumber by the Passive Impregnation Method
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40408
Penetration of liquid by passive impregnation method for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis Gordon) were studied. Effects of initial moisture content of sugi (16, 43 and 70% moisture content) on liquid penetration by the method were also studied. Dried Douglas-fir and sugi, and green Japanese larch and sugi were treated by passive impregnation method for penetration analysis. It was observed that dried sugi had the highest amount of liquid penetration both in length (170 mm) and width (8 mm) for all measured sections following green sugi, green Japanese larch and dried Douglas-fir. In case of different initial moisture content, the highest absorption (624 kg/m3) and penetration (maximum 87 and 96% at cross and longitudinal surfaces, respectively) was observed for sugi having the lowest initial moisture content with the same passive impregnation conditions. Absorption and penetration decreased with the increase of initial moisture content for sugi. These results would help in designing incising pattern and density, and selecting the suitable initial moisture content for passive impregnation.
N Hattori, M Nazrul Islam, K Ando, H Yamauchi

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