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A suggested method to test the toxicity of wood preservatives towards the house longhorn beetle
1977 - IRG/WP 275
This method was developed in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and is used to get quick information on the toxicity of wood preservatives against house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). The method can be used for superficially treated or deeply impregnated wood blocks, and by using small or normal size test material it can be used as a laboratory or field test, and also for accelerated infestation of test material out of ground contact. The paper is given to the International Research Group on Wood Preservation as a suggested method which could possibly be used as a standard. Only the laboratory test method is described.
N Vidovic


Sex pheromone of the male house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10100
Since 1990 studies have been conducted with respect to the chemical communication of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The structure of glands located in the prothorax of the beetles was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses of different extracts from beetles resulted in the finding and identification (GC-, GC/MS-, and HR-GC/MS-studies) of specific substances derived from the prothoracal glands: (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediol and (2R,3R)-2,3hexanediol. In wind tunnel experiments, unmated female beetles were attracted over a distance of 1m by males, headspace extracts of males, the 3 major components of the glands as well as by the synthetic blends of the components. Thus, the bioassays revealed the initiation of premating behaviour by emission of a long-range sex pheromone from the male prothoracal glands. The pheromone functions as activator, attractant and possibly aphrodisiac for unmated females. Further studies are conducted with respect to disturbance and prevention of mating behaviour of Hylotrupes bajulus in the attics of houses by using pheromone traps.
U Noldt, R Fettköther, F Schröder, H Meyer, K Dettner, W Francke, W A König


On the problem "House Longhorn Beetle" in hardwoods and an aid to distinguish between Hylotrypes bajulus and Hesperophanes cinereus larvae
1981 - IRG/WP 1141
S Cymorek


The geographical distribution of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L) Serville (Col., Cerambycidae). An attempt at a cartographical compilation of existing data
1978 - IRG/WP 176
The larvae of the house longhorn beetle belong to the most economically important pests of softwood in service in most European countries and also in some areas overseas. I have reported earlier regarding the history, the question of where the pest originally came from, and concerning attacks in earlier and recent times (1968, 1970, 1974, 1976). In this report an attempt has been made to compile cartographically the currently existing data.
H Becker


Effectiveness of the new chemical wood preservative Borosol 9? against a house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30355
Chemical wood preservative Borosol 9, consisting of boric acid - alkanolamine complex, is a new wood preservative with proven efficacy against wood decay fungi. However, we were interested in its efficacy against larvae of house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). Thus, experiment according to the EN 46 procedure was performed. Specimens made of Norway spruce wood (Picea abies) were brushed twice with 10 % Borosol 9 solution. The results showed that most of the larvae were able to tunnel into the treated specimens, but none of them were found alive after the test period of 12 weeks. On the other hand, all control untreated samples were damaged by H. bajulus larvae activity and 98 % of larvae survived. Results indicate that Borosol 9 has an efficient insecticidal activity and acts protective against wood boring insects.
G Babuder, M Petric, F Cadež, M Humar, F Pohleven


The impact of global warming on the UK distribution of house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10414
This paper reviews the effects of global warming on insect populations and distribution. The affects of global warming on the spread of Hylotrupes is predicted through a review of research related to the influence of temperature on its life-cycle and flight. Records of Hylotrupes distribution were obtained from published surveys, entomologists and museum collections and were plotted for the UK. The UKCIP98 model for climate change was then used to present the average maximum daily temperatures over the emergence period at present, and in the future. The model predicts a 3°C rise in annual temperature by the 2080's. This increase may enable mated females to fly on a greater number of days and over a greater area. The discussion highlights gaps in knowledge concerning the UK population that makes rate of spread difficult to predict at present.
P Oevering, A J Pitman


A suggested method to ascertain the toxicity of wood preservatives against the house longhorn beetle
1976 - IRG/WP 271
This abstract is given to let IRG members know about a method sometimes used in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo for obtaining rapid information on the toxicity of insecticides and ready made wood preservatives against the house longhorn beetle, which is the most common insect found attacking timber roof constructions in houses in Yugoslavia. In this method, 8-10 months' old larvae are used and placed in hollowed wooden cylinders which are then mounted and held in position on treated pine sapwood test blocks. By such means, the larvae have to follow the only way towards the treated blocks. On completion of the test, it is ascertained whether the larvae have passed through the treated layer and have continued normal life in the test blocks. The blocks used are normally treated in the manner prescribed by the wood preservative manufacturers, but surface or deep impregnation methods can be used to determine the lethal dose. Experience to date has indicated that old larvae are more resistant than those which are newly hatched and used according to DIN 52 163/73. It has been found also that several preservatives tested by this method have failed in spite of claims by their manufacturers that these had curative efficacy and a high toxicity to larvae.
N Vidovic


