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Resistance of two commercial cement-bonded rubberwood particle composites to decay and termites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10338
Two types of cement-bonded rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) particle composites (tradenames: Cemboard and Primaflex in Malaysia), were evaluated for termite resistance (prevalent termite: Coptotermes curvignathus) in the field, and decay resistance (test white rot fungi: Schizophyllum commune and Pycnoporus sanguineus; test brown rot fungus: Gloeophyllum trabeum; test soft rot fungi: Phialophora fastigiata and compost-Chaetomium globosum mixed inocula) in the laboratory. Three termite- or decay- susceptible wood materials [rubberwood, kempas (Koompasia malaccensis) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata) pressed pulp] were also included for comparison. Both types of wood-cement composites were consistently shown to be immune to decay fungi and subterranean termites, recording also much lower final moisture contents of the composites compared with rubberwood, kempas and radiata pine pressed pulp. These wood-cement composites are therefore suitable for use in a severe decay and termite hazard.
A A H Wong

Biological durabilityof cement-bonded particleboard
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20115
Cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) is a panel product manufactured from a combination of wood particle and cement with various ratio. The wood particle is used as reinforced material and the cement as an inorganic binder. Because of its many excellent properties, such as high weathering resistance, sound attenuation, and good acceptance for a range of surface treatments, CBP is widely used as a facade material in Japan. The present study is carried out to investigate the biological durability of CBP. The tested material was a standard commercial CBP product and obtained directly from one Japanese producing company. Two experiments were conducted. One was decay test by applying an Japanese standard method. The other one studied the effect of fungal attack on the internal bonding strength (IB) of the material. Two other commercial structural wood-based composites, i.e. Oriented Strand Board (OSB) and Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), were also included in the study with the purpose of comparison.
Qiao Wang, M Takahashi

Physico-Mechanical and Biological Properties of Cement Bonded Particleboards from Nordmann Fir
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40798
Wood species, wood-cement ratio and curing accelerator types are the major factors effecting properties of wood-cement composites. This paper investigates the effects of wood-cement ratios and cement curing accelerator types on some properties of cement bonded particleboards (CBPBs) from Nordmann fir [Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. subsp. Nordmanniana]. A total eight groups of the experimental boards with 1200 g/cm3 target density and 10 mm thickness were produced by using three curing accelerator types [Al2(SO4)3, CaCl2 and FeCl3] and two wood-cement ratios (1/2 and 1/3 by weight). The curing accelerators were used at 5% ratio of cement weight for all the boards. physical (density, water absorption and thickness swelling), mechanical (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bonding strength and screw withdrawal strength) of the boards and decay resistance (brown rot fungi) properties were determined according to EN323, ASTM D1037, EN 317, EN 310, EN 319, EN 320 and EN 113, respectively. The results show that the better mechanical and physical properties were obtained from the boards with 1/3 wood-cement ratio and CaCl2. On the other hand, the fungi failed to attack the cement-bonded particleboards.
H Yel, U Aras, H Kalaycioglu

Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional stability and decay resistance of the benzylated particleboard were evaluated. Particleboards made of benzylated particles having more than 38% of weight percent gain (WPG) showed that dimensional stability and decay resistance were superior to the conventional particleboard made by using phenolformaldehyde resin as a binder, because hydroxyl groups of wood were substituted by hydrophobic benzyl groups with benzylation. Though bending strength of the board was a little lower than control board due to the damage of benzylated particles during benzylation, its internal bonding strength was very high, because the hot-melting strengthened the inter-particle bonding.
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto

Specific gravity and moisture content of particleboards treated with various chemicals
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40310
The aim of the study was to investigated the effects of particleboard treated with various chemical substances on specific gravity and moisture content The wood raw material used in the experiments were the mixture of coniferous wood [70%, Pinus brutia Ten., Pinus nigra Arn (Lamb.), Cedrus libani Ait.] and black poplar (30%, Populus nigra L.). In this mixture, barks have been accepted up to 5 percent. The used chemicals were in the concentrations of 10-8 % urea-formaldehyde, 10 % ammonium clorure, 10 % rosin, 20 % alkyd resin, 5 % boric acid, 7 % ammonium sulfate, 10 % tanalith-CBC, 5 % borax, 1.76 % immersol-WR 2000, 2.5 / 2.5 % boric acid/borax, 5 / 2.5 / 2.5 % tanalith-CBC/boric acid/borax. According to the result of this study; for all of the particleboards, the density and the moisture content increased with increasing the chemical agents ratio used.
Ü C Yildiz, A A Var, H Kalaycioglu, S Yildiz

Treatment of particleboard with isocyanate resin to impart improved dimensional stability and water repellency
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40178
Standard particleboard panels (for interior use) of 16 mm nominal thickness were cut into samples measuring 6.4 mm x 78 mm2. The samples were divided into 4 end matched batches. Two batches were treated with isocyanate resin and cured. The other 2 batches were left untreated. One of the treated batched and 1 of the untreated batches were edge sealed with epoxy resin prior to isocyanate resin application. The weight and thickness of each samples was measured prior to placing the sample in a beaker of distilled water. The weight and thickness were measured periodically for 1 week. Treatment with isocyanate resin reduced the average weight gain of sealed samples compared to the controls after 1 week. The average weight gain after 144 hours was 37% and 63% respectively while unsealed samples achieved a weight gain of 37% and 100% respectively. The thickness swelling was also reduced in the sealed samples compared to the controls (10% and 17% respectively) and the unsealed samples had a thickness swelling of 9% and 21% respectively. The results show a reduction in the rate of moisture uptake (water repellency) and amount (dimensional stability). Further experiments are described comparing particleboard with solid wood, with and without isocyanate resin application.
K M Filcock, P Vinden

Leaching of chromium and other cca components from wood-cement composites made with spent CCA treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50153
Wood cement composites are an attractive option for recycling spent treated wood, since the CCA treatment enhances the physical, mechanical and biological resistance properties of the composite. However, we have noted a higher than normal leaching of chromium from these products and this appears to result from conversion of some of the trivalent chromium to the more leachable and toxic hexavalent chromium from the trivalent chromium in the wood. The effects of hexavalent chromium reducer --FeSO4, the pH value of mixing water and different kinds of accelerators on the leaching properties of this composite were tested. Arsenic and copper components of CCA in treated wood were well fixed after mixed with cement. Although total chromium leaching amount was reduced greatly in the CCA treated wood-cement composite compared to CCA treated wood, more hexavalent chromium was detected from the leachate of the composite. Cr+6 leaching accounted for about 80% of the total chromium leaching. FeSO4 had a positive effect on decreasing chromium leaching amounts, especially when used in the board having more potentially leachable chromium. Reducing the pH value of mixing water decreased the total chromium leaching amount, but its effect on Cr+6 leaching was not significant. The leaching of Cr+6 and total chromium also depended on the accelerators used; boards with added CaCl2 showed less Cr+6 and total chromium leaching amounts, while Na2CO3 increased chromium leaching.
D Qi, P A Cooper

Feasibility of termite control using crushed cement-stabilized sludge (Polynite) as a physical barrier and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10381
In Japan, the damages by the subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe) are more common. Recently, the more attention is paid to the methods of the termite controls of less- or non-chemical. As one of the non- chemical treatment, physical barrier using particles as basalts 1) , granites, and gravels 2) were investigated in terms of its safety, cost effectiveness and duration of performance, and there were also examples that the physical barriers using some particles have been put to practical use in a few countries except in Japan. Ebeling and Pence showed that the relationship between particle size and termite body size is an important factor in controlling tunneling activity of subterranean termites, and the crushed volcanic cinders of 0.85-2.36 mm in diameter prevented R. hesperus from penetrating 3) . Tamashiro and co- workers indicated that the particles of particular sizes (1.70-2.40 mm in diameter) prevented C. formosanus from penetrating 4) . Su and co- workers investigated the penetration of the sand barrier consisting of crushed quartz rocks and fossilized coral by C. formosanus in laboratory- and field-testing 5, 6) . These results show that it is important to investigate the relationships between the size of termites and particles to evaluate the effects of the physical barrier using particles. On the other hand, in Japan surplus soils and sludge of sixty million tons per annum are discharged from construction sites. The recycle techniques using the surplus soils and sludge and the development of the market for these recycled products are the theme of importance. The crushed cement- stabilized sludge (Polynite) as one of the recycled products of surplus soils and sludge is one of the newly developed and recycled material. It is technically suitable for mass production, has grate cost effectiveness, and is easy to uniform the particle size. In this study, the feasibility of a physical barrier using Polynite uniformed the particle size for termite was examined in a laboratory testing. AE monitoring 7-13) as a method forthe detection of the penetration of termites into the Polynite barrier at an early stage was also investigated, for the application of Polynite barrier in the house.
Y Yanase, M Shibata, Y Fujii, S Okumura, K Iwamoto, T Nogiwa, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura

Dimensional stability, biological resistance, and mechanical properties of phenol-resin-treated particleboard
1990 - IRG/WP 3622
Particleboards were treated with a low molecular-weight phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and their enhanced properties were evaluated. Besides dipping of particles in aqeous solutions of resin, and spraying of resin solutions before spray of the conventional phenol-formaldehyde resin for adhesive binder, one step treatment by spraying of the mixture of the low molecular-weight resin and the adhesive resin was also employed. After 2-hour boiling, the boards treated at 10% incorporated resin loading (IRL) retained 80% of their strength values in a dry condition. The internal bond strength increased with increasing IRLs, and the boards of 20% IRL showed twice of the value of untreated controls in the same level of board density. Treated particleboards resulted in a more dramatic reduction in the rate of swelling even at low resin loadings. Results obtained from accelerated laboratory tests on biodegradation suggested that incorporated resin-solids worked well to enhance decay and termite resistance of particleboards.
Y Imamura, H Kajita

Preservative requirements for exterior particleboard as predicted from accelerated laboratory evaluations
1976 - IRG/WP 265
Arguments for and against preservative treatment of exterior particleboard were considered; it was concluded that preservative treatment is desirable. Laboratory decay tests were conducted to determine levels of sodium pentachlorophenoxide required to protect exterior particleboard from decay fungi. The decay resistance of treated board was compared with that of timber (both naturally durable and preservative-treated) currently used in situations for which exterior particleboard is designed. A retention of 0.35% sodium pentachlorophenoxide per oven-dry board weight was considered to offer adequate protection to the board.
M E Hedley

The hydrolysis of organo-boron compounds in treated particleborard
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40180
Standard particleboard (manufactured for interior applications) was treated with trimethylborate and modified trimethylborate and then left to hydrolyse for specified periods. The percentage residual trimethylborate was determined by placing samples in kerosene and analysing the kerosene for boron after 3 days of leaching. There was a significant correlation between the percentage hydrolysis of trimethylborate and the original trimethylborate concentration in the wood. The specific gravity of modified trimethylborate formulations also influenced the apparent rate of hydrolysis.
K M Filcock, P Vinden

Termite and decay resistance of particleboard composed of white cypress pine and radiata pine
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10200
Phenol-formaldehyde bonded particleboard was manufactured from blends of non-durable radiate pine (P. radiate) and heartwood of the naturally durable species, white cypress pine (C. glaucophylla). Board specimens were subjected to bioassays using two termite species, M. darwiniensis and C. acinaciformis, and the basidiomycete fungi, C. puteana and P. ostreatus, and the durability of specimens was compared with that of commercially manufactured particleboard specimens containing either insecticide or fungicide. The aims were to determine whether the natural durability of the boards was modified by the addition of cypress pine and if the durability of boards was comparable to that of boards containing insecticide or fungicide. Particleboard specimens containing cypress pine showed increased durability compared to specimens consisting entirely of radiate pine. There was an inverse relationship between the percentage of cypress pine and mass losses of specimens during the bioassays. During the M. darwiniensis bioassay mass losses of specimens containing 100 or 90% cypress pine heartwood were comparable to those of specimens containing insecticide. However, cypress pine particleboard specimens, irrespective of cypress pine content, were less resistant to attack by C. acinaciformis than specimens containing insecticide. Specimens containing 75% or more of cypress pine possessed similar decay resistance as specimens containing fungicide.
P D Evans, J W Creffield, J S G Conroy, S C Barry

