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Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coatings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10035
The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans was previously examined, using agar plate tests, with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood (Sharpe and Dickinson, 1992). This study compared these findings with the nutritional capability of four other fungi (Alternaria sp., Cladosporium cladosporoides, Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) common...
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson


Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 2: The ability of Aureobasidium pullulans to penetrate wood surface coatings
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1557
The ability of Aureobasidium pullulans to penetrate seven different wood surface coatings was examined. Eight isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were used. Following penetration, light microscopy was used to examine the effect of the fungus upon the coating, and growth at the wood-film interface. The fungus showed different growth capabilities with different types of surface coatings. Some isolat...
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson


Detoxification of preservatives: Tri-n-butyltin oxide as a biocide
1982 - IRG/WP 1156
T E Dudley-Brendell, D J Dickinson


Characterisation of growth and stain of different groups of sapstain fungi on lodgepole pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10326
Canada is the world's largest exporter of softwood lumber. These softwood shipments are susceptible to a variety of wood-inhabiting fungi that can lead to sapstain discolouration, which in turn decrease the product value. Furthermore, the presence of these microorganisms may be unacceptable to the importing countries. The objective of this work is to assess the sapstaining capability and ...
C Fleet, C Breuil, A Uzunovic, A Byrne


The use of chlorothalonil for protection against mold and sapstain fungi. Part 1: Laboratory evaluation
1989 - IRG/WP 3515
Laboratory screening of chlorothalonil alone and in combination with other fungicides was conducted against six mold and sapstain fungi. The most promising treatments appear to be chlorothalonil supplemented with CCA or copper-8-quinolinolate. Field tests have been implemented....
J A Micales, T L Highley, A L Richter


Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil formulation for stain and mold control on rubberwood and maple
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30175
We evaluated the efficacy of several chlorothalonil and carbendazim fungicides (F1 and F2), etc. in the control of mold and stain fungi on rubberwood and maple. The results showed that these formulations effectively inhibited the selected fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp. (P71H), Aureobasidium pullulans, Ceratocystis minor (C-188), Ceratocystis pilifera (RW...
Mingliang Jiang, T L Highley, L Ferge, T L Woods


Distinguishing isolates of Aureobasidium on the basis of their ability to utilise lignin breakdown products as a sole carbon source
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10151
Wild isolates of Aureobasidium were obtained by dilution plating from a ca 20 year old painted pine window frame. Four isolates were obtained from the paint/wood interface region and four isolated from regions deep in the wood. The isolates were then used to inoculate liquid cultures containing ferulic acid, a lignin breakdown product, present as the sole carbon source. Ability of the isolates to ...
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson


Association of contents of nitrogen and sugars in rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) clones with susceptibility to sapstain by Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aureobasidium pullulans and Aspergillus niger
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10307
The purpose of this study was to determine if nitrogen and sugar contents in rubberwood from three selected varieties (clones) rubber trees would affect the rate of colonisation by Botryodiplodia theobromae (a tropical sapstain fungus), Aureobasidium pullulans (a temperate sapstain fungus) and Aspergillus niger (a common mould fungus). Sapstain growth was rated daily until at least 50% mycelial co...
A J Ashari, J W Palfreyman, A H H Wong


Black Stain of Western red-cedar by Aureobasidium pullulans and its Relationship with Tropolone Depletion
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10564
Western red-cedar is valued for its natural durability conferred by fungicidal tropolone chemicals. However, weathered surfaces of WRC products are still susceptible to ‘black stain’ caused by fungi such as Aureobasidium pullulans. The effect of weathering on the tropolone content of heartwood was characterized and correlated with the ability of this fungal species to colonize the same weather...
R Chedgy, R Daniels, P I Morris, C Breuil


Evaluation of a new anti-sapstain formulation
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30035
A new anti-sapstain mixture, which consists of 2% IPBC (3-iodo-2-propynylbutyl carbamate) and 1.5% DCOI (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one), was evaluated by three methods in the laboratory. A standardized test (JWPA standard 2) demonstrated that the new anti-sapstain formulation was highly effective in controlling growth of monocultures of five test fungi on wood substrate. When exposed to...
K Tsunoda, H Kumagai, M Sakurai


Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 1: The nutritional requirements of Aureobasidium pullulans
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1556
The nutritional requirements of Aureobasidium pullulans was examined with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood. The study was designed to determine how far wood cell wall components need to be broken down during weathering before they provide a useful nutrient source for Aureobasidium pullulans. Various carbon sources were tested, with eight differe...
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson


Effect of thickened boron in preventing conidial germination of sapwood-inhabiting fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30059
We evaluated the efficacy of thickened boron preservative "Diffusolä" in preventing conidia germination of sapwood-inhabiting fungi using plate bioassay, Southern Yellow Pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections. The test fungi were sapstain fungi Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans and mold fungi, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Tric...
S C Croan


Characteristics of the pigments produced by sap-staining fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10223
The present study was conducted to characterize the pigments produced by sap-staining fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud and Ceratocystis piceae (Münch) H. and P. Sydow. The pigments isolated from tested fungi were identified as melanins by spectroscopic methods (UV and infrared spectra). The UV and the infrared spectra of the fungal pigments were similar to those of the synthetic me...
M Mori, M Takahashi


