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Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 1: Optimisation of the extraction conditions
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30238
As the first phase of a large project aimed at recovering 'waste' durability components from sawmill residues of Callitris glaucophylla, several solvents and extraction methods were evaluated, initially in the laboratory and then at pilot industrial scale. Extracts were compared by crude total dissolved solids content, by chemical analysis using GC-MS and LC-MS, and by laboratory...
M J Kennedy, Hui Jiang, L M Stephens


Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 4: Analysis of extracts and treated wood for active components
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20215
In order to facilitate the commercial implementation of a large project aimed at recovering 'waste' durability components from sawmill residues of Callitris glaucophylla, it has been essential to develop analytical methodology for the important bioactive components of the heartwood extract. This methodology will be used 1) to standardise the activity of successive production batc...
Hui Jiang, M J Kennedy, L M Stephens


Wood preservation and specifications in China
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20300
Current situation of wood preservation industry, development of standard and research on wood preservation in China are briefly reviewed in this paper. About 0.55-0.65 million m3 of wood is treated in China annually, among which, the amount of creosote treated timber goes down since crossties and electricity poles are replaced by cement in the past decade. Boron is mainly used for treating rubberw...
Mingliang Jiang


Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil formulation for stain and mold control on rubberwood and maple
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30175
We evaluated the efficacy of several chlorothalonil and carbendazim fungicides (F1 and F2), etc. in the control of mold and stain fungi on rubberwood and maple. The results showed that these formulations effectively inhibited the selected fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp. (P71H), Aureobasidium pullulans, Ceratocystis minor (C-188), Ceratocystis pilifera (RW...
Mingliang Jiang, T L Highley, L Ferge, T L Woods


Leaching Characteristics of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30316
The leaching characteristics of copper in copper treated bamboo and other wood species such as slash pine and poplar has been conducted in this paper according to AWPA M11-87 standard, the result indicates that: --Copper fixation rate of salts from organic acids such as citrate and oxalate and malate is less than other non-organic acid formulations. --Copper fixation rate of oven-dried bamboo sa...
Mingliang Jiang, Junliang Liu, Daochun Qin, Yamei Wang, Zehui Jiang


Copper naphthenate: An analysis of the materials found in the worldwide marketplace using a new analytical technique
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30224
Naphthenic acid has been recovered from products of petroleum refining for well over 100 years. The metal soaps, specifically copper and zinc naphthenate, have been evaluated and used as commercial wood preservatives for in excess of 60 years. Most of the early data supporting the continued use of copper naphthenate as a wood preservative was based on materials manufactured from naturally occurrin...
J A Brient, R E Moyer, M H Freeman, H Jiang


A comparison of the leaching resistance of diammine-copper complexes and copper carbonate precipitated in wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30158
Previous studies have shown that during treatment of wood with ammoniacal copper solutions, both simple copper precipitates and diammine-copper complexes are formed. The objective of the present study is to determine the relative importance of both forms of copper, on such aspects as preservative leachability and biological performance. In the current experiment, the leachability of copper carbona...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick


Laboratory and Pilot Evaluation of Chlorothalonil Formulations for Mold and Stain Control on some Wood Species
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30317
Laboratory and pilot test of the efficacy of several fungicides such as chlorothalonil and carbendazim for control of mold and sap- stain on bamboo and slash pine and rubberwood were conducted in this paper. The result indicates that: -- Clorothalonil/carbendazim are more effective for controlling mold and stain than that of carbendazim alone in laboratory test. --Higher concentration at 0.1-0.2...
Mingliang Jiang, Zhaobang Li


Differences in pH, electrical resistance, cation composition and NIR spectra of red spruce wood during early stages of brown rot degradation
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10449
Red spruce sapwood was exposed to degradation by the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula lacrymans for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks using a modified soil block assay design. Average weight losses over time ranged from 0-8.9% during this time period. Detectable changes in pH, electrical resistance and cation compostion were observed in the wood as early as 1 ...
J Jellison, S Kelley, B Goodell, D Hui, A Ostrofsky


