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A medium for mass culturing of a bamboo boring beetle Dinoderus minutus Fabricius
1983 - IRG/WP 1182
The bamboo is a traditional product of Japan. But its susceptibility to insects is one of the most important problems. The author has found that for the determination of the effectiveness of insecticides it is very easy to obtain sufficiently numerous adults of Dinoderus minutus by using Buckwheat Cake. The Buckwheat Cake is prepared with buckwheat flour and thin paper. The author has previously found that Buckwheat Cake is suitable for the culturing of Lyctus brunneus and these results were presented in 1981. In culturing Dinoderus minutus, Buckwheat Cake has been found to be also easier and fasting in bringing forth the adults than natural bamboo.
K Suzuki


A preliminary study on the feasibility of substituting the soil culture medium in soil block tests
1984 - IRG/WP 2209
In this work the possibility was studied of substituting the soil culture medium in preservative screening methods. The conclusions are that another type of material, Sphagnum moss, can be used with advantages, but that some more information is still needed to give a real idea regarding the differences caused by the substrate tested.
J C Moreschi


Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coatings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10035
The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans was previously examined, using agar plate tests, with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood (Sharpe and Dickinson, 1992). This study compared these findings with the nutritional capability of four other fungi (Alternaria sp., Cladosporium cladosporoides, Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) commonly isolated from wood surfaee coatings. The liquid culture techniques were used to assess the relative abilities of the fungi to utilise a range of simple sugars, wood sugar alcohols, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin degradation compounds. The observations were used to explain why Aureobasidium pullulans is able to occupy so successfully, often in monoculture, the wood-paint interface niche.
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson


Effect of medium-term degradation of beech wood by erosive (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and lignin-selective (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) strains of white rot fungi on its selected physical properties
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40292
At the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology a fungal delignification of normal and tension beech wood by erosive and lignin-selective strains white-rot fungi has been studied. The pre-treatment of both kind of wood samples was accompanied by partial delignification and apparent changes of their physical properties influencing the polar liquids penetration.
R Solár, S Kurjatko, M Mamonová, J Hudec


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers to be used on hidden unpainted surfaces of wooden antiques were investigated. We studied relevant properties of five different coating materials: thickness, hardness by resistance to scratching, adhesion, flexibility, resistance to temperature changes, conformability to the concept of reversibility and bioresistance against wood boring insects. The most promising results were exhibited by the coating that is commercially used for protection of fresh log ends in forests, immediately after a tree is cut.
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


Bacterial wood degradation by a pure culture
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10093
A single-celled bacterium isolated from lake water yielded cell wall degradation in Scots pine sapwood samples. The bacterium attacked all cell wall layers in one month of laboratory culture. It was identified as Aureobacterium luteolum.
O Schmidt


Analysis of volatile emissions as an aid in the diagnosis of dry rot
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2393
The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans was grown in pure culture on malt extract and on sapwood of pine. The volatile compounds emitted from the cultures were determined by diffusion sampling on tubes filled with Tenax TA, thermal desorption and gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry in order to find markers for attack of the fungus.
J Bjurman, J Kristensson


Conditions for basidiospore production in the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum separium in axenic culture
1984 - IRG/WP 1232
Attempts to control and optimize the production of hymenial structures and basidiospore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium in axenic culture resulted in the proposal of the following conditions as being suitable. The dikaryotic mycelia originally isolated from basidiocarps could consistently be induced to produce hymenial structures and pure basidiospore collects if illuminated by near ultraviolet light with emission maximum at 355 nm ("black light") at a temperature of 15°C on a chemically defined medium, where the concentration of the carbon and the nitrogen sources were shown to be of critical significance. The necessary conditions for basidiospore production in lignicolous fungi in general are is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman


Growth of two selected sapstain fungi and one mould on chitosan amended nutrient medium
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10466
In vitro studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of chitosan on growth of Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma harzianum. Chitosan was tested at three molecular weight (MW) ranges and different concentrations formulated as either a powdered suspension or as a solution. The results generally showed that low MW chitosan produced a greater inhibitory effect on growth of test fungi than medium and high MW, irrespective of the chitosan formulation used. However, chitosan was more effective when applied in solution with much lower concentrations exerting inhibition of test fungi than chitosan suspensions. Furthermore, susceptibility of test fungi to chitosan differed, with T. harzianum being the most tolerant and S. sapinea the most sensitive species irrespective of chitosan formulation used.
C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, B Kreber


Ancillary properties of vapor boron-treated composites
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40210
This paper discusses the water absorption, thickness swelling, and internal bond strength of North American composites treated using a vapor boron treatment process. For oriented strandboard, high boron loadings led to lower internal bond strength and lower thickness swelling. Water absorption results were variable but no deleterious effect of treatment was noted. For medium density fiberboard, the highest loadings led to reduced internal bond strength. Thickness swelling decreased with increasing boron level, but not significantly. As with OSB, water absorption results varied.
W A Jones, H M Barnes, R J Murphy


Suppression of aerial hypha formation by spent culture filtrate of a non-degradative strain of Postia placenta
1991 - IRG/WP 1498
ME20, a wild-type monokaryotic strain of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta, does not cause significant weight losses in standard soil-wood block decay tests and fails to form aerial hyphae in liquid and agar culture. This abnormal morphological feature may be caused by the same aberrant physiology that prevents the strain from degrading wood efficiently. ME20 releases elevated levels of the autolytic enzymes laminarinase and protease into culture media. These autolytic enzymes may degrade the cell wall and hyphal sheath, thus preventing aerial hypha formation and limiting wood colonization. If abnormally high levels of autolytic enzymes suppress aerial hypha formation, any strain of Postia placenta grown in their presence should take on the appearance of ME20. MAD698, a standard floccose test strain of Postia placenta, was grown in fresh media containing increasing concentrations of filter-sterilized spent culture filtrate of ME20. Aerial hypha formation was strongly inhibited or prevented when the spent culture filtrate made up 40% or more of the medium. Spent media from MAD698 caused a similar effect but only at higher concentrations (80 and 100%). The suppression does not appear to be caused by extracellular autolytic enzymes since commercial preparations of laminarinase, chitinase, and protease did not reproduce this effect. The suppressive agent appeared in ME20 culture filtrate after only two weeks of growth. It has a molecular weight of less than 10,000 and is resistant to boiling. Additional research is needed to characterize ist nature, thus identifying a potential biorational inhibitor of wood-decay fungi.
J A Micales


Effectiveness of Busan 30 treated birch blocks in a soil medium
1987 - IRG/WP 3409
TCMTB based formulation has been anticipated for use in dip-diffusion treatment in Papua New Guinea to replace BFCA Wood preservative. One such formulation is the Penacide (TCMTB + MBT Boron) which is currently being tested against fungi and insects. Accelerated laboratory test in soil exposure was employed to test a related formulation (Busan 30) to determine its effectiveness against soil inhabiting organisms. In general the formulation was effective at a toxic threshold limit of 3.8 kg/m³.
H C Konabe


Preservative effectiveness of medium temperature creosote oil
1990 - IRG/WP 3597
Medium temperature creosote oil (MTC) was prepared by removing light naphthalene oil and heavy anthracene oil from the coal tar by means of fractional distillation. We conducted the effectiveness test of MTC in accordance with the JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi. The soil treatment test against Serpula lacrymans was also carried out with Kanuma-soil. Preservative effectiveness of MTC was sufficient for wood against Tyromyces palustris and Serpula lacrymans. The hyphal growth of Serpula lacrymans to the treated layer with MTC from the nutrient one is suppressed in the soil treatment test.
S Doi, A Yamada, Y Suda


Collaborative soft rot tests: Paper for discussion in Working Group II
1970 - IRG/WP II 5A
An account of the major part of the collaborative work on laboratory tests of toxicity of preservatives to soft rot fungi initiated by the European Homologation Committee at Delft in 1966 has been published in ‘Material und Organismen’ (1970) as a report of progress. The main objective of these collaborative tests, namely to establish a reliable and acceptable standard test method was not accomplished. The purpose of this paper is to comment upon the experience gained in order to facilitate discussions, at an IRG meeting, of any further proposals for achieving this objective.
J G Savory, A F Bravery


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers to be used on hidden unpainted surfaces of wooden antiques were investigated. We studied relevant properties of five different coating materials: thickness, hardness by resistance to scratching, adhesion, flexibility, resistance to temperature changes, conformability to the concept of reversibility and bioresistance against wood boring insects. The most promising results were exhibited by the coating that is commercially used for protection of fresh log ends in forests, immediately after a tree is cut.
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


A modified method to determine the toxic values of chemicals against Lyctus africanus (Lesne) by larval transfer method (laboratory method)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20309
Lyctus africanus (Lesne) is the commonest species widely distributed by trade throughout India. It is one of the most important insect pest attacking logs, branchwood and and practically every kind of manufactured wooden article that contains sapwood. Presently, in India many short rotation and alternate timbers are being used for making many finished products .The inclusion of sapwood containing starch makes these products very susceptible to insect borer attack. Consequently, many wood preservative companies are coming out with many formulations to combat powder post beetle attack. Currently there exists no Indian standard to test these wood preservatives against the powder post beetle infestation. Since the testing using adult beetle releasing increases the testing period it is not much appreciated. As insect borer larval activity is visible to judge the progress of the test and also as it reduces the test period, a modified method to determine the toxic value of the chemicals against Lyctus africanus-Lesne by larval transfer method has been standardized based on the European standard EN21.
R Muthukrishnan, O K Remadevi


The effect of different concentrations of polesaver rods on the survival of selected decay fungi in liquid culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30166
An in-vitro method was developed to determine the effect of solutions of Polesaver Rods on the survival of selected decay fungi. Polesaver Rods are a diffusing preservative treatment containing fluorine and boron designed for the internal remedial treatment of power poles. Two white-rot fungi, Perenniporia tephropora and Trametes versicolor, and two brown-rot fungi, Polyporus verecundus and Gloeophyllum abietinum, were grown in flasks of liquid growth media containing one of eight different concentrations of Polesaver Rods. Subcultures were made from the mycelium in the flasks after 1 day, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks exposure. Sampled mycelium was inoculated onto a malt agar medium and emergent fungi were identified to determine survival of the original inoculum. Media aliquots were taken at each sample time for confirmatory analysis of boron and fluorine concentrations as well as the determination of residual glucose. All four test fungi exhibited increasing susceptibility to the Polesaver Rod solutions with time. Exposure for one week to the highest concentration (1.6% Polesaver Rod) was sufficient to kill all test fungi. Three of the fungi survived 2 weeks exposure to a 0.4% Polesaver Rod solution. After 8 weeks exposure to this concentration only one of the test fungi that was selected in this experiment for its known tolerance to boron, Polyporus verecundus, was able to survive.
M A Powell, T Deldot, C McEvoy


MDF manufactured from blends of cypress pine and radiata pine shows enhanced resistance to subterranean termite attack
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40214
Medium density fibreboards consisting of blends of the naturally durable wood species white cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla) and non-durable wood species were manufactured in a commercial plant and subjected to a bioassay using the subterranean termite species, Coptotermes lacteus. A board composed of 30% cypress pine, 30% slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and 40% of the naturally durable hardwood species spotted gum (Corymbia maculata) was also manufactured and bioassayed against C. lacteus. The aims were to determine (i) whether boards containing cypress pine possessed increased resistance to termite attack compared to a control manufactured entirely from non-durable wood species; (ii) the relationship between the cypress pine content of boards and their resistance (if any) to termite attack; (iii) whether the termite resistance of boards containing cypress pine could be further enhanced by the addition of spotted gum fibre. There was an inverse relationship between the cypress pine content of MDF specimens and mass losses of the specimens during the bioassay, the percentage mass losses of specimens containing 11.4, 16.2 and 34.2% cypress pine being 20.3, 13.4 and 8.8%, respectively, compared to 32.8% for the control, which consisted of non-durable slash pine (80%) and hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii) (20%) fibre. There was strong evidence that the inverse relationship between the cypress pine content of boards and mass losses during the bioassay was linear, although a statistically significant quadratic (curvilinear) effect was also apparent. The addition of spotted gum fibre to boards did not increase their resistance to termite attack. Cypress pine heartwood contains a variety of extractives that are either toxic or repellent to termites, and the increased termite resistance of MDF containing cypress pine compared to the control is probably due to the insecticidal effect of such chemicals on C. lacteus. The incorporation of cypress pine fibre into MDF shows promise as an alternative to chemical biocides for increasing the resistance of MDF to termites. However, the response of termites to heartwood extractives varies between species, and therefore further experimentation is needed to test the resistance of MDF containing cypress pine fibre to attack by greater range of wood destroying termites under test conditions that more closely simulate field conditions.
P D Evans, S Dimitriades, C Donnelly, R B Cunningham


A technique for fructification and basidiospore production by Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex fr.) SF Gray in artificial culture
1986 - IRG/WP 2255
A method for fructification and basidiospore production by Serpula lacrymans is outlined. A wheat flour/malt extract medium or an oat grain medium, enriched with alanine, tri-potassium phosphate and thiamine supported good fructification of the fungus at a temperature of 12°C. The influence on fructification of temperature, light and inoculum is discussed. To date, 22 stains from a total of 38 tested, fructify in culture.
S Cymorek, B M Hegarty


Antifungal properties of metabolites produced by Trichoderma isolates from sawdust media of edible fungi against wood decay fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10051
Trichoderma isolated from a sawdust medium of Pholiota nameko produced filtrates which had antifungal activities to four wood decay fungi tested on the agar plates. Filtrates produced from another isolate, from a sawdust medium of Lentinus edodes, had antifungal activities only to the white rot fungi, Coriolus versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus. These results did not agree with those from earlier decay tests using wood blocks pretreated with the isolates. The difference of antagonistic potential was possibly due to the different condition of incubation procedure.
S Doi, M Mori


New perspectives on the biology of the tropical powderpost beetle, Minthea rugicollis (Walk.)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10085
Minthea rugicollis (Walk.) is one of the most important pests of seasoned hardwoods in the tropics. The species owes its ubiquity largely to its insidious development within a nutrient-filled environment and also to a strong coevolutionary specialization with its natural habitat, wood. Such an environment provides a buffer to extrinsic fluctuations and accounts for a wider range of tolerance by immature stages to variations in climatic conditions than would otherwise be possible. Aspects of culture methods, characteristic habits and external tolerances are emphasised so as to generate new perspectives in understanding the fundamental biology of this organism and to improve current wood preservation strategies.
F Abood, R J Murphy, R W Berry


Aspects of the fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in liquid culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30160
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) that has found use as an anti-sapstain preservative for the transportation of softwood lumber from Canada to overseas markets. However, its use is limited by the knowledge that certain mould fungi seem capable of degrading it. The aim of this research was to gain knowledge about the fungal degradation of DDAC. The effects of Verticillium bulbillosum - a demonstrated QAC-degrading mould - on DDAC within a defined liquid culture were studied. Interactions between the liquid medium and DDAC; the degree of fungal tolerance under varying conditions; and rate of degradation paralleled with fungal growth were examined.
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick


The use of preservative containing waste wood as substrate for growing greenhouse crops
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50011
In the Netherlands a large amount of waste wood and wood waste is produced every year. An important part of this amount comes from the pallet and packaging industries. One of the possibilities to re-use this relatively clean material is to convert it into substrates for growing crops in glass houses instead of the commonly used materials such as rock wool and glass wool. In this research, the influence of several material parameters such as wood species, texture, density, height, water holding capacity on the growth of cucumbers has been studied and this has been compared with the growth on rock wool, which is applied in approximately 95% of the glasshouses in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the influence has been investigated of anti blue stain preservatives on the growth of the cucumber plants, this kind of preservatives is often used in the dutch industry for protection of pallets. In general it can be concluded that when waste wood is to be used as substrate a few preservatives can be accepted and some others can not. The wood species teture, density, height and water holding capacity of the substrate showed to have only a slight effect on the growth of cucumbers.
W J Homan,H Militz


Performance of Oriented Strandboard, Medium Density Fiberboard, Plywood, and Particleboard Treated with Tebuconazole in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30364
The performance of oriented strandboard (OSB), medium density fiberboard (MDF), particleboard and plywood treated with tebuconazole using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated over a 48 month exposure under harsh above ground conditions in Hilo, Hawaii. Samples treated to low retentions (<0.20 kg/m3) tended to experience decay at rates that were only slightly lower than those found with untreated controls. This was particularly true with aspen OSB, which failed within 30 months regardless of treatment level. Most other samples treated to higher retentions remained free of fungal decay over the test period. Tebuconazole treated Douglas-fir plywood provided the best performance, demonstrating the benefits of combining a moderately durable heartwood with supplemental preservative treatment. The results indicate that SCF-treated wood provides reasonable performance in non-soil exposures under severe decay conditions.
J J Morrell, M N Acda, A R Zahora


Minimum inhibitory concentration of methylene bisthiocyanate towards selected wood inhabiting fungi in liquid culture and on radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30261
The objective of the current study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) towards wood inhabiting fungi common on unseasoned radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). The fungi used were Ophiostoma floccosum, Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma viride. Fungi were individually inoculated into nutrient media spiked with different concentrations of MBT. After 12 days of incubation, biomass and microscopy were used to determine the MIC value for each fungus tested. For wood, radiata pine wafers were inoculated with individual fungi prior to dip-treatment with different concentrations of MBT. Fungal growth over the surface of wafers was assessed visually over five weeks and used an indicator to define a MIC value. Of all fungi tested, T. viride exhibited the greatest fungicidal tolerance in liquid media and on wood. For all fungi, spores and hyphal fragments were more sensitive to MBT than established hyphae, and considerably higher levels of MBT were required to kill growth of test fungi on wood than in liquid culture.
T Singh, B Kreber, C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, A Stewart


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