Your search resulted in 446 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Fungal and bacterial attack of CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from a water-cooling tower
1991 - IRG/WP 1488
Transmission electron microscopy of decaying CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from an industrial water cooling tower showed presence of a thick biofilm covering some areas of the wood. The biofilm contained various morphologically distinct forms of microorganisms embedded in a slime. The study provided evidence of the activity of soft rot fungi and tunnelling and erosion bacteria in wood cells. T...
A P Singh, M E Hedley, D R Page, C S Han, K Atisongkroh
Susceptibility of angiosperm sapwood to white-rot fungal colonization and subsequent degradation: a hypothesis
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10211
It has long been recognized that angiosperm sapwood in nature is relatively easily and preferentially degraded by white-rot fungi. This susceptibility to white-rot fungi is generally believed to be mainly caused by the structure and concentration of angiosperm lignin. However, an explicit explanation as to why lignin structure makes a particular wood vulnerable to white-rot colonisation and subseq...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas
Use of fluorescent-coupled lectins as probes for studying fungal degradation of wood
1986 - IRG/WP 1288
The ability of the fluorescent-coupled lectins wheat germ agglutin (WGA) and Concanavalin A (Con A) to react with selected Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Fungi Imperfecti was evaluated using pure cultures of 35 fungi grown on malt extract agar. WGA, which binds specifically to the n-acetylglucosamine residues found in fungal chitin, reacted with nearly all hyaline fungal structures but did not r...
J J Morrell, R L Krahmer, L C Lin
Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 2: Redox states of chromium
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10164
Concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with metal-based preservatives, such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Of particular concern is the toxic redox state of chromium and arsenic in aging and decayed CCA-treated wood. Generally, hexavalent chromium is more toxic than trivalent chromium and trivalent arsenic is more toxic than pentavalent arsenic. The desired ...
B Illman, S Bajt, T L Highley
Effect of felling time related to lunar calendar on the durability of wood and bamboo
-Fungal degradation during above ground exposure test for 2 years- (Preliminary report)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20311
Current study was carried out to know whether the felling time of trees and bamboos based on lunar calendar affects natural durability of felled wood-bamboo or not. Each of one sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) tree of 28 years old and one Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) of around 3 years old was cut 12 times between February and December in 2003. Six sets of sugi tree and bamboo were felled in ...
K Yamamoto, S Uesugi, K Kawakami
Wood-based composites exposed to fungal degradation: Laboratory results
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40215
Oriented strandboard (OSB) and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) are widely used as residential construction materials. The durability of OSB and LVL against biological degradation has not been studied comprehensively. The objective of this research was to investigate the durability of OSB and LVL when exposed to wood decay fungi. Fourteen brown-rot and eight white-rot wood decay fungi were screened f...
V W Yang, B Illman, L A Ferge, R J Ross
The fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10263
This work focuses on the biodegradation of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) by the mould fungus Gliocladium roseum within a woody matrix. Three sawdust types, distinguished by their treatment and amount of DDAC retained, were inoculated with the fungus and their DDAC loss was measured over 11 weeks. The rates of degradation varied depending on the sawdust; however, a significant loss of DDA...
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick
Aspects of the fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in liquid culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30160
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) that has found use as an anti-sapstain preservative for the transportation of softwood lumber from Canada to overseas markets. However, its use is limited by the knowledge that certain mould fungi seem capable of degrading it. The aim of this research was to gain knowledge about the fungal degradation of DDAC. The effe...
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick
Effect of some resin treatments on fungal degradation reactions
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10318
The effect of impregnation of wood with vegetable oil, tall oil and two water soluble on fungal degradation reactions was assessed by hydrolysis and enzyme activity measurements. The experiments were carried out by using isolated enzyme preparations and a living brown-rot fungus Poria placenta. The results indicate that the inhibitory effect of treatments was clearly directec towards the enzymatic...
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, A J Nurmi, H Kokko, A O Rapp, H Militz
The influence of staining fungi on the decay resistance of wood treated with alkylammonium compounds
1984 - IRG/WP 3308
Although found to be very effective in laboratory tests, alkylammonium compounds (AAC's) have failed to perform as well in field stake tests. Examination of leachability showed that this was not the cause. The present study investigated the possibility that staining fungi, (which have been observed to rapidly infect the field stakes), degrade the AAC wood preservative. Soil-blocks were tr...
J N R Ruddick
Fungal detoxification of organotin biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 1258
The ability of a range of wood decaying fungi to inactivate bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TnBTO) in the extracellular growth medium, in stationary liquid culture was determined. A distinction between the ability to tolerate the fungicide and to inactivate it was made: the white-rot organism Coriolus versicolor being the most efficient inactivator. In an attempt to determine the extracellular agents r...
P S Belford, D J Dickinson
Screening of fungal strains for wood extractive degradation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10254
Fungal strains were screened for their ability to degrade apolar extractives in wood from scots pine. The degradation of total wood extractives by 91 different strains was monitored in stationary batch assays incubated for 6 weeks. The results obtained show that the ability of wood-inhabiting fungi to utilize wood extractives varied greatly, even for different isolates of the same species. Fungal ...
J Dorado, M J Martinez-Inigo, T A van Beek, F W Claassen, J B P A Wijnberg, R Sierra-Alvarez
Degradation of resin constituents in various wood species by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10301
In previous studies, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was shown to cause extensive degradation of lipophilic extractives (resin) in Scots pine wood. Further research was carried out in order to investigate the ability of Bjerkandera sp. for reducing resinous constituents in various softwood (Douglas fir, larch and spruce) and hardwood species (birch, beech and poplar). The greates...
J Dorado, T A Van Beek, F W Claassen, R Sierra-Alvarez
Effect of fungal degradation on the chemical composition of acetylated beech wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40267
This study investigated the impact of fungal attack on the chemical composition of acetylated wood. Beech wood acetylated to different degrees was exposed to decay by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor under solid-state fermentation conditions. Laboratory soil-bed assays were also conducted to study the degradation of acetylated wood by soft rot fungi and other soil-inhabiting microorganisms...
H Militz, Dong-won Son, L Gómez-Hernández, R Sierra-Alvarez
Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 1: Fungal tolerance
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10163
In recent years, concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), particularly because of the large amount of CCA treated wood that will be discarded in the coming years. The long term objectives of this work are to determine the fate of copper, chromium and arsenic with the aging and potential decay of CCA-treated wood, and to develop...
B Illman, T L Highley
Fun with Soil Block Jars: Teaching fungal wood decay in the classroom
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10574
In this world of increasing complexity and technological advancements, it is ever more important to raise scientifically literate children. The National Science Foundation Teaching Fellowship Program (NSF GK-12) at the University of Maine provides an opportunity for advanced graduate students in science, mathematics and engineering to bring their knowledge, as well as the latest equipment, to stud...
C Howell, L Gott, B Meehan
Fungal Attack on Lignin and Cellulose: Elucidation of Brown- and White-Rot Mechanisms Comparing Biomimetic and In-Vivo Degradation Patterns
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10714
This paper examines research and hypotheses that have been developed over several years on wood degradation mechanisms. This information is combined with new data and analyses to explain why wood decay patterns caused by brown-rot fungi and specific types of white-rot fungi are different. New data, including work with both biomimetic studies on low molecular weight compounds, degradative enzymes, ...
V Arantes, B Goodell, A M F Milagres, Yuhui Qian, T Filley, J Jellison, S Kelley
The chemistry of wood degradation by Basidiomycetes studied in a van Krevelen diagram
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10805
The atomic composition ratios of decayed wood by Basidiomycetes are mapped in a van Krevelen diagram. It is shown that the wood residue after decay is chemically reduced, rather than oxidized. A previously developed and verified theoretical model for thermal wood modification, relating atomic composition ratios to moisture sorption and fungal resistance properties has tentatively been applied to w...
W Willems, H Militz
Application of a model for the prediction of fungal degradation of thermally modified beech timber by Trametes versicolor
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40622
Colour measurement technology is found to be feasible for characterization of the property changes of thermally modified timber (TMT). In opposite to time-consuming and expensive laboratory tests a non-destructive test represents an improvement for the manufacturer of TMT. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop a method which allows sorting the different treatment intensities after the man...
Clauder, L., Richter S., Unger, W., Pfriem, A
Foundation piles: analysis of beech wood decay in service life conditions
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10858
Wood piles foundation system was largely used over decades. Thus, numerous buildings over the world are based on this constructive system. In the context of reduction of CO2 emissions in the building field of constructions, substitution of concrete by wood as material for foundation piles seems to be a promising alternative. However, fluctuation of the water table level in soil may promote fungal ...
Q Kleindienst, A Besserer, M-L Antoine, C Perrin, J-F Bocquet, L Bléron
Production of reactive oxygen species in the presence of oxidized iron and oxalate under conditions mimicking brown-rot fungal degradation of wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10861
The biochemical role of oxalate in the fungal solubilization of iron is well known, but additional information is needed on the role that oxalate plays in the brown-rot decay of lignocellulose. In this study iron sequestration from iron and iron oxide-hydroxides was assessed with regard to the function of a chelator-mediated Fenton (CMF) reaction and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
Yuan Zhu, Liangpeng Zhuang, B Goodell, Jinzhen Cao, J Mahaney
Fungal decay of archaeological waterlogged oak timber: role of the mineral content
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10873
In service, wood foundation poles are subjected to water level fluctuation in soil. While wood is saturated by water only bacterial decay occurs. When oxygen content increases and moisture content decreases, severe fungal attack may occur. To evaluate the long term fungal durability of wood foundation pole in the context of service, 300 years waterlogged archaeological wood poles were used. The oa...
A Besserer, M Letellier, E Fredon, Q Kleindienst, M-L Antoine, C Perrin, J Lallemand, C Rose, M-C Trouy
Estimation of wood degradation determined by visual inspection, mechanical testing and DNA characterisation – report after 3 years of exposure
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30700
The influence of two separate treatments, thermal modification and alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ, Silvanolin©) treatment, on fungal decay, visual disfigurement, deterioration in mechanical properties and fungal community structure was assessed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and compared with the performance of two naturally more resistant tree species native to North America: Douglas fir (Pseud...
N Thaler, T Martinović, M Bajc, D Finžgar, H Kraigher, A Sinha, J J Morrell, M Humar
Effects of wollastonite nanofibers on biological resistance of historical paper against Aspergillus niger
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10878
Effect of wollastonite nanofibers on biological resistance of historical paper against Aspergillus niger was studied. Specimens from A4 papers were also prepared for comparison purposes. Paper specimens were dipped in aqueous nanowollastonite (NW) with 10, 20, 30, and 40% concentrations and compared with control specimens. In order the nanofibers be fixed on paper specimens, 5% of polyvinyl acetat...
H R Taghiyari, A Kalantari, A Ershad-Langroudi, A Kalantari
The Protective Effect of Different Tree Bark Extractives against Decay Fungi
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30707
There are various modification methods which increase the resistance of wooden materials. Due to recent environmental regulations, there is a need for new and environmentally-friendly wood preservatives. In this study, six different tree bark extractives were evaluated for their wood resistance against fungal degradation. For this purpose, the white rot fungi (Tramates versicolour) and brown rot f...
Ö Özgenç, S Durmaz