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Theoretic discussion on the way and driving forces of moisture migration in wood during vacuum drying
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40538
Most of parameters in conventional drying cannot explain a lot of phenomena appeared in vacuum condition, so it is necessary to further explore the moisture migration way and driving forces in wood under vacuum condition. For the water movement channel in wood is very narrow, the characteristic of heat and mass transfer in wood is similar to that in microscale. This article applies theory of liqui...
Zhengbin He, Xueli Yao, Liqiong Chen, Songlin Yi


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market a...
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


Proposed methodology for the assessment of safety indexes
1990 - IRG/WP 3562
Safety Indexes (SI)s are developped on the same concept as Efficacy Indexes (EI)s: EIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "efficacy") which are presumed efficient for a given biological class of risk. In the same way, SIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "safety") which are taken as acceptable for human health and the ge...
G Ozanne


Wood preservation in France. "Bois plus" chain of quality. Description of the scheme early 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 3519
1989 - description of the French "CTB-BOIS PLUS" homologation scheme
G Ozanne


A critical review of the AWPA standard method (M12-72) for laboratory evaluation to determine resistance to subterranean termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1298
The American Wood Preservers' Association standard (M12-72) for evaluation of candidate wood preservatives against subterranean termites is reviewed and suggestions for revision are made. The most serious flaws in the current test procedure involve a failure to recognize inter- and intraspecific variation and a lack of quantification of test results....
J P La Fage, M Jones


Factors affecting the sorption of preservative during diffusion treatment of wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3500
The sorption of preservative into wood during soaking in aqueous solution was found to comprise absorption as well as diffusion of solute. Absorption was increased by partially seasoning the wood prior to soaking and was characterised by (a) a very rapid initial rate of uptake and (b) an extended period of slow uptake, the rate of which varied with prior conditioning. It was concluded that some pa...
P Vinden


The critical moisture and temperature conditions for the growth of some mould fungi and the brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana on wood
1988 - IRG/WP 1369
The growth of some mould fungi on pine and spruce sapwood was studied in 40 different constant moisture and temperature conditions. The temperature range was between +10 and +40°C and the relative humidities varied from 76 to 100% relative humidity (RH). The incubation time was 12 weeks. The mixed mould inoculation used included typical fungi growing on wood: Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium ...
H Viitanen, L Paajanen


Models of the critical time of humidity and temperature conditions for the development of mould fungi in pine and spruce sapwood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20066
Regression models of the time factor for the growth of mould fungi in pine and spruce sapwood are studied. The first group of models are based on the results of exposures of mould fungi in static humidity and temperature conditions indicating the time for the start of mould growth in wood. The second group of models are based on the exposures of mould fungi in fluctuating or alternating humidity a...
H Viitanen


Investigation of extracellular mucilaginous material in some wood decay fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10188
The external morphology of the extracellular mucilagenous material (ECM) produced by Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana during colonization of Scots pine and beech was studies using SEM. Specimens were examined in the frozen hydrated, freeze-dried and critical point dried state. All technics produced artefacts but the ECM was best preserved when examined the frozen hydated state. Critical ...
A R Abu, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


The ecotoxicology assessment of wood preservatives and their active ingredients by means of germination tests using cress - A critical consideration
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50125
With putting the Biocidal Products Directive 98/08/EC (BPD) in place an environmental risk assessment for wood preservatives and impregnated timber is requested. To assess possible risks, suitable test methods are required, which reveal the ecotoxicological profile including environmental fate and behaviour of treated commodities. Germination and growth tests could contribute to the determination ...
P Jüngel, A O Rapp, E Melcher


The critical timing of inspections for field testing of natural durability
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20018
An overestimation of performance will almost always result if the condition of a specimen is considered to be attained at the precise time that an inspection is carried out. The time at which the condition is actually attained, referred to in this document as the "Condition time", is best considered to be halfway between two successive inspections. The requirement to obtain data that is relevant t...
J D Thornton


EN 152: Is this Standard Relevant for today’s Wood Preservatives? A Critical Review.
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20331
The paper critically reviews the Blue stain test method described in EN 152 including possible test variables. Whereas EN 152 has been successfully used for solvent borne wood preservatives, it appears that the methodology is not suited for modern water borne products, where the majority fail. The paper will show that there exist different quality claims not concordant with EN 599-1 within diff...
B Jensen, F Imsgard, J Larsen