Über Hausbock Hylotrupes bajulus (L.), (Col., Cerambycidae), in Laubholz: Versuche mit Laubholzarten, Prüfung der Wirkung von Ligninstoffen und von Ginkgo biloba, Beobachtungen an Hesperophanes. [On House-longhorn Beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.), (Col., Cerambycidae) in hardwood: Investigations with several hardwood-species, tests on activity of lignin components and Ginkgo biloba, observations on Hesperophanes]
1982 - IRG/WP 1144
Hylotrupes bajulus-larvae feed and develop in softwoods, hardwood acts as a feeding poison. The reason for this is still little known. According to literature some observations contradict this established opinion and the question was raised, whether the colour-strain scutifer (= lividus) is able to live in hardwood. Testing ten European and tropical hardwood-species (following the DIN-EN test procedure 46) with recently hatched larvae of the normal strain and var. scutifer (F3), all larvae died within 4 weeks. Breeding and test results indicated a lethal-factor in the scutifer-strain, as postulated by BECKER (1977). Larvae of medium weight (50...160 mg) transfered into blocs of 9 hardwood-species died or were badly affected within 60 days. Only in Ilomba (Pycnanthus angolensis) 7 of 10 larvae survived, 3 were still in good condition. In combined hardwood-softwood blocs, larvae survived much better, feeding predominantly in the softwood. But they often gnawed through the hardwood and pupation and development into the beetle-stage occured there. Derivates of lignin were tested according to testprocedures DIN-EN 46 (preventive activity) and DIN-EN 47 (determination of thresholds). None of the substances were active in nominal value within the range of concentrations (2.5 or 4%, 18 to 27 kg/m³) tested. The syringa-group, typical for hardwood-lignin, tested by Syringaacid, Syringaaldehyd and Acetosyringon, had no special effect. Wood of the Maiden hair-Tree, Ginkgo biloba (which shows negative reaction to Mäule-reagent by lack of the syringa-group like softwood) was very poisonious even after extractions by water and solvents to the larvae. Thus the softwood-indicator Hylotrupes bajulus underlines the more independent systematic position of the Ginkgobsida. The syringa-group seems not to be decisive alone. Observations of Hylotrupes in hardwood were reported mainly from South- and Southwest-Europe. New observations and breedings of single larvae revealed the probability, that this findings depend on Hesperophanes-species. For example the larvae of Hylotrupes and Hesperophanes cinereus are difficult to distinguish.
S Cymorek


A rearing procedure for the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus L
1973 - IRG/WP 228
The technique practised at the Princes Risborough Laboratory for culturing Hylotrupes bajulus is described. It is modified from methods previously suggested by German workers. A protein and vitamin enriched wood diet to accelerate larval growth is employed and larvae are subsequently given a period of cool storage to induce pupation. Adults are confined in groups with prepared surfaces for egg laying: batches of eggs are removed daily and incubated over trays. Egg larvae fall into the trays as they hatch and are used for experimental work or for starting new cultures. The cycle takes under a year and adults, eggs and larvae can be available at any time throughout the year.
R W Berry


Study of the durability of the Maderon® against wood decay fungi and insects
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40548
Many industries produce residues that are not easily degradable. One of these is nut husks which, due to their high level of resistance to biological and environmental degradation, have become an ecological problem. Maderón® is a material invented and patented in Spain employed as an ecological substitute and a modern alternative to certain uses of wood. At present, Maderón® is commercialized in the funeral sector in the production of ecological coffins. As Europe clears 1,000,000 trees per year for coffin production, the use of this alternative material would prevent the felling of a not insignificant number of trees; especially if the end purpose is burial or cremation. A further ecological benefit offered by Maderón® is the use of waste in its composition, reducing the environmental impact that elimination of this residue would generate. As far as new research on this material is available new applications seem to be possible, especially in the building sector and in carpentry. For this reason, in this work has been studied the durability of Maderón® against fungi and insects usually responsible of wood decay. Its natural durability has been studied in comparison with that of susceptible wood species, applying the European Standards currently in force. European standard EN-113 was applied for testing against brown- and white rot fungi, with Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica as the reference woods. The methodology described in EN-117 was followed to assess the natural durability against termites (Reticulitermes grassei), while EN-46 was used to determine the preventative action against the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus, with Scots pine being the susceptible reference wood in both cases. The results show that Maderón® is durable against the attack from all the wood decay organisms studied and according to this result is possible to conclude that this material can be used as an alternative to wood furnishings in some industrial sectors. In addition, the use of Maderón would contribute to the recycling of agricultural waste products by giving them a new added value.
M T Troya, F Llinares, P Jiménez, J I Fernández-Golfín, M Conde, R Díaz


Threshold levels for dip treatments of chlorpyrifos for borer control
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10137
Chlorpyrifos has been used in non-pressure treatments of freshly sawn lumber and millwork for ten years or longer to control wood boring beetles. Since chlorpyrifos provides a quick kill of existing beetle larvae at the time of the treatment in solution concentrations as low as 0.05%, treaters tend to use less than recommended rates as a cost saving measure. However, laboratory studies conducted in the United States and Europe have shown that concentrations of 0.5% to 1.0% are needed for residual control. A review of these laboratory studies is presented in this paper.
R D Fears, J L Leca


Influence of preservative treatment on the glueing of the members of glued laminated frames and effectiveness with respect to newly hatched larvae of the house longhorn beetl
1971 - IRG/WP 203 E
The object of the work is to check the general properties of a glued laminated beam after treatment of the members composing it by means of commercial insecticidal and fungicidal formulations in clear solvent under the most common conditions of manufacture. The species used have been spruce, redwood and Douglas fir in planed boards of 80 cm long, 14 cm wide and 20 mm thickness at about 12% moisture content, glued after treatment with a commercial glue of the resorcinol-formaldehyde type at the rate of 6 laminates to make one experimental beam. The treatment products have been 4 in number, commercialized and readily available on the French market. These products will be called A-B-C-D. They all belong to the organochlorine type in solution in an organic solvent, the other material and solvents being allowed to be different. In general, the boards used were composite cut and comprised essentially of heartwood, the proportion of sapwood at the edge being often of little importance. A preliminary initial measurement of the absorption of the preservative product by each board was made by weighing. The following tests have been persued after gluing. Resistance to delamination - Resistance to shearing in compression and percentage of adhesion. The biological tests have been carried out by exposing newly hatched larvae of the house longhorn beetle on the external zones of beams (sappy zones for the species with sapwood distinct and susceptible to attack). The first results scrutinized permit us to think that with the weak amounts used the mechanical properties of the beams will remain satisfactory. After observation of the behaviour of the newly hatched 1arvae, chemical quantitative analyses are going to be undertaken in order to establish the threshold of effectiveness of the four products.
J Guillemain-Thévenot


A medium for mass culturing of a bamboo boring beetle Dinoderus minutus Fabricius
1983 - IRG/WP 1182
The bamboo is a traditional product of Japan. But its susceptibility to insects is one of the most important problems. The author has found that for the determination of the effectiveness of insecticides it is very easy to obtain sufficiently numerous adults of Dinoderus minutus by using Buckwheat Cake. The Buckwheat Cake is prepared with buckwheat flour and thin paper. The author has previously found that Buckwheat Cake is suitable for the culturing of Lyctus brunneus and these results were presented in 1981. In culturing Dinoderus minutus, Buckwheat Cake has been found to be also easier and fasting in bringing forth the adults than natural bamboo.
K Suzuki


The resistance of fifteen Indonesian tropical wood species to the powder post beetle Heterobostrychus aequalis
1990 - IRG/WP 1429
A preliminary laboratory test on the resistance of 15 tropical wood species to Heterobostrychus aequalis has been carried out using small samples of 7.5 x 5 x 1.5 cm³. The results reveal that Pinus merkusii and Agathis borneensis are very susceptible to Heterobostrychus aequalis. Other 13 species vary between susceptible to resistance There is no signifisant relation between starch content and the infestation of Heterobostrychus aequalis in the fifteen wood species.
Jasni, Nana Supriana


Studies on the infestation behaviour of the powder-post beetle Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) and its physical control in the wood yards of the Caspian forests of Iran
1985 - IRG/WP 1271
Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) is a pest which has not been previously thoroughly studied in Iran. It severely attacks Iranian hardwoods, especially those used in wooden houses and that have not been treated. Research work was necessary to determine the natural resistance of the most important timber species in Iran against this insect.
P Niloufari


Supercooling points of Anobium punctatum, the common furniture beetle
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10120
Ice formation within the body of larvae of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum causes death of the larvae. Freezing can therefore be used as a means of eradication of the larvae in infested wood. To optimize the freezing process, knowledge of the temperatures sufficient to kill the larvae is essential. Ice formation is initiated by temperatures equaling the so-called supercooling point, which can be found experimentally. The technique used to identify the supercooling points for larvae is described. The larvae used were from laboratory cultures held at 22°C and from cultures acclimatized to 10°C.
T E Hallas, K Bohn Hansen


Control of death-watch beetle (Xestobium rufovillosum Deg.) with experimental permethrin smoke generators
1982 - IRG/WP 3199
This paper presents results obtaining by monitoring population figures, the condition and reproductive state of beetles collected at weekly intervals after each annual treatment.
S J Read


Questionnaire on the distribution of the house borer Hylotrupes bajulus
1982 - IRG/WP 1170
H Becker


Effects of some essential oils on wood destroying organisms
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10047
Three wood destroying fungi: Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. (stain), Gloeophyllum sepiarium (brown rot), and Pycnoporus sanguineus (white rot) were exposed to six plant essential oils: the peppermint, kaffir lime or leech lime, lavender, tarragon, holy basil, and the eucalyptus. The peppermint oil showed most effective to inhibit fungal growth, while eucalypus oil was the least effective. The other oils inhibition rate varied according to the species of fungi. In the experiment of the powder post beetles Heterobostrychus aequalis Waterh., the insects were killed within three days in the oil of tarragon, eucalyptus and holy basil, while in lavender oil they could live to ten days the same as controls. But on the contrary in the oil of peppermint and kaffir lime, some of them could even lived longer than the controls.
K Atisongkroh, C Anantachoke, P Lekuthai, S Pensook, T Kittirattrakarn


A study on biological properties of small black sawer beetle (Monochamus sotor L.)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1525
The biological properties of the small black sawer beetle (SBSB), which is mainly destructive insect species for fire-damaged timbers in Da Xing An Ling region in China have been researched. Their main properties are: 1. The SBSB occures one generation one year in this region and their larvae overwinter in xylem. 2. The pupation starts in in late May and peak occures in early June. 3. The emergence of adults starts in early June and reach the peak in late June. 4. The oviposition peak and hatching peak are in early July and middle July respectively. 5. The average period of pupa, egg, adult and larva are 19,9, 15-30 and 250-300 days respectively.
Lu Wenda, Shao Jing Wen, Li Jian, Men Fan rong


Questionnaire: Facility for accelerated stake tests in unsterile soil
1981 - IRG/WP 2166
An acceptable name for this type of test facility has not yet been devised, but it has previously been referred to as a FUNGUS CELLAR or as a TROPICAL DECAY HOUSE. The attached pamphlet (What's New in Forest Research No.65) describes in broad terms the facility used for this purpose at FRI in New Zealand. Over the last two or three years several laboratories and commercial firms have installed so-called fungus cellars. At the 1981 I.R.G. Meeting in Sarajevo it was proposed that a survey be undertaken to obtain basic information on the various developments in this new area of biological testing. To this end, I shall be pleased if you complete the enclosed questionnaire and return it to: Dr J.A. Butcher, Forest Research Institute, Private Bag, Rotorua, NEW ZEALAND. A full report on this survey will be presented at the next I.R.G. meeting scheduled for Turkey in May 1982.
J A Butcher


Incursion of Hylotrupes bajulus Linnaeus (European House Borer) into Western Australia
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10558
In January 2004, an adult Hylotrupes bajulus Linnaeus was detected emerging from a beam of Pinus pinaster in a house in Perth, Western Australia. The timber had been locally grown and milled. Surveys to define the extent of the infestation show it is restricted to dead pine trees in 28 sites around Perth. The biological and economic feasibility of eradication is being assessed. Since about 2001, kiln dried plantation gown Pinus radiata and Pinus pinaster timbers have largely replaced Australian native hardwoods in building construction in Western Australia. More than 80% of this structural pine is not treated with preservatives, and is at risk from attack by H.bajulus. The replacement cost of untreated pine in house construction in Western Australia is estimated to be about $Aus3 billion.
M Grimm


Detection of Acoustic Emission (AE) generated by termite attack in a wooden house
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20166
Recently, considerable attention has been paid to methods for termite control, which involves few or no chemicals. To reduce the amount of termiticide needed, it is necessary to detect termite attack in wood as early as possible. The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring for the nondestructive detection of termite attack has been discussed previously. In this study, we propose some technical solution for the application of AE monitoring to practical control operations. Using a needle-type waveguide combined with an AE sensor (PZT sensor), AEs generated and propagated within floors and walls could be detected effectively. A 0.04 mm-thick sample of the piezoelectric polymer PVDF, which was inserted between the construction members of wooden houses, could detect Aes propagated both in such members and at joint surfaces, although PVDF film is less sensitive than a PZT sensor. The feasibility of using a portable AE detector as the input device for a total security system against termite attack in a house is also discussed.
Y Fujii, Y Yanase, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura, S Okumura, M Kozaki


An annotated list of Anobiidae (Col.) known from New Zealan
1983 - IRG/WP 1200
R Crabtree


Bibliography on the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (De Geer) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae)
1980 - IRG/WP 1104
M-M Serment, H Becker


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