Soil bed studies of the dimensional stability of composite products
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40134
The influence of boron and isocyanate resin on the dimensional stability of high moisture resistant particleboard was assessed after burial in a soil bed for one month. The samples were treated with two levels of a boron compound and coated in isocyanate resin. The samples were randomly placed in a fungal cellar in soils of two different water holding capacities. Weight differences and dimensional changes were measured after one month. The results suggest that there is a significant increase in weight and thickness swelling. Boron treatment prior to resin impregnation also appears to have assisted moisture absorption.
K M Filcock, P Vinden

The effects of chemical modification on the physical properties of alder and spruce particleboards
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40300
In this paper, it was aimed to improve some physical properties of chemically modified particleboard, made from spruce and alder species, spreading widely at Black sea region in Turkey. Spruce and alder chips were reacted with acetic, succinic, maleic and phthalic anhydrides at constantly heat for 3 hours then, hot pressed at 150 °C by using Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin. Target board density was 650 kg/m3. Density, moisture content, thickness swelling and water absorption rate were determined on the chemically modified boards, reacted with four different anhydrides. Results were compared with control boards. Chemical modification of boards reacted with anhydrides resulted in improved thickness swelling and water absorption values. The best results were determined boards reacted with acetic and succinic anhydride treatments than the others.
E Dizman, Ü C Yildiz, H Kalaycioglu, S Yildiz, A Temiz, E D Gezer

The emission of boron compounds from treated particleboard
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40179
The emission of chemical vapours can be harmful both during treatment and service of wood and wood products. Samples of Standard particleboard (for interior use) were treated with trimethylborate, and a number of modified organo-boron compounds. Treated samples were placed immediately under a desiccator lid and air was drawn across each samples to 3 water traps. Water samples were taken after 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes and tested for elemental boron content. Samples treated with trimethylborate emitted the greatest amount of boron into the water traps recording 434.8 mg/L after 30 minutes reducing to 144.4 mg/L after 180 minutes. Samples treated with modified organo-boron compound showed negligible boron emissions and samples treated with mixtures of trimethylborate and modified organo-boron compound emitted 35.1 mg/L boron after 30 minutes increasing to 362.5 mg/L after 180 minutes. The results show that samples containing trimethylborate have much higher emissions of boron over the 180 minute period.
K M Filcock, P Vinden

Serial techniques for producing fire-retardant wood products
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30127
A series of techniques including fire-retarders denoted by WFR-1, WFR-2. WFR and their applications in producing fire-retardant wood (WFR wood), fire-retardant plywood (WFR plywood), fire-retardant particleboard (WFR particleboard) and fire-retardant MDF (WFR MDF) were investigated The fire retarders were low toxic, decay resistant and less leachable. The treated wood and WFR panels were of excellent fire resistance and good physic-mechanical properties. Besides formaldehyde released from WFR panels was very low.
Zhu Jia Qi, Liu Yan Ji, Gao Chao Ying

Properties of particleboard made from recycled CCA-treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50146
Recovery of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood for reuse ha s been the focus of several international research groups due to the imminent disposal problem created when large quantities of CCA-treated wood ultimately come out of service. Bioleaching with Bacillus licheniformis CC01 and oxalic acid extraction are two methods known to remove significant quantities of metals from CCA-treated wood. Remediated particulate CCA-treated southern pine was reassembled into particleboard (PB) using 10% urea-formaldehyde resin. Particleboard panels were evaluated for internal bond (IB), modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), thickness swell (TS) and water absorption compared to particleboard manufactured from virgin southern pine and CCA-treated southern pine. Particleboard panels prepared from the remediated chips showed an average 28% reduction in IB and a 13% reduction in MOR compared to values for PB prepared with virgin chips under the pressing parameters used in this study, though individual IB values for all specimens were above the ANSI standard for medium density particleboard. An 8% increase in MOE in the remediated chip PB compared to the virgin chip PB may indicate densification of the fiber surface as a result of the acid extraction step of the remediation process. Thickness swell and water absorption after 24-hour submersion also increased in PB prepared from remediated chips (15% and 14%, respectively). We conclude that pressing parameter optimization could alleviate decreases in MOR and IB seen in PB made from remediated chips, and that the effects of acid extraction on MOR and IB properties should be further evaluated.
C A Clausen, S N Kartal, J H Muehl

Performance of Oriented Strandboard, Medium Density Fiberboard, Plywood, and Particleboard Treated with Tebuconazole in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30364
The performance of oriented strandboard (OSB), medium density fiberboard (MDF), particleboard and plywood treated with tebuconazole using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated over a 48 month exposure under harsh above ground conditions in Hilo, Hawaii. Samples treated to low retentions (<0.20 kg/m3) tended to experience decay at rates that were only slightly lower than those found with untreated controls. This was particularly true with aspen OSB, which failed within 30 months regardless of treatment level. Most other samples treated to higher retentions remained free of fungal decay over the test period. Tebuconazole treated Douglas-fir plywood provided the best performance, demonstrating the benefits of combining a moderately durable heartwood with supplemental preservative treatment. The results indicate that SCF-treated wood provides reasonable performance in non-soil exposures under severe decay conditions.
J J Morrell, M N Acda, A R Zahora

Biological and physical properties of phenolic-resin treated wood before and after natural weathering
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40132
Biological and physical properties of phenolic resin-treated particleboards, which were made from fast growing tress and agrowaste as raw materials, were evaluated before and after natural weathering in tropical climate. The particles were sprayed with a mixture of a low molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde resin (5.0, 7.5 and 10% loading) and the adhesive phenol resin (8% loading). Results with laboratory biological tests revealed that low-molecular weight resin solids worked well to enhance the decay and termite resistance of particleboards in proportional to the resin loading. The physical properties such as IB strength, MOR and MOE also increased with the resin loading. After exposure to natural weathering, these properties decreased gradually due to the effect of sunshine or rain-water, but the treated particleboards with 7.5% and 10% resin loadings still maintained the higher levels of these properties.
S Yusuf, Y Sudiyani, H Kajita, Y Imamura, M Takahashi

Compatibility of deltamethrin with wood-finishing and construction materials
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30010
Under normal use conditions, treated wood comes to close contact with the structural components of a buiLding, and/or receives finishing, forming a new interface, which can affect the performance of a new product such as deltamethrin. To study this possibility, block-tests of Parana-Pine (Araucaria angustifolia), measuring 12 x 24 x 0.5 cm³ (with the largest dimension parallel to the wood-grain), received brushing treatment with deltamethrin and kerosene in two different concentrations: 0.02% (w/w) and 0.04% (w/w). After 20 days under laboratory conditions, the block-tests received a superficial finishing with poliurethan varnish, enamel paint, oil paint (alkidic) and latex paint and were fastened in close contact, through rubber band, with bricks, building cement, concrete blocks and plaster. A set of pieces made up of these construction materials was treated with deltamethrin in the same concentration as mentioned above, forming a reference series. The test against dry-wood termites (Cryptotermes brevis) was carried out 21 months after the treatment. The deltamethrin proved to be very effective in wood protection, independently of the finish used and the type of construction material in contact with the wood.
E S Lepage

Preliminary investigation on the natural durability of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum)-based wood products
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40154
Conventional preservatives used to protect wood from insect and microbial damages are presently of major concern to human health and the environment. Finding alternative and economical preservatives has not been successful. Previous studies have shown that the resinous material extracted from the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum, Gray) has both insect- and microbial-resistant properties. Unfortunately, it has not been accepted commercially because of the lack of an adequate supply of the raw material. However, the potential domestication of the guayule plant to produce hypoallergenic rubber latex will result in the production of large amounts of waste wood material. This should provide opportunity to use this natural source of the biologically resistant resinous chemicals. The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the effects of the rubber latex-removed wood residues or bagasse and the resinous extracts on termite- and decay-resistant properties. Two types of test materials were used in the study. One was wood impregnated with organic-solvent extracted resinous material from the plant. The other was composite wood fabricated using the residue or whole plant and plastic binder, which was used to improve the physical properties of the composite. Accelerated laboratory tests were conducted to determine the resistance of the wood products against the Eastern subterranean termite and wood fungi (brown-rot). The wood and stem of the guayule plant, wood treated with the resinous extract, and particle and composite wood made from ground guayule exhibited termite and wood fungal resistance.
F S Nakayama, P Chow, D S Bajwa, J A Youngquist, J H Muehl, A M Krzysik

Effect of remediation on the release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from particleboard made from CCA treated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50170
This study sought to determine the effect of remediation with oxalic acid (OA) extraction and Bacillus licheniformis fermentation on the release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from particleboard made from remediated wood particles and also investigates durability of the particleboard against white and brown- rot fungi. Particleboard samples were manufactured using untreated, CCA-treated, OA-extracted, and bioremediated southern yellow pine particles. Results shows that oxalic acid extraction and bioremediation by B. licheniformis significantly increased removal of elements from CCA-treated wood particles. The particleboards containing OA-extracted and bioremediated particles showed generally high leaching losses of remaining elements. Exposure of particleboard samples to decay fungi indicated that Gloeophyllum trabeum caused greater weight losses in all samples than Postia placenta. In general, leached samples from all particleboard types had greater weight losses than unleached samples. CCA particleboard samples were the most resistant to fungal degradation.
S N Kartal, C A Clausen

A substantively bonded water repellent treatment based on chromium carboxylates
1985 - IRG/WP 3344
Chromium carboxylates soluble in toluene have been synthesised and applied to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood. Without any further treatment, the compounds may be readily leached from wood surfaces with toluene. After a period of heating however, they become fixed to the cell wall, substantial amounts being resistant to leaching even under reflux conditions for several hours. Treatment of wood polysaccharide and lignin fractions separately, indicates that most of the fixation occurs to lignin, although the polysaccharides may be involved to a lesser extent. Swelling and water sorption tests have been carried out on small cross-sectional wafer specimens treated with the chromium carboxylates. These show that the treatments impart significant levels of water repellency and that the water repellent effect persists much better than with conventional resin/paraffin wax treatments.
J K Wright, W B Banks, W J Eilbeck

Diagnostics methods and routes proposalsto define selective sorting of demolition wood wastes
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50177
Wood wastes are more and more often used in different wood waste valorisation industries (panels, wood energy, cement factories, ...). These industries are in progress to include in their processes, wood wastes coming from demolition wood. A state of the art and an analysis have been made to propose : (1) diagnostics methods to carry out a classification of wood wastes on demolition sites and in the sorting sites based on analytical methods, (2) routes to carry out the classification of wood wastes (according to products present in wood wastes : biocides, finishing products, and according to French regulation requirements). Some proposals are discussed.
G Labat, E Bucket, C Fréret, G Deroubaix

Wood cement composites using spent CCA treated wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50126
The feasibility of using spent or out-of-service CCA treated wood as a component of wood/cement composites was evaluated. Cold pressed wood particle cement boards were made using CCA treated particles from a red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) pole removed from service and from untreated red pine wood from a new pole. Boards were manufactured using a range of wood to cement ratios and water to cement ratios. After curing the boards were evaluated for bending strength and stiffness, internal bond strength, water absorption, thickness swell, decay resistance and CCA leaching properties. The inclusion of CCA treated wood in the composite resulted in improved physical and mechanical properties compared to board made with untreated wood. There was also evidence of improved decay resistance in boards with spent CCA treated wood. Arsenic and copper leaching losses were very low from the wood cement composite compared to leaching from equivalent amounts of CCA treated wood. However, chromium leaching rates were not reduced.
Chen Huang, P A Cooper

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