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End grain sealants for wood preservation studies
1985 - IRG/WP 3341
The results of tests with possible end grain sealants for wood preservation studies are reported. The epoxy resins used gave satisfactory performance on wet or dry Sitka spruce and have been used with success for diffusion treatment studies....
R J Murphy, N A Summers


The influence of formulation on the behaviour of LOSP's during industrial impregnation of spruce
1986 - IRG/WP 3387
Evidence is presented that the comparative behaviour of two LOSP formulations during impregnation treatment of spruce cannot be predicted purely on the basis of their physical characteristics (viscosity, surface tension and contact angle) nor on the extent of their 'passive' penetration into pine sapwood....
L D A Saunders, D M Zuvencko


A new model for wetting and drying of wood end-grain – with implications for durability and service-life
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20477
New experimental data for wetting and drying of wood end-grain, Sandberg (2009), imply that traditional models for moisture transport are not at all applicable. A new model is developed to consider the phenomenological behaviour of water transport in and out of end-grain, using the pore water pressure and sorption scanning properties. Modelling results are compared to experimental results and the ...
L-O Nilsson, K Sandberg


End grain sealing by polymer impregnation
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3708
The solution and dispersion characteristics of several hydrophobic derivatives of cellulose have been studied and the abilities of these polymers to afford effective end grain sealing of Corsican pine have been examined. Both solution and dispersion treatments with ethyl cellulose imparted good water repellency and end grain sealing to wood samples, however, the disperse systems possessed lower vi...
J M Lawther, W B Banks, D G Anderson, J A Cornfield


Butt-end incising to improve penetration and retention of creosote in Eucalyptus saligna power transmission poles in Kenya. Preliminary results
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40249
Incising as a possible technique to improve penetration and retention of creosote in the butt end of Eucalyptus saligna power transmission poles in Kenya was investigated. Debarked, butt-end samples from whole poles were seasoned (15% MC), incised using four patterns of incisions, sealed at the top or small diameter end, and pressure treated with a mixture of creosote-furnace oil (60/40 mix) at a...
R Venkatasamy


Butt-end incising to improve penetration and retention of CCA in Eucalyptus saligna telegraph poles in Kenya: Preliminary results
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40243
Incising to improve penetration and retention of Copper Chrome Arsenate (CCA) in the butt end of Eucalyptus saligna telegraph poles was investigated. Debarked, seasoned (15% MC) butt-end samples from full size telegraph poles were incised using four patterns of incisions, sealed at the top or small diameter end, and pressure treated, together with un-incised samples, with CCA-C (3.0% oxide typ...
R Venkatasamy


Raising of the grain and deformation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) treated with water-borne preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3456
In Sweden partial impregnation to 10 mm depth of the pine sapwood (class B in the Nordic preservation standard) of joineries was introduced during the seventies. To avoid product quality problems, organic solvent-based systems have been used. However, the Swedish industry today has problems with organic solvents, mainly for environmental reasons. We have studied raising of the grain and deformatio...
G Hägglund, T Sebring


Alternative timbers to Iroko (Milicia excelsa) for various end-uses: Ghana’s offer
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10518
There are hundreds of timber species indigenous to Ghana and several exotic species have been extensively planted. The timber industry in Ghana is very important to the country’s economy. Despite its small size relative to the world trade in timber products, it has the potential to be a driving force in the development of the Ghanaian economy. The industry is currently going through a period...
S A Amartey, Zeen Huang, A Attah


The effect of rate of pressure application on preservative uptake along and across the grain of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp and constant pressure times
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20292
This study was particularly design to determine the preservative uptake at different ramp (rate of increase in pressure) and constant pressure times on longitudinal, tangential and radial penetrations of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) which grown indigeneously in Turkey. The samples of 2 cm cubes of kiln-dried wood (nominated to 12% moisture content) were treated at different ramp times varied ...
I Usta


Strategies for enhancing usage of treated wood in Indian context
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40305
India constitutes 2% of the world’s forest area but it has to support over 15% of the human and nearly 14% of the cattle population and therefore forests in India are under immense biotic pressure. The main concern today is the rate at which avoidable factors or man made threats accelerate the process of forest degradation and to evolve measures to check the same. Man made threats include expl...
P K Aggarwal, S C Gairola


Preservative treatment specifications in Fiji
1982 - IRG/WP 3190
The preservative treatment specification used in Fiji is outlined. Reference is made to a basic end use classification and to locally approved treatment processes, preservatives and retention levels. Amenability ratings are defined and penetration requirements for broad commodities indicated. Currently commercial operations rely entirely on pressure treatment with copper-chrome-arsenic multisalts ...
A S Alston


Amenability of radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) as affected by aspects of cell ends in uniseriate ray parenchyma tissue
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40252
The principal objective of this article was to recognise and understand the amenability of ray parenchyma cell ends (end platform) in uniseriate ray tissue to influence the radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) by examination of most (Queen Charlotte Islands in Rhondda, South Wales) and the least (South Oregon in Dalby, North-East England) seed origins that grown in ...
I Usta, M D C Hale


