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Influence of carboxylic acids on LEACHING of copper amine based preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30365
The importance of chromium free preservatives is increasing. Leaching of copper from wood preserved with such solutions is still higher compared to leaching from wood impregnated with copper chromium ones. In order to decrease leaching, different carboxylic acids (octanoic, 2-etilheksanoic, decanoic) were added to copper/amine/boron aqueous solutions. Experiment of leaching of copper from Norway s...
M Humar, P Kalan, F Pohleven


Treatability of beechwood railway sleepers with potential creosote substitutes
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40790
Maintenance of an efficient railway infrastructure still requires the use of wooden railway sleepers, particularly because wooden sleepers have more favourable properties for intensified vibrations than concrete or steel sleepers. Creosote, used for decades for the impregnation of railway sleepers, will possibly no longer be available for this application due to European legislation. This reveals ...
N Pfabigan, E Habla, R Gründlinger


Evaluation of wood treated with copper-based preservatives for Cu loss during exposure to heat and copper-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20155
Copper-based wood preservatives need to be effective against exposure to all types of microorganisms. Wood treated with six copper-based preservatives was exposed to 121°C and 20 psi pressure for 15 minutes under standard autoclave conditions and the copper-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis CC01, for 10 d at 28°C and 150 rpm. Sixteen to 37 percent of the copper was released from the woo...
D M Crawford, C A Clausen


Copper based water-borne preservatives: The biological performance of wood treated with various formulations
1987 - IRG/WP 3451
Wood samples treated with the various components of CCA preservative singly and in combination were tested against a soft rot organism, a copper tolerant brown rot organism and in soil burial both unleached and after leaching. The results suggest that, of the elements tested, fixed copper is essential for preventing soft rot attack and fixed arsenic is essential for preventing attack by a copper t...
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


The effective control of moulds on freshly impregnated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30352
Beside natural timber it is known, that moulds can also groth at the surface of impregnated wood. This material shows “defects” like resistant dark spots or color changes and causes complaints. During the last years, the problem by moulds seems to increase. Laboratory studies were carried out to show the effect of impregnations against moulds. Wood samples (Pinus sylvestris L.) were impregn...
G Cofta, K Lutomski, P Jüngel


Copper based water-borne preservatives: The use of a thin section technique to compare the protection of wood by copper based preservatives against soft-rot and bacterial decay
1987 - IRG/WP 2286
This paper describes the techniques developed and gives examples of results obtained for the performance of copper based wood preservatives against both the bacterial and fungal hazards....
A M Wyles, D J Dickinson


Performance of copper-based wood preservatives in above ground and ground contact tests
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30057
The relative performance of a range of copper-based wood preservatives was compared using above ground and ground contact procedures. The data, accumulated after several years' testing, show that on an equivalent active ingredient basis, differences in performance of the preservative systems tested can vary quite markedly. The contribution of co-biocides to the overall performance of thes...
A F Preston, K J Archer, L Jin, W Metzner, D Seepe


Assessment of the toxicity of some copper-, zinc- and boron-based wood preservatives to the cellar fungus Coniophora cerebella Schröet
1974 - IRG/WP 242
This article reports the use of a method based on the determination of the probability of the protection of timber against destruction by fungi. By converting the probability values to probit values and plotting them as a function of the amount of preservative retained in the timber, curves of the toxic effect are obtained, enabling any timber protection probability to be assessed....
V N Sozonova, D A Belenkov


Experiences with penetration of copper-based wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20233
In the Nordic countries there is a long tradition of result type based specifications for preservative-treated wood. A common Nordic standard for treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood was published in 1976. After a revision in 1989 this standard, then named INSTA 140, defined four classes of treated wood: M, A, AB and B. Treaters producing according to this standard had to be affiliated to a qualit...
J Jermer, F G Evans, I Johansson


Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and its Tolerance towards Copper-based Wood Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10555
Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward cop...
A C Steenkjær Hastrup, F Green III, C A Clausen, B Jensen


Observations on the performance of copper-based wood preservatives in fungal cellar (soil-bed) tests
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20047
Fungal cellar (soil-bed) tests are considered to be an important tool for the evaluation of the performance of ground contact wood preservatives. Facilities of this type have been established world wide although caution has been exercised in their introduction into standard testing methods for the approval of wood preservatives. This is the result of concerns over the variability in the biological...
G R Williams, D Rudolph, M E Hedley, J A Drysdale, R F Fox


Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 2: Study of the metal sorption and migration potential under simulated rainfall
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 b
In order to examine the potential environmental impact of spillages of the saltborne wood preservative CCA in treatment plants, four large scale experiments are set-up so as to follow the water transport and ion mobility in various field soils. A plastic container is filled with a sand, silt, clay and potting soil, made up at their respective bulk density and wetted to a given moisture content. U...
G M F Van Eetvelde, R Hartmann, J M Mwangi, H S Öztürk, M Stevens


Adsorption of ACQ and CuMEA Wood Preservatives in Red pine
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30374
The rates of stabilization or fixation of ACQ subcomponents (CuO, DDAC and MEA) in red pine (Pinus resinosa) were compared for different solution concentrations (0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25% and 3% ACQ-D) and post treatment conditioning temperatures. Preservative solutions were impregnated into red pine sapwood by a full-cell treatment. Copper and MEA adsorptions from copper monoethanolamine solutions witho...
C Tascioglu, P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Tests with ammoniacal copper and alkyl ammonium compounds as wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 3299
Formulations based on copper and alkyl ammonium compounds in ammonia solution have been tested in a fungus cellar on Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica. This type of products gives promising results as wood preservatives, especially on hardwood and are safe to destroy by e.g. combustion. The best results were achieved with a dialkyl ammonium compound, Cu/octyldecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (NH3)....
C-E Sundman


Tolerance of Wood Decay Fungi to Commercial Copper Based Wood Preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30291
Due to the use of copper based preservatives like CCB or CCA for more than a century, copper tolerant fungi have appeared in some European countries in recent times. It is therefore important to find out whether this phenomenon is specific for only classical copper ingredients, or generally for all copper based formulation. Thus, we tested the tolerance of three commercial copper based pres...
F Pohleven, M Humar, S A Amartey, J Benedik


Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 1: Screening of the metal adsorption potential
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 a
In treatment plants, spillage of wood preservatives onto soil may be of environmental concern. This potential soil contamination served as an objective for a screening study. Three different mineral soils, a mineral substrate and two horticultural substrates are examined for their sorptive potential of copper through mixing with wood preservative solutions. Depending on the soil/substrate charact...
G M F Van Eetvelde, J M Mwangi, F Tack, R Hartmann, M Stevens


Laboratory Evaluation and Field Trial of Chlorothalonil and Copper-based Preservatives and Leaching Performance of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30279
Soil block test and field trial of some Chinese plantation wood species pine and poplar treated with chlorothalonil formulations and copper-based preservatives such as ACQ-B and copper citrate (CC) were conducted. The results of soil block test indicated that chlorothalonil formulations and ACQ-B as well as CC are very effective for controlling the 2 fungi species Corious versicolor and Poria plac...
Mingliang Jiang, Ping Wang, Chungen Piao, Zhaobang Li, Quan Lu, Lei Liu


Changes of EPR spectra of wood, impregnated with copper based preservatives, during exposure to Antrodia vaillantii
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10355
Spruce wood (Picea abies) samples were impregnated with two different aqueous solutions: copper(II) octanoate with ethanolamine or copper(II) sulfate (cCu = 1,0 x 10-2 mol/l). Impregnated and unimpregnated test pieces were exposed to wood rotting fungus Antrodia vaillantii. Some strains of this fungus are known as copper tolerant. After four weeks of exposure to A. vaillantii, we could not detect ...
M Humar, M Petric, F Pohleven, M Šentjurc


Copper based wood preservative - A new approach using fixation with resin acids of rosin
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30249
Copper soaps with carboxylic acid groups of resin acids of rosin were shown to be potential long-term wood preservatives. The principle involved is the attachment of copper to the network formed by the inorganic part of the preservative (rosin) through the -COOH groups. The mechanisms of fixation have been studied, and it has been shown that this association could be obtained : (1) by forming the ...
C Roussel, J P Haluk, A Pizzi, M-F Thévenon


Leaching Characteristics of Alder Wood Treated with Copper Based Wood Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50225
In this study, it was designed for determining leaching characteristics of CCA and alternatives wood preservatives. Alder wood blocks were treated with CCA (1 % and 2 %), ACQ-1900 (2 % and 3 %), ACQ-2200 (1 % and 2 %), Tanalith E 3491 (2 % and 2.8 %), Wolmanit CX-8 (% 1 and 2 %). Leaching studies were conducted according to AWPA E11-97. Copper analyses of leachate were determined Atomic absorption...
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, S Yildiz, E Dizman


Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 1: Fungal tolerance
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10163
In recent years, concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), particularly because of the large amount of CCA treated wood that will be discarded in the coming years. The long term objectives of this work are to determine the fate of copper, chromium and arsenic with the aging and potential decay of CCA-treated wood, and to develop...
B Illman, T L Highley


The Use of Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rupture to Assess Wood Decay in Laboratory Soil-Bed Test
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20338
The efficacy of wood preservatives were determined in a soil-bed test. Samples of alder wood sapwood (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) (5x10x100 mm) were treated with Solutions of CCA (1 % and 2 %), ACQ-1900 (2 % and 3 %), ACQ-2200 (1 % and 2 %), Tanalith E 3491 (2 % and 2.8 %), Wolmanit CX-8 (% 1 and 2 %). Modulus of Elasticity, modulus of rupture, mass loss and decay rate according to AWPA E7 wer...
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz


Addition of boron compounds and octanoic acid for improvement of biocidal properties and copper fixation at copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30408
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives became important active substance (formulation) for wood protection, novelty. As copper itself can not ensure sufficient protection against wood destroying organisms and fixation in wood we combine it with other biocides like ethanolamine, boron and octanoic acid. This investigates were performance on spruce wood impregnated with different combination o...
F Pohleven, M Humar


A theoretical-industrial correlation and perspective on copper-based wood preservatives - a review of thermodynamic and kinetic aspects on copper-wood fixation mechanism
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30499
Copper was and it will continue to remain one of the key active component in wood protection industry. Over the past decades, a significant effort from R&D teams in industry, academia and research institutes was directed toward understanding the copper-wood fixation mechanism, optimising the copper retentions in the wood and reduce leaching in order to maximized performance, prolong the lifetime o...
R Craciun, M Maier, J Habicht


Studies on Effect of pH on Copper Availability in Copper-Based Preservatives
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30549
Laboratory methods have been employed to investigate the pH effect on the copper solubility of basic copper carbonate. The pH was controlled using two different approaches. One was with the adjustment of pH of the solutions by acid or base using sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide until the solution equilibriums were obtained for each defined pH. A second approach was to control pH with buffer sol...
L Jin, P Walcheski, A F Preston


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