Gaseous treatment of timber with allyl isothiocyanate. Fungicidal and insecticidal effects
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30108
Gaseous treatment with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was tested for its effects on the growth of microorganisms on the wood substrate and the mortality of subterranean termites and powder-post beetles. Toxic limits of AIT were determined as concentrations in the air when an AIT-treated filter paper was placed in a sealed container with fungus-inoculated wood specimens. Those were <3.8 ppm for Aure...
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura


Aureobasidium or Hormonema? A Genetic Approach.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10529
Aureobasidium pullulans is the main organism causing disfigurement of coatings on wood and the surface of exposed timber. This disfigurement of timber in-service is referred to as “bluestain in-service”. A. pullulans is also associated with the sapstaining of dead wood in the forest and in-service. A. pullulans is noted for its highly variable growth forms (polymorphisms). This variability pre...
M J Ray, D J Dickinson, M Buck


Colonisation of painted wood by Aureobasidium pullulans - Analysis of features and consequences for failure in service
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10144
Wooden blocks of spruce were painted with different paint formulations. Water- and solvent-borne model and commercial paints were used. The painted wooden blocks were inoculated with a spore suspension of Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Berkg. and placed in an environment of high humidity for 14 months. Different colonisation and growth patterns were observed on the different paint surfaces. The...
S L Bardage


Fungal detoxification of organotin biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 1258
The ability of a range of wood decaying fungi to inactivate bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TnBTO) in the extracellular growth medium, in stationary liquid culture was determined. A distinction between the ability to tolerate the fungicide and to inactivate it was made: the white-rot organism Coriolus versicolor being the most efficient inactivator. In an attempt to determine the extracellular agents r...
P S Belford, D J Dickinson


The development of blue stain in service in sapwood of European softwood species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10236
The utilisation of softwood species for window joinery applications is gaining importance in countries frequently using tropical hardwood species up to now. Since wood preservation is not always part of the total concept of window frames manufactured from sapwood containing wood elements it is essential to know the impact of durability on the performance. Moisture content control is a major tool i...
J Van Acker, R Klaassen, H Militz, M Stevens


Growth inhibitory effects on blue-stain fungi of applied electricity fields
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10167
Exploratory laboratory experiments on the effects of electricity on two blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans and Ceratocystis piceae on wood revealed that a potential gradient of 1 V/cm corresponding to a current of 15 mA (DC), applied without interruption during a 2 week experimental period, leads to an inhibition of the growth of these fungi. Germination is somewhat more sensitive than mycel...
J Bjurman


Dominant genera of fungi isolated from the surfaces of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) heartwood lumbers exposed at six test sites from northern to southern regions of Japanese islands
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10304
The surfaces of wood materials are disintegrated not only by sunlight and rainwater but also by microbes when exposed above ground condition. This paper deals with the investigation of fungi isolated from the surfaces of Sugi heartwood lumbers (W100 by T10 by L300 mm) exposed at an angle of 45° without ground contact for 16 months at the six test sites from northern to southern regions of Japan. ...
S Doi, M Mori, M Kiguchi, Y Imamura, M Hasegawa, S Morita, S Nakamra, Y Kadegaru


Utilisation of carbohydrates by stain fungi in agar culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10248
Stain fungi are often defined by their ability to utilise the starch and free sugars found in ray parenchyma cells, and their inability to utilise other wood constituents. However, several species of stain fungi produce bore holes in wood cell walls. This suggests that enzymatic activity capable of degrading structural polysaccharides and/or lignin is associated with the growth of the appressorium...
J Snow, P Vinden, S M Read


Biological control of sapwood-inhabiting fungi by living bacterial cells of Streptomyces rimosus as a bioprotectant
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1564
The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal activity of living bacterial cells for the protection of wood against sapwood-inhabiting fungi. The following sapwood-inhabiting fungi were selected: sapstain --Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, Ceratocystis pilifera, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi --Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Trichoderma spp. L...
S C Croan, T L Highley


Analysis of the degradation of carbohydrates by blue-stain fungi
1990 - IRG/WP 1457
The topic of the degradative ability of blue-stain fungi literature is not clear. Many authors support the idea that those fungi don&apos;t have enzymatic capability to decay the wall of the ligneous cells. However, others have found some decay activity. In this study, we have attempted to analyze which wall cells soluble carbohydrates are metabolized by some blue-stain fungi, found in Spain. ...
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete, E Relano


Laboratory evaluation of anti-sapstain formulations
1989 - IRG/WP 3510
Four formulations were tested for their efficacy in controlling molds and sapstaining fungi on wood according to the Standard-II of Japan Wood Preserving Association (JWPA). Relative efficacy was compared on the basis of visual rating of the fungal growth on the treated and untreated wood surfaces when the wood specimens were exposed to each monoculture of 5 test fungi at 26±2°C and 70-80% for 4...
K Tsunoda


Influence of the nutritional elements on pigmentation and production of biomass of bluestain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10198
The effect of the carbon source and the amount of the nitrogen on the melanization and the production of mycelial mass of bluestain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was studied by using solid state cultivations. The carbon sources used varied from easily soluble sugars to structural polysaccharides existing in lignocellulosic material. The amount of melanin was evaluated by using partial purificatio...
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, F Thomassin


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