Influence of Grain Direction on Penetration, Retention, and Leaching of CCA(C) in Sapwood and Heartwood of Kenyan-Grown Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40383
Penetration, retention, and leaching of CCA (C) in relation to grain orientation were tested in small (50mm x 50mm x 200mm) sapwood and heartwood samples of Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii. In both sapwood and heartwood of the two species, the results showed a consistent pattern: Transverse > Radial > Tangential. Whereas penetration, retention, and leaching were significantly high i...
R Venkatasamy


Influence of Grain Direction on Penetration, Retention, and Leaching of CCA(C) in Sapwood and Heartwood of Kenyan-Grown Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40384
The influence of grain orientation on penetration, retention, and leaching of CCA (C) was tested on small samples of sapwood and heartwood of Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula. Samples measuring 50mm x 50mm, and 200mm in the longitudinal axis were sealed to expose only transverse, or radial, or tangential faces, pressure treated with 6% CCA (C), and penetration, retention and leaching of the ...
R Venkatasamy


End Coating Masson Pine Grown in South China to Prevent the Development of Blue Stain
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30428
One end (randomly selected) of logs of mason pine (Pinus massoniana) were coated with a wax-type end coating called ANCHORSEAL® immediately after tree cutting. The logs were then stored in summer weather in Guangxi, China. During the storage, at week 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12, five logs of mason pine were sawn into lumber or veneer for the visual observation and measurement of blue stain at the coa...
Zhao Youke, Qin Li, Huang Rongfeng, Lu Jianxiong


Effects of Murgul Copper Process flue gases (SO2) on compression strength parallel to the grain of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40404
In this study was investigated the effect on the compression strength parallel to the grain as mechanical properties of Fagus orientalis Lipsky. wood exposed to SO2 gas and non-exposed. In the experiments the two of four (total) were obtained from Artvin-Ortaköy region and the other two from Artvin-Murgul region. The compression strength parallel to the grain was calculated at the compare of ...
N Ay, E Topaloglu, A Uncu


Radial flow of Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) as affected by wood tapering and the condition of end wall structure of uniseriate ray parenchyma cells
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40441
Amenability to radial permeability of Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) was studied on the base of the effects of wood tapering and the structure of end walls of uniseriate ray parenchyma cells. The results showed that the most remarkable culprits of the greatest fluid uptake (as the percentage of void volume filled by the fluid in the radial flow direction, RVVF%) are the lesser woo...
I Usta, S Aslan


Performance of dip and pressure treated wood in termite ground proximity exposures in Hilo, HI, and Colombia
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30491
A number of preservative systems were evaluated for their ability to control termite attack when applied as both dip and pressure treatments. With dip treatments, better performance was observed with southern pine than spruce-pine-fir using the same solution strength treatment, probably as a result of the about 50% greater uptake with southern pine and associated deeper preservative penetration. B...
P Walcheski, A Zahora


Wood protection by nano silver against white rot
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30554
This research was done with the aim of investigation on the natural durability of poplar (populous deltoides) in natural situation and treated with nano silver against the white rot. Testing samples was treated with the method of modified soaking and nano silver in 3 treating level of 0,200 and 400ppm. In this study effect of coriolus versicolor fungus (identificated as white rot) on populous del...
V Tazakor Rezai, A Usefi, M Soltani


Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Russian imported spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes....
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi


Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and imported Russian spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes....
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi


Combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D impregnation on properties of southern yellow pine wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40637
In this study, samples of southern yellow pine sapwood were first thermally modified and then treated by the alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) wood preservative. Two heating temperature (180℃ and 220℃) and two concentrations of ACQ-D solution (0.9% and 1.35%) were used in the experiments. The combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D on leaching performance, mechanical prope...
Wang Wang, Yuan Zhu, Jinzhen Cao


Investigation of Nanocopper-Hygrothermally Treated Wood Properties
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40644
Nanometals with high thermal conductivity can be considered as modifiers, especially in thermal modification of wood. This study was aimed to investigate some physical and mechanical properties of nanocopper impregnated Iranian beach (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), which was hygrothermally treated. For this purpose, nanocopper solution (400 ppm) was used for impregnation process. Hygrothermal treatment...
G Rassam, B Jamnani, A Faraji Heris


Durability of reaction to fire performance of FRT wood products in different end use applications – Methods and results
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40705
Fire retardant treatments (FRT) may considerably improve the reaction to fire properties of wood-based products and the highest fire classifications for combustible products can be reached, but the maintained reaction to fire performance e. g. in exterior applications needs to be addressed in order to form a basis for new and reliable wood products with improved fire performance. A European Techn...
B Östman, L Tsantaridis


Life cycle assessment of creosote treated wood and tall oil treated wood with focus on end-of-life
2016 - IRG/WP 16-50320
The use of creosote for protecting wood products in heavy-duty application outdoors has been common for many years, but stricter regulations have limited creosote’s use. Life cycle assessments (LCA) have shown that in some applications alternatives to creosote treated products do not have less environmental impacts. Searching for alternatives to creosote, tall-oil-based preservatives have been ...
L G F Tellnes, U Hundhausen


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