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Treatment of fresh green round bamboos culms (Dendrocalamus strictus) by sap-displacement (wick) method
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40311
Sap displacement method has great potential for treating short length bamboos as it does not require any technical equipment. The process is simple and large nos. of bamboos can be simultaneously treated in relatively short period. There is no wastage of chemicals as the remnant solution reused. Bottom ends and middle portion had better treatment in compared to lop end portion. With increasing length of the flow of preservatives is impaired. The method culms can conveniently 3m length.
R Lal, C N Vani

Penetration analysis of two common bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40247
Preservative treatment of two bamboo species, namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) was carried out with chromated copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. The variation in preservative penetration between the two different species was determined. It was found that preservative penetrates into borak quicker than into jawa and easier into air-dried bamboo than into green one.
M O Hannan, A K Lahiry, N M Islam

Treatability and retainability of two important bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40248
Preservative treatment has been carried out with five different concentrations, i.e. 3%, 4%, 5%, 6% and 7% and durations, i.e. 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, 8 days and 10 days, at different moisture content, i.e. green and air-dry, and different direction of penetration, i.e. radial and both radial and cross-section for jawa and borak. It has been observed that retention of CCB is always higher in jawa bamboo than borak, which is a clear indication to consider jawa bamboo a more permeable and diffusible bamboo species for dipping process. Adequate retention of preservative for indoor use has been obtained in most of the cases. It has been observed that 6% concentration of preservative with 8 to 10 days duration of dipping provides the best results.
M N Islam, A K Lahiry, M O Hannan

Upright capillary absorption behavior of five important timbers and one bamboo species of Bangladesh
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40273
The upright or vertical capillary absorption rate of five different timber and bamboo species namely mango (Mangifera indica), kalajam (Syzygium cumini), kanthal (Artocarpus heterophyllus), sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), mahagoni (Swietenia macrophylla) and mulibamboo (Melocana baccifera) were measured in relation to their specific gravity and duration of immersion. It has been observed that there was significant relation between increase of capillarity and timber species. From the analysis of data it was found that the rise of capillarity is more or less similar in case of bamboo, jam and kanthal but the values were comparatively lower than that of mahagoni, sissoo and mango. The value of the capillarity has been found the highest in mangowood. There was no significant relation with the rise of capillarity and advancement of time. Initially, the soaking rate of bamboo has increased at an increasing rate, but it soaks the solution at more or less same rate with time. It has been also observed that the absorption height has changed with the specific gravity of wood and absorption height has increased gradually with the increase of immersion time.
M A Islam, A K M A Bosunia, A K Saha, A K Lahiry

Bamboo preservation in Vietnam
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40457
This paper presents the current state of bamboo preservation in Vietnam. The report focuses on the importance of bamboo preservation in relation to the bamboo resource and utilization, the major methods for preservation (such as non chemical und chemical methods), and emphasises the today’s pressing problems of research, standards as well as information for the bamboo preservation industry in Vietnam.
Tang Thi Kim Hong

Chapter 9 - Preservation of borak bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-09
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB have been obtained in pre-dried Borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb. See Fig. below), abundantly grown in Bangladesh, with full-cell pressure process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials; the sufficient treatability ensured its long-term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. This will keep the environmental and socioeconomical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry

A note on the distribution of copper-chrome-boric (CCB) along the culm length of freshly felled bamboo treated by modified Boucherie process
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40317
Preservative treatment of green and dry bamboo poses severe problems. A number of bamboo/ wood preservatives (Chemical formulations) for the destroying organism like fungi, borers and termites etc. In this paper we reported preliminary results of treatment of fresh green round bamboo attached with baranches by modified Boucheri process. Sample full length of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus is taken for the treatment. Bamboo culm is treated with 8% solution of copper-chrome-Boric (CCB) for 6 hours. The treatment was discontinued after six hours. When the out coming solution showed almost equivalent concentration and bamboo was removed from the equipment. Branches were removed and bamboo culm was stored under cover for slow drying to allow diffusion of salts from the vessels to the adjoining tissues. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration, retention and absorption of CCB preservative in bamboo culm.
R Lal, C N Vani

Shockwaves in wood preservation
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40308
Shockwaves are strong perturbations in aerodynamics that propagate at supersonic speeds independent of the wave amplitude. Physically the occurrence of shockwave is always characterized in a fluid flow by instantaneous changes in pressure, velocity and temperature. In this paper we describe a new wood preservative injection system that has been developed utilizing the non-linear pressure spike behind a propagating shockwave. Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. Samples (30x2.5x1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of the IISc vertical shock tube filled with the 4 % copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservative solution. The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shockwave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar in each shot. The results from the studies indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples and the method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.
G Jagadeesh, R Lal, G Ravikumar, K S Rao

Bamboo: A Material Rediscovered
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10577
Bamboo has resurfaced as a valuable raw material as an inexpensive substitute for wood and a variety of value added products for engineered composites. Being a fast growing material available in the tropics, its real value was not realized until recently. Property evaluation studies and efforts to develop processing methods were initiated in the bamboo growing countries in the nineteenth century. Being available almost free its use was limited to handicrafts, paper and low cost housing in rural and tribal areas around the world. These areas having very little access to the developed world developed their own tradition methods to use bamboo for different application. Shortage of wood helped in rediscovery of bamboo. With its recognition as a wonderful material having fastest growth rates, many bamboo-growing nations have chalked out ambitious plans to promote its utilization and raise plantations to relieve pressure on forests. Government of India has initiated an elaborate program to promote bamboo. National Mission on Bamboo Applications an initiative of the Department of Science &Technology, Government of India plans to establish 10 common facility cum training centers in bamboo rich states to realize real value from this versatile material, neglected so far. This paper is intended to bring out the developments featuring processing of bamboo and its utilization in the first half of the 20th century. An update covering the later half of the 20th century will be covered later.
S Kumar

Comparative study between dipping and boucherie method of bamboo preservation
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40324
A comparative study has been carried out between dipping and boucherie method for three major bamboo species namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) with CCB (Chromated-copper-boron). Preservative treatment has been carried out with five different concentrations of preservative (2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 6%) and four different durations of dipping (2 days, 4 days, 6 days and 8 days). It has been observed that jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) and bamboo can be treated more easily and effectively than borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb.). In boucherie method, 2% concentration has been given adequate penetration of preservatives. Similarly, 6% concentrations and 8 days duration of dipping has been given better results of preservative penetration. Boron has been penetrated better than copper for all variables. Boucherie method is better than dipping method because this method can preserve a full length of green bamboo within a very short period of time.
A S M A Huda, S M Mithue, M N Islam, M O Hannan

Conservation and preservation of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635
The Science and Technology related to bamboo and bamboo preservation is a very captious subject involves most of the Sciences, Engineering and Technology and Environmental Sciences. Recently the environmental studies related to arsenic have been considered very essential for the people of South Asia, especially for the people of Bangladesh and West Bengal of India because of recent arsenic calamity in groundwater. Similarly the environmental studies related to preservation of wood and bamboo products by the most effective arsenic containing wood preservative is deemed necessary for the conservation of forests in this area, because the forest is the indispensable fragment of global environment. The people should know the benefits and importance of preservative and preservative treated bamboo. At the same time they should have information on different preservatives, preservative treatment processes, and service records of bamboo products, available bamboo species and their possible products. At the same time the propagation, identification and conservation of bamboo through different applied nursing and conservation methods are also essential to know and apply for the protection of this special type of plant. The promotion of mass awareness on these issues is also vital to solve the national and global environmental and socio-economical problems. Wood and bamboo preservation is an active part of modern Forestry Management Practices. The bamboo reserve cannot be increased and cannot be properly maintained without bamboo preservation. There is no book written in English available covering its identification, propagation or artificial regeneration, conservation through nursing and preