Your search resulted in 3294 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Copper to quat ratio in alkaline copper quat (ACQ) wood preservative - Effects on fixation and leaching of preservative components in red pine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30496
This study investigates the effect of the relative proportion of copper oxide (CuO) to didecy dimethyl ammonium carbonate (DDACb) in an alkaline copper quat (ACQ) formulation on the rate of copper fixation or stabilization and the resistance of treated wood to leaching of copper and quat (DDACb). Red pine samples were treated with ACQ, having CuO to DDACb ratios of 2:1 (the normal ratio for ACQ-D...
S Pankras, P A Cooper, T Ung, L Awoyemi
Laboratory evaluation of borate amine: Copper derivatives in wood for fungal decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30543
The aims of this study were to evaluate borate: amine: copper derivatives in wood for fungal decay protection as well as the permanence of copper and boron in wood. Wood treated with each of four derivatives of borate:amine:copper prevented fungal decay. Disodium tetraborate ecahydrate (Borax):amine:copper derivatives with retentions of 0.61 to 0.63% after water leaching prevented decay by Gloeo...
Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner
Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50...
H Willeitner, K Brandt
Copper binding capacity of modified wood flour
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3709
Wood flour was modified by reaction with oxidising agents and CCA preservative. The copper chromium and arsenic were removed from the CCA treated wood flour by an acid leaching procedure. The modified wood flours were allowed to react with copper acetate solution and the level of copper fixation achieved was determined. The modified wood flours had greater affinity for copper ions present in solut...
N C Milowych, W B Banks, J A Cornfield
Literature survey on the permanence and distribution of salt-type wood preservatives
1969 - IRG/WP III 1B
The objective of this survey is generally to review some of the more important published work dealing with the distribution and permanence of salt-type waterborne wood preservatives in treated timber. The survey is limited to the major chrome-containing formulations and the classification system proposed by Becker (1964) has been adopted throughout. CK - chromium, copper (copper, chrome); CKA - c...
Contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30216
The contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine was investigated. Holocellulose, lignin and xylan absorbed significant amount of copper. The amount of copper absorbed by cellulose was almost negligible. The removal of extractive also decreased the amount of copper absorption. This study clearly indicates the importance of lignin, hemicellulose in the absorption of copper amin...
D P Kamdem, Jun Zhang
EPR investigations of interactions between ammoniacal Cu(II) octanoate and wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30110
Ammoniacal solutions of copper(II) octanoate [ C u . h l f . 2 . r h l f.(O2CC7H15)4], interactions of these solutions with wood and wood components, and leaching of copper(II) octanoate from impregnated wood samples, have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. It is still not clear if in the Cu(II) octanoate - water - ammonia system, Cu(II) remains in a (copper(II) octanoat...
F Dagarin, M Petric, F Pohleven, M Sentjurc
The course of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives
1972 - IRG/WP 307
Copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservatives in contact with wood result in an instant extensive increase of pH, because of ion-exchange and adsorption reactions with the wood. During precipitation of the active elements the pH continuously increases but reaches a maximum, when all chrome is consumed. Some of the early reaction products are unstable and slowly convert via dissolution into stable comp...
Fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in Australian hardwoods: A comparison of three Eucalyptus species
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30107
New environmental guidelines for the management of CCA treatment plants were released in Australia in 1995. This has stimulated interest in techniques for controlling or accelerating the fixation of CCA in freshly treated timber products. The ability to understand, then effectively control and/or accelerate fixation of CCA in treated timber products can be an economic, technical and environmental ...
Leaching Characteristics of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30316
The leaching characteristics of copper in copper treated bamboo and other wood species such as slash pine and poplar has been conducted in this paper according to AWPA M11-87 standard, the result indicates that: --Copper fixation rate of salts from organic acids such as citrate and oxalate and malate is less than other non-organic acid formulations. --Copper fixation rate of oven-dried bamboo sa...
Mingliang Jiang, Junliang Liu, Daochun Qin, Yamei Wang, Zehui Jiang
Determination of fixation properties by bioassays - A proposal for the assessment of safety indexes in wood protection
1990 - IRG/WP 3566
In the determination of environmental effects of chemicals tests with fishes, daphnia and algae have proved to be practicable. With respect to wood protection such bioassays are suitable to control effects of treated timber against aquatic organisms. By using the fish-acute-toxicity-test the development of a laboratory test method is described for the checking of the fixation rate of a copper-chro...
Leaching and fixation characteristics of chrome-copper-fluoride-zinc (CCFZ) treated wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30096
The leaching characteristics of radiata pine sapwood blocks treated with CCFZ were evaluated by the AWPA standard leaching test. The rate of fixation of the preservative components in CCFZ treated radiata pine were also evaluated by quantitative analysis of solution expressed from the treated wood. Both leaching and fixation characteristics of CCFZ were compared with CCA-Type C treated wood sample...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Jong-Bum Ra
Applications of the shower test. Part B: Results from CC and CCB treated wood: influence of fixation process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50010
This report outlines the results of shower tests conducted on CC and CCB treated wood. The results indicate the fairly good fixation of chromium and the reasonable fixation of copper in CC and CCB formulations, as judged by the leaching limits within the Environmental Regulations. In general boron leaches to a higher extent than chromium and copper. The shower test has proven to be a useful qualit...
W J Homan, H Militz
A comparison of the leaching resistance of diammine-copper complexes and copper carbonate precipitated in wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30158
Previous studies have shown that during treatment of wood with ammoniacal copper solutions, both simple copper precipitates and diammine-copper complexes are formed. The objective of the present study is to determine the relative importance of both forms of copper, on such aspects as preservative leachability and biological performance. In the current experiment, the leachability of copper carbona...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick
Determination of ethanolamine in impregnated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20198
Leaching of copper based preservatives from wood is usually prevented by adding chromium compounds to copper containing formulations. It seems that suitable substitutes for chromium fixation agents may be amines. In this paper, we report our results on interactions between copper(II) octanoate and ethanolamine (C2H7NO, 2-aminoethanole) with wood or its components. A part of ethanolamine from a woo...
M Humar, M Petric
Applications of the shower test. Part A: Results from CCA type C treated wood: influence of fixation process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50009
This report outlines the results of shower tests conducted on CCA type C treated wood. The results indicate the inherent good fixation of CCA type C, as judged by the leaching limits within the Environmental Regulations. The shower test has proven to be a useful quality control and research test. It determines reasonably accurately the leaching under simulated conditions and, admittedly from a lim...
W J Homan, H Militz, D A Lewis
Incomplete fixation of chromium in the pre-treated wood with a solution of copper and arsenic compounds
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50052
Ponderosa pine wood thin sections were treated with a combination of chromium, copper, and arsenic chemicals. The wood sections was analyzed by electron spin resonance spectrometry (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) to elucidate the mechanism of fixation of the chromated-copper preservatives. The wood subjected to the two-step treatment with copper and arsenic followed by chromium ex...
J N R Ruddick, K Yamamoto, F G Herring, P C Wong, K A R Mitchell
Tests with ammoniacal copper and alkyl ammonium compounds as wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 3299
Formulations based on copper and alkyl ammonium compounds in ammonia solution have been tested in a fungus cellar on Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica. This type of products gives promising results as wood preservatives, especially on hardwood and are safe to destroy by e.g. combustion. The best results were achieved with a dialkyl ammonium compound, Cu/octyldecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (NH3)....
A laboratory study on effect of coating materials on leaching of copper from CCA treated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50176
Components of CCA preservatives can leach into surrounding soil and water and have some effect on germination and growth of some plants. In this report, the effect of coating materials in reducing chemical concentration in the leachate were evaluated. Rubber wood blocks (Hevea brasiliensis) treated with CCA were fixed at room temperature at high humidity. After air dried, they were painted with co...
A Veenin, T Veenin
Dimensional stabilization and decay resistance of wood treated with brown-rotted lignin and copper sulfate
1990 - IRG/WP 3608
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of brown-rotted lignin (BRL) as a dimensional stabilization and copper complexing agent for wood treatment. For dimensional stabilization, aqueous solutions of the lignin extract were combined with either copper sulfate, glyoxal or other additives. Anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) values as high as 42% were obtained with wood treated...
L Jin, D D Nicholas, T Schultz
Laboratory Evaluation and Field Trial of Chlorothalonil and Copper-based Preservatives and Leaching Performance of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30279
Soil block test and field trial of some Chinese plantation wood species pine and poplar treated with chlorothalonil formulations and copper-based preservatives such as ACQ-B and copper citrate (CC) were conducted. The results of soil block test indicated that chlorothalonil formulations and ACQ-B as well as CC are very effective for controlling the 2 fungi species Corious versicolor and Poria plac...
Mingliang Jiang, Ping Wang, Chungen Piao, Zhaobang Li, Quan Lu, Lei Liu
Oxidation of wood components during CCA-C fixation
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30024
Pre-extracted radial sections of southern yellow pine sapwood were treated with CCA-C and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ratio of C1 (carbon bonded to carbon and/or hydrogen) to C2 (carbon bonded to one oxygen) in XPS Cls spectra was taken as a measure of the progress of oxidation of wood components during CCA fixation. This ratio was 0.82 before CCA treatment and increase...
M Kaldas, P A Cooper
Rapid fixation of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) wood preservatives by microwave treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40184
Rapid microwave heating of freshly chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated timber indicates that rapid preservative fixation is possible within approximately 40 seconds. The leaching of CCA was evaluated using simulated rainfall. Cost analyses indicates that microwave fixation using an on-line conveyor belt fixation process with an output of 4m3/hour using a microwave power supply of 230 kW costs ...
G Torgovnikov, P Vinden, E Mapanda, P R S Cobham
Microwave treatment to Accelerated fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40271
This study evaluated the use of microwave post-treatment to accelerate fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated 19 mm southern yellow pine sapwood cubes. Cubes were pressure treated at 3.2 and 6.4 kg/m3 Cu retention target, after which they were microwave post treated during different duration periods. An accelerated AWPA leaching test was conducted during 300 hours to determine the amount...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem