Your search resulted in 539 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength and copper retention of spruce wood treated with copper azole and alkaline copper quat
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40362
This work investigates the effects of sodium hypochlorite on compression strength values and copper retention ratios of refractory spruce wood (Picea oriental L.) treated with the waterborne preservative Copper Azole, (CBA-A, Tanalith-E 3492) and alkaline copper quat (ACQ-2200). Before the copper azole and alkaline copper quat treatment, the samples were immersed in 500 ml of sodium hypochlorite s...
S Yildiz, E Dizman, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz
Micro-Distribution of Micronized Copper in Southern Pine
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30479
For copper-based preservatives to be used in ground contact, penetration of copper into the cell wall is believed to be important to protect the wood from soft rot fungi. Preservatives containing soluble copper are known to do this. It is not known whether preservatives containing particulate copper will also migrate into the cell wall in sufficient quantities to control soft rot decay. An AWPA st...
R Stirling, J Drummond, Jun Zhang, R J Ziobro
Comparison of laboratory and natural exposure leaching of copper from wood treated with three wood preservatives
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50258
Standard and non-standard laboratory and field leaching tests were used to compare copper leaching from wood treated to above ground and ground contact specified retentions for three wood preservative systems, CCA-C, ACQ-D and a micronized copper formulation with quat DDAC as co-biocide. Copper leaching was highest for the ACQ formulation. Percent leaching was lowest for the micronized copper sy...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung
Copper to quat ratio in alkaline copper quat (ACQ) wood preservative - Effects on fixation and leaching of preservative components in red pine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30496
This study investigates the effect of the relative proportion of copper oxide (CuO) to didecy dimethyl ammonium carbonate (DDACb) in an alkaline copper quat (ACQ) formulation on the rate of copper fixation or stabilization and the resistance of treated wood to leaching of copper and quat (DDACb). Red pine samples were treated with ACQ, having CuO to DDACb ratios of 2:1 (the normal ratio for ACQ-D...
S Pankras, P A Cooper, T Ung, L Awoyemi
Re-Distribution of Copper in the Cell Walls of Wood Treated with Micronized Copper Quat
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30506
Wood treated with copper-based preservatives to be used in ground contact may fail to inhibit soft rot fungi if penetration of copper into the cell wall is insufficient. Preservatives containing soluble copper are known to penetrate the cell wall; however, it is not known whether preservatives containing particulate copper will also migrate into the cell wall in sufficient quantities to control so...
R Stirling, J Drummond
Evaluation of ACQ-D treated Chinese fir and Mongolian Scots pine with different post-treatments after 20 months of exposure
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30530
The performance of alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) treated Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linn. var. mongolica Litv.) stakes after 20 months exposure in Chengdu and Guangzhou of southern China were evaluated according to AWPA standard E07-07. The ACQ-D treatments used two concentration levels (0.5 and 1.0%) and four different post-treatme...
Lili Yu, Jinzhen Cao, Wei Gao, Haitao Su
Combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D impregnation on properties of southern yellow pine wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40637
In this study, samples of southern yellow pine sapwood were first thermally modified and then treated by the alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) wood preservative. Two heating temperature (180℃ and 220℃) and two concentrations of ACQ-D solution (0.9% and 1.35%) were used in the experiments. The combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D on leaching performance, mechanical prope...
Wang Wang, Yuan Zhu, Jinzhen Cao
Effect of exposure site on metal migration from copper azole, alkaline copper quat or chromated copper arsenate treated southern pine decking
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50313
Metal migration from chromated copper arsenate, copper azole or alkaline copper quaternary compound treated southern pine lumber was assessed at sites in Mississippi and Oregon. Metal levels tended to be consistently higher in decks exposed in Mississippi. Rainfall characteristics did differ slightly at the two sites, but the levels did not appear to be of a magnitude that might affect metal mobi...
J J Morrell, H M Barnes
Overview of the treated wood quality control program in the United States with the recent challenges and advances
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20616
In the past two decades, there have been significant and rapid changes in wood protection technologies for residential applications which have moved away from long established heavy duty metal oxide based products such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The successor generation of wood protection systems usually contain copper as the primary biocide, in combination with carbon-based co-biocides s...
The Effect of Heat on the Retention of Ammoniacal Copper Quat (ACQ-AB) onto Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40390
In this study, the sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were treated with ammonical copper quat type (ACQ-AB), which is one of the environmentally friendly wood preservatives, by using soaking method as a functions of various temperatures and time. The results indicated that the retention behaviour of ACQ onto the wood was considerably affected by temperature of ACQ solution and treatment t...
M Hakki Alma, A Mukremin Kara
A study of decay type variability in variously treated Fagus sylvatica and Pinus radiata field test stakes exposed at a vineyard for 30 - 45 months
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10271
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 10 kg/m3 of CCA plus 4 lower retentions in a geometric series of 1.5. Fagus sylvatica was treated with 15 kg/m3 and 2 lower retentions. Both timber species were also treated with equivalent retentions of various new generation preservatives (P. radiata was also treated with creosote). Whilst these stakes were exposed at 11 sites in New Zealand (NZ) and 2...
R N Wakeling, A P Singh
Working plan: Second international collaborative field trial
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20056
This paper describes the scope, objectives, and approaches to be used in the second international collaborative field trial approved by the Scientific Programme Committee for partial funding in 1994. The trial is designed to develop a broad data base on causal mechanisms, interactions, and factor affecting the performance of treated wood in ground contact. The trial encompasses 12 different field ...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey
The effect of additives on copper losses from alkaline copper treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-50246
The replacement of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) by alkaline copper compounds has heightened awareness of the potential impact of copper losses on aquatic organisms. While there remains a healthy debate concerning the actual risk of copper leaching from wood preservatives into aquatic ecosystems, it is clear that reducing these losses will be necessary to avoid continued regulatory actions aga...
J Mitsuhashi, J J Morrell, L Jin, A F Preston
Biological efficacy of micronized copper systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30485
Soil block, fungal cellar and field stake test data will be presented for micronized copper systems. The copper portion of the formulations is present as a fine dispersion of "micro" particulates while the co-biocide is present as either a soluble quat or an azole containing emulsion. This testing generally used the amine based counterpart as the control preservative system and the micronized fo...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman
Alkaline copper treated wood for use in residential decking
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30490
Alkaline copper quaternary ammonium compound (ACQ) treated decking was exposed in a field experiment and the mobile copper assessed based on that collected in the leachate. The amount of copper which leached was modeled after 4 years. The results showed that boards which leached most chemical initially provided the greatest loss over four years. The reduction in the mobility of copper with time wa...
J N R Ruddick
Corrosion of fastener and connector in contact with alkaline copper treated wood – it is a problem
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40437
For many decades, chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the most common wood preservative used in North America for residential and industrial applications. Since December 31, 2003, the use of CCA for residential application was voluntarily terminated. One of the most widely accepted alternative wood preservatives in Western Canada is Alkaline Copper Quaternary Compound (ACQ). This paper will compar...
J N R Ruddick
Leaching of the copper component from full scale decking boards during one summer season
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50260
The leaching of copper has been tested in laboratory and in outside exposure for freshly treated pine sapwood samples with three different copper preservatives, Cu HDO, copper quat and copper triazoles. We found in the laboratory leaching test that a fixation with warming to 60 °C (140 °F) for 48 hours without drying and then drying in the laboratory in room temperature gave the lowest leaching of copper. We also found that surface treatments with wood oils reduced the leaching, and that washing of the surface before testing had no effect. Full scale decking board samples (0.25 m2) were then exposed outdoors for rain. The rain water was collected and analysed for copper. After one summer season (about 600 mm rain) we found that the leaching differ for the three preservatives. All samples with a water borne surface treatment had the lowest leaching, about half the amount of untreated.
F G Evans
Component leaching from CCA, ACQ and a micronized copper quat (MCQ) system as affected by leaching protocol
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50261
Leaching results for Cu, Cr and As (CCA) and Cu (ACQ and MCQ) from southern pine are compared for laboratory tests (AWPA E11, and draft OECD methods I and II) and natural weathering of horizontally and vertically oriented lumber samples over two seasons. This paper expands on results and comparison of results presented at the IRG regional meeting in Costa Rica in Dec 2008 (Cooper and Ung 2008) a...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung
Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9...
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper
A comparison of the chemistry of alkaline copper and micronized copper treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30528
This paper discusses the chemistry of the reaction of alkaline copper and micronized copper with wood. The objective of this study is to examine the copper species produced in wood during the fixation reaction using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The initial experiments (phases 1 to 2) were designed to confirm the effect of time of treatment and solution concentration on the s...
Wei Xue, P Kennepohl, J N R Ruddick
A Comparison of the Performance of Related Copper Based Preservatives against Soft Rot
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30540
The performance of pine and beech wood treated with either a soluble copper + quat (ACQ type D) preservative system or a particulate copper + quat system was evaluated in unsterile soil using the European standard ENV 807 soft rot decay test procedure. In addition, to compare soft rot performance of soluble and particulate copper directly without the influence of co-biocides, beech and pine test...
M Ray, D Dickinson, K Archer
A comparison of the corrosion of alkaline copper and micronized copper treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40515
With the replacement of chromate copper arsenate (CCA) by alkaline copper wood preservatives, there have been reports of increasing corrosion of metal fasteners and connectors in contact with treated wood. This may be explained by the presence of more mobile copper in the treated wood. One novel industrial response has been to develop a wood preservative based on an aqueous solution containing sus...
M Kofoed, J N R Ruddick
Copper distribution in soil leached from full scale decking boards during one year
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50265
The distribution of copper in the soil under exposed decking boards after one year has been analysed. The decking boards were impregnated with copper HDO, copper quat and copper triazoles. The decking boards were pine sapwood and pressure treated in a full cell process, fixed by heating and then dried. The samples were not surface treated. Each decking sample of five boards (0.25 m2) was placed on...
F G Evans
Mold Control for Treated Lumber in Block-Stack Storage Conditions
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30588
The mold development and control for freshly treated and block-stacked wood have been evaluated using a green house mold testing method. The results for the mold resistance of several commonly used water boron preservative treatment systems, such as ACQ, Copper Azole, and borates with and without inclusion of mold inhibitors are presented. The data suggest that the different preservative treatme...
L Jin, P Walcheski, A Preston
Removal of nano- and micronized-copper from treated wood by chelating agents
2013 - IRG/WP 13-50294
Micronized and nano-copper (Cu)-based and arsenic and chromium-free systems have received much attention for wood protection in recent years. Because they have different fixation, and micro-distribution properties, such copper systems may be more or less subject to release using known remediation methods than soluble forms of Cu. This study evaluated Cu recovery from wood treated with micronized- ...
S N Kartal, E Terzi, B Woodward, C A Clausen, S T Lebow