Your search resulted in 50 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Anatomical, physical and chemical changes of Bamboo (Phyllostachys puberscence ) during weathering processes
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10650
Bamboo (Phyllostachys puberscence) culms with 1, 2, 3 year old were exposed to natural weathering condition in Gwangju, Korea for 12 months. Changes in color, surface topography, strength and chemical properties were investigated using various microscopic and instrumental techniques. After one year’s weathering, the color of bamboo became lighter but strengths of bamboo did not change significan...
Jong Sik Kim, Kwang Ho Lee, Mi Young Cha, Yoon Soo Kim
Surface color and roughness characteristics of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels treated with fire retardants
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40420
The objective of this study was to determine surface characteristics and color change properties of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated by fire retardants (FR) with 10% concentration. Experimental panels were made using by melamine ureaformaldehyde (MUF) adhesive having 10%, 15%, 20% of melamine. The surface properties of the samples were determined using a fine stylus technique. Three roughn...
D Ustaömer, M Usta, S Hiziroglu
Accelerated weathering of nine tropical wood species from Cameroon
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10705
The natural durability of tropical species for building components has been a subject of recent concern and questioning, mainly the resistance to weathering. Weathering resistance of nine tropical species from Cameroon, namely Azobe, Bilinga, Bubinga, Teak, Dousie, Moabi, Musanga, Sipo and Padauk were evaluated using an accelerated weatherometer for 2016 hours. Measurement of moisture fluctuation,...
S Pankras, Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem
The assessment by visual grading, change of color and ergosterol content ratings, the resistance to mould fungi of treated with wood preservative Scots pine sapwood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20514
The filamentous (mould) fungi belonging to Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes group are an cosmopolitan organisms which attacks wooden elements disfiguring them, dropping their value and causing environmental and health hazard. The fungi in a short time cause mainly disfigurement of wood does not effect on strength properties of wood, but with strong prolongation of duration of conditions favourable for ...
A Fojutowski, A Koziróg, A Kropacz
The effect of UV irradiation on some technological properties of different polyurethane varnishes coated plywood panels from veneers dried at different temperatures
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40661
In this study, the effect of UV irradiation on some technological properties of three different polyurethane varnishes coated plywood panels produced from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L.) veneers manuactured and dried at different temperatures was studied. Accordingly, 32°C log peeling temperature and three different veneer drying temperatures (110, 140 and ...
Ö Özgenç, C Demirkir, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoğlu
Color change of timber exposed outdoors - Influence of season exposure test starts
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40865
For the client the material and color of the exterior wall are important, because they affect the impression of the building . However, discoloration of the exterior wall begins as soon as the building is completed, by various factors such as rainfall. We tried to quantitatively evaluate the changes of the exterior wood, and to organize the influences of climate conditions, in order to use the ...
K Usami, H Ishiyama
Effects of acetylation on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiberboard
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40059
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated kenaf fiber, Phenol formaldehyde resin content level, and three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density non wood composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also ...
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Rowell
Combined effects of the treatment of wood with formaldehyde
1978 - IRG/WP 3117
Treatment of fibrous materials with reagents in a vapor phase is neither new nor unique. Numerous examples exist in literature of vapor phase experiments on cellulose fibers and fabrics, and on wood. For many years the textile research and industry have used vapor phase processes for the treatment of textiles. The chemical modification of cellulose is based on different types of reactions e.g. est...
M Stevens, J Schalck
Weather testing of timber - discoloration
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20221
The brightness and color saturation of the timber were reduced over time. The perception of an increasingly dark color in the timber over time is due to the gradual reduction in brightness. The period from May to September was characterized by the greatest discoloration of all three periods of the year. Because this period has the largest number of sunlight hours, and the timber is subjected to a ...
T Toyoda, M Azuma, Y Hikita
Biodegradation of acetylated southern pine and aspen composition boards
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40020
This objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated wood fiber, Phenol-formaldehyde resin content level, two wood fiber species, three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistence of high density composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species...
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Powell
Effects of boron treatments on partially decayed oak and pitch pine heartwood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30106
This paper reports results of borate based preservative treatment and leaching experiments on partially decayed oak and pitch pine heartwood. Previous experiments have shown little damage is caused to sound timber of these types when treated with Polybor and Boracol 20 preservatives. This experiment was carried out to assess the suitability of selected borate based preservatives for use in histori...
S McCutcheon, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, P Durrant
Effect of cyclic change of temperature on fungal growth and mass loss
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10065
For estimating the effect of cycling change of temparature on fungal growth, four Japanese species, sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora) and buna (Fagus crenata), four fungal species, Tyromyces palustris, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus coccineus, and five temperature conditions, 10, 20, 27, 35°C and cyclic temperature (20°...
K Suzuki, K Okada
Steam/hold/APM boron treatment - Treatability trials with green gauged radiata pine
1987 - IRG/WP 3439
Freshly sawn 100 x 50 mm radiata pine was green gauged, steam conditioned and preservative treated with a mixture of borax and boric acid using a modified Alternating Pressure Method (APM) treatment schedule. A 12 hour holding period between steam conditioning and treatment resulted in the necessary moisture loss and moisture re-distribution to facilitate treatment to NZ Timber Preservation Author...
The impact of global warming on the UK distribution of house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10414
This paper reviews the effects of global warming on insect populations and distribution. The affects of global warming on the spread of Hylotrupes is predicted through a review of research related to the influence of temperature on its life-cycle and flight. Records of Hylotrupes distribution were obtained from published surveys, entomologists and museum collections and were plotted for the UK. Th...
P Oevering, A J Pitman
Preliminary investigation on the natural durability of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum)-based wood products
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40154
Conventional preservatives used to protect wood from insect and microbial damages are presently of major concern to human health and the environment. Finding alternative and economical preservatives has not been successful. Previous studies have shown that the resinous material extracted from the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum, Gray) has both insect- and microbial-resistant properties. Unfor...
F S Nakayama, P Chow, D S Bajwa, J A Youngquist, J H Muehl, A M Krzysik
A New Decay Hazard Map for North America Using the Scheffer Index
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10672
Wood decay experts in the USA and Canada use the Scheffer Index for above-ground wood decay potential to decide among design and treatment options to ensure the durability of wood construction. This paper provides an updated North American decay hazard map and includes data on Central America. Index values calculated from recent climate data are higher than published values due to directional or c...
P I Morris, J Wang
Theory of Aesthetics – Charm in Furniture and an Aesthetic Evaluation of Bleaching of the Natural Color of Wood through the Application of Experimental Bleaching Process
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30424
This paper consists of mainly three sections: In the first section, brief information is given on the theory of aesthetics as a branch of philosophy, historical progress of the aesthetics theory is summarized within the context of the term “beautiful”, and aesthetic values as well as the color and aesthetic effects of color in preparing the designs are explained. In the second section, relatio...
Wood protection, a tool for climate change mitigation?
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50257
In the context of global warming and the search for possible strategies to mitigate climate change, forest and forest products have important advantages. Sustainable management makes forest a carbon sink, wood products have the potential to be a carbon sink as well, and their low carbon intensity is a potential for reducing CO2 emissions by substitution to competing materials. After describing the...
The Effects of Solar Radiation on the Fungal Colonization and Color of Weathered Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10676
Solar radiation rapidly depolymerizes lignin at wood surfaces exposed outdoors producing a suite of low molecular weight aromatic compounds within weathered wood. Fungi colonizing weathered wood are able to metabolize these aromatic compounds, and many of them also contain high levels of melanin to protect themselves from the harmful effects of UV radiation. Both of these adaptations suggest that ...
V Hernandez, C Breuil, P D Evans
High Temperature Treated Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40429
High temperature can modify internal structure and physic-chemical properties of wood by a controlled pyrolysis process. Such treatment, among other changes in properties, modifies the wood color in a way that resembles exotic species, increasing its market value. The main objective of this work is to determine the changes in wood properties caused by the effect of temperature and time, in order t...
C C Borges, A L Barbosa, R Faber de Campos, S T Targas
Effectos de la intemperización artificial sobre la madera de mezquite (Prosopis laevigata)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40430
The effects of artificial weathering on Prosopis laevigata wood were studied on eight replicates (150 x 72 x 15mm (l x t x r)) free of knots, cracks and resin. The samples were exposed tangentially to UV light and to water spray during three cycles (1 cycle corresponded 1 week of artificial weathering). The conditioning time between each cycle was thirty days. The effects were measured according t...
A Carrillo-Parra, F Hapla, C Mai
Colour change monitoring of photodegradation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) – a short term focus
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40442
Colour change monitoring of photodegradation is a quick and easy method for monitoring rates of photodegradation in timber. A study was undertaken to compare this technique to other monitoring methods, including microtensile strength changes and weight loss. Colour changes due to accelerated sunlight exposure were monitored using a Datacolor check spectrophotometer and compared with a set of contr...
V Sharratt, C A S Hill, D P R Kint
Vacuum drying of European oakwood: Color, chemistry and anti-oxidant potency of wood. Improving appearance in forest value added products
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40432
In hardwoods used for decorative and appearance purposes, wood colour is one of the most important factors of wood quality; in addition colour is related with durability and biological decay of wood. Wood discolouration during drying is mainly affected by heat, light, physiological reactions, combinations of reactions, biochemical and chemical reactions, and micro-organisms attack. In freshly fell...
S Sandoval, W Jomaa, F Marc, J-R Puiggali
Estimating the heat treatment intensity through various properties of thermally modified timber (TMT)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40459
The suitability of different measures for prediction of the heat treatment intensity was investigated. Therefore, the resistance to impact milling (RIM), the lightness L*, the equilibrium moisture content (EMC), the anti swelling efficiency (ASE) and the total amount of soluble carbohydrates (TSC) of heat treated specimens were correlated with corresponding fungal resistance achieved by heat treat...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp
Termite taxonomy and distribution with particular reference to climate change in Africa
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10738
Termites constitute an integral component of various ecosystems in Africa. Termites are also amongst the most difficult of the insects to study because of their cryptic behaviour. There are around 2600 species of termites (Isoptera) in 280 genera which have been described worldwide and about 39% of the total termite species are found in Africa. Some termite species are well known pests of agricul...
P O Y Nkunika, B M Ahmed Shiday, G W Sileshi, J R J French, P Nyeko, S Jain