Permethrin: A Critical Review of an Effective Wood Preservative Insecticide
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30413
Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used in the wood preservation industry. The generally favorable environmental profile of pyrethroids coupled with their high efficacy led to their wide substitution of the chemically resistant organochlorines dieldrin, lindane, and chlordane formerly used for protection of buildings against wood destroying organisms. Much of the research on performance of perm...
M H Freeman, D N Obanda, T F Shupe


Development of preservative treatment method using sub and super critical carbon dioxide
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40385
Significant efforts have been devoted for developing biocide impregnation method into wood materials using supercritical fluid. Developing better understandings of fluid phase and its effect on treatment results would facilitate a more rational development of supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation. In this project, the preservative treatabilities under super- and sub-critical fluid conditions we...
Myeung-Won Cho, Sung-Mo Kang, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


In-service performance of wood depends upon the critical in-situ conditions. Case studies.
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20382
Wood is a unique building material, but is by nature designed to deteriorate. A detailed understanding of the factors and interactions involved are important when working with service life prediction of wooden components in buildings. Wood may experience exponential fungal degradation caused by variation in the climatic factors within a small limited area and by minor imperfection in the wooden ...
L Ross Gobakken, J Mattsson, G Alfredsen


Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9...
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper


A Critical Review and Survey of the US Wooden Pallet Industry: Focusing on Market Segmentation & N. American Trends
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40545
This paper reviews the history and current and predicted future use values in N. America. Included in this work is historical data on rationality and wood species used to manufacture wooden pallets in the USA and an ongoing current market survey sent to the 1000 largest manufacturers and re-manufacturers in the USA based on SIC Code 2448(Standard Industrial Code Classification). Although CHEP, the...
M H Freeman


A critical view on early indicators for above ground field performance of wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20509
Above ground field tests are quite often a balancing act between the provision of realistic test conditions, reliable statistics, and acceptable long test durations. Within this study we therefore reviewed 543 data sets from above ground field tests performed at 36 different test sites in 8 countries in Australia and Europe. The main objective was to investigate possible correlations between early...
C Brischke, L Meyer, G Alfredsen, P-O Flæte, L Francis, M Hansson, P Larsson Brelid, J Jermer


Method for determining the critical moisture level for mould growth on building materials
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20530
The natural conditions of relative humidity (RH) and temperature (T) in different parts of a building is rarely constant over time. Instead, RH and T often vary cyclically and may pose a risk of mould growth as these conditions are the two key environmental parameters that controls mould growth. Consideration to both humidity and temperature conditions and the susceptibility to mould in a material...
A Ekstrand-Tobin, P Johansson, G Bok


Critical moisture levels and mould resistance of five different wood treatments
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30632
Mould resistance of five different treatments were tested using two methods, a recently developed method for the determination of critical moisture levels of building materials (RHcrit), and ASTM D3273-94. The critical moisture level method exposed samples at 22 °C and 98, 92, 86 and 82% relative humidity (RH) for 12 weeks. ASTM D3273-94 was performed at 29 °C and about 95% RH. Treatments c...
G Bok, P Johansson, A Ekstrand Tobin, S Bardage


Critical parameters on moisture dynamics in relation to time of wetness as factor in service life prediction
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20555
The concept of natural durability or enhanced durability based on the presence of active ingredients having an impact on both fungi and insects is not the only parameter steering the material resistance. Complementary resistance to getting wet (wetting ability) and consequently the ease of drying afterwards will lead to a parameter related to the time a piece of wood will remain under such wet con...
J Van Acker, I De Windt, W Li, J Van den Bulcke


Testing the durability of timber products above ground using the block-test method – A critical review
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20637
The block-test method for testing the durability of wood and wood products above ground is reviewed critically with respect to practical aspects, moisture loads, corresponding decay development, and the possibilities of assessing test specimens by determining the dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) of wood. In total, 36 blocks representing different modifications of the original set-up and a wi...
C Brischke, A Gellerich, H Militz