Laboratory Evaluation and Field Trial of Chlorothalonil and Copper-based Preservatives and Leaching Performance of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30279
Soil block test and field trial of some Chinese plantation wood species pine and poplar treated with chlorothalonil formulations and copper-based preservatives such as ACQ-B and copper citrate (CC) were conducted. The results of soil block test indicated that chlorothalonil formulations and ACQ-B as well as CC are very effective for controlling the 2 fungi species Corious versicolor and Poria plac...
Mingliang Jiang, Ping Wang, Chungen Piao, Zhaobang Li, Quan Lu, Lei Liu


A comparison of the leaching resistance of copper 2-ethanolamine and copper ethylenediamine treated Scots pine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30233
The depletion of copper from copper 2-ethanolamine and copper ethylenediamine treated Scots pine blocks was investigated. A greater leaching resistance was found for copper 2-ethanolamine, which retained ca. 86% and ca. 50% copper after water and buffer leaching, respectively. Leached amine treated blocks also contained significant residual amine. This was consistent with other observations linked...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick


The role of oxygen and oxygen radicals in one-electron oxidation reactions mediated by low-molecular weight chelators isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum.markup
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10086
The KTBA assay for determination of one-electron oxidation activity was used to assay reactions of low-molecular weight chelators isolated from the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The assay, performed either under air or nitrogen showed that molecular oxygen was an important factor in chelator-mediated oxidation reactions. A reduction in oxidative activity was observed when superoxide dismu...
Jun Lu, B Goodell, Jiang Liu, A Enoki, J Jellison, H Tanaka, F Fekete


A spectroscopic investigation of copper ethylenediamine fixation in wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20160
The fixation reaction which take place between copper ethylenediamine (Cu-en) solution and wood were expolored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR spectra revealed that copper reacts with the carboxylic acid and phenolic groups in wood to form stable complexes. The copper ethylenediamine complexes formed in wood were identifie...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick


Corrosiveness of metal by copper-based preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40329
The corrosive rates of 4 types of metal as well as epoxy-coated metal by a variety of preservatives derived from different copper source and ingredients were conducted in this paper. The main results shown that: CCA is less corrosive to red brass and Q235A steel than other copper formulations; Copper-based preservatives such as ACQ and copper azole derived from basic cupric carbonate or cupric hyd...
Ying Zhang, Mingliang Jiang


Biological Protection of Composite Panel from Moulds and Decay
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10612
Composite panels, such as oriented strand board (OSB), are widely used in house construction in North America. These structural panels are normally made of non-durable wood species and are susceptible to moulds and decay when exposed to wet conditions. Building envelope failures due to moulds, decay or poor construction practices can negatively impact the image of wood. To ensure durability of com...
Dian-Qing Yang, Xiang-Ming Wang, Hui Wan


Decay Hazard Classifications in China for Exterior Above-Ground Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20357
A decay hazard map for exterior above-ground wood structures is presented based on Scheffer’s Climate Index, with the major purpose of promoting awareness for proper protection of wood structures in different locations in China. A very large area in the South, including southern Yunnan, most of Sichuan Province and Chongqing, and part of Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, as well as all...
J Wang, X Wu, M Jiang, P I Morris


Amine Oxides for Use in Wood Protection: I. A Formulation Adjuvant and Performance Enhancer for Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30425
Amine oxides have great potential for use in the area of wood protection. This paper highlights the advantages of using amine oxides as a formulation adjuvant and performance enhancer for different azoles. It was found that azoles are readily soluble in aqueous amine oxide solutions and form soluble concentrates. These azole/amine oxide concentrates have excellent storage stability and can be dilu...
Xiao Jiang, L Walker


Amine Oxides for Use in Wood Protection: II: Water Repellent Agents for Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30426
Wood treated with cetyl and stearyl amine oxides was evaluated to determine its long term water repellency. Comparative water uptake data, generated during two years of outdoor exposure, illustrated that Lonza’s products, Barlox® 18S (N-octadecyl-N, N-dimethylamine oxide) and Barlox® 16S (N-hexadecyl-N, N-dimethylamine oxide), were effective water repellent agents, imparting lasting water res...
Xiao Jiang, L Walker


Laboratory test of blue stain control by chemicals
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30430
8 chemicals and some mixtures against Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Fusarium verticillioides(Sacc.)Nirenberg, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Trichoderma viride Pers., and Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll were conducted in laboratory by inhibition zone in the paper. The results were shown that: CBZ and benomyl as well as copper oxine alone are much high efficacy for inhibiting most of the 5 fungi tha...
Zhijuan Wang, Zehui Jiang, Mingliang Jiang, Chungen Piao


Antifungal activity and synergistic effect of cinnamaldehyde combined with antioxidants against wood decay fungi
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30445
The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity and synergistic effect of cinnamaldehyde combined with antioxidants against wood decay fungi. Five antioxidants, propyl gallate, octyl gallate, quercetin, eugenol and catechin were tested against various wood decay fungi. Octyl gallate and eugenol were found to be the only two antioxidants processed antifungal activities. IC50 ...
Fu-Lan Hsu, Tsair-Bor Yen, Hui- Ting Chang, Shang-Tzen Chang


Field Trial of Copper Treated Moso Bamboo in Southern China
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30455
The field trial of moso bamboo treated by 9 copper preservatives for 5 years in Guangzhou was conducted in the paper. The result shown that: two ammonia based copper azole formulations F17/F18 and 1 amine copper formulation with boron F10, as well as 2 ammonia based ACQ, at the copper retention of 3.2 kg/m3 or above, have good resistant for decay and fine resistant for termites after 5 year field ...
Mingliang Jiang


Amine Oxides for Use in Wood Protection: III. Penetration Aids for Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30461
This paper highlights the advantages of using amine oxides as penetration aids for quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) and azoles in the area of wood protection. It was found that the use of amine oxide effectively enhanced the penetration and distribution of quats and azoles. For both southern yellow pine (SYP) and Douglas fir wood samples, the addition of cocodimethylamine oxide (Barlox® 12) ...
Xiao Jiang


Isolation and identification of stain fungi and mould fungi on bamboo wood in China
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10703
One hundred and seventeen isolations were isolated from 150 specimens of mildewed or stained bamboo wood and bamboo products from 9 locations in north, south and central China. The molecular (ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer, rDNA-ITS) and morphological identification results showed these fungi could be categorized 2 phyla, 2 classes, 4 subclasses, 10 orders, 15 families, 22 genera, 56 sp...
Xingxia Ma, Mingliang Jiang, Daochun Qin


Impact of an Antioxidant on the Efficacy of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Quats) and Triazoles – Seven Year Above-Ground Study
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30504
It has been reported that antioxidants have great potential for use with organic biocides in the area of wood protection. This paper demonstrates the impact of a low level of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the efficacy of quat-based and triazole-based formulations. A seven year lap joint test revealed a positive effect of BHT on the efficacy of quat-based formulations, especiall...
Xiao Jiang, D Biro, W Holcombe


Laboratory test of some formulations against stain and mould fungi isolated from bamboo wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30508
To screen the effective anti-mould formulations, fungicides such as carbendazim, tebuconazole, fludioxonil, difenoconazole, prochloraz, benomyl and 8-hydroxy-quinoline copper (copper oxine) were selected to conduct the laboratory test of fungicidal activity by method of inhibition zone against Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Fusarium sp., Alternaria tenuis Nees., Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll, Tr...
Xingxia Ma, Airui Sun, Mingliang Jiang, Daochun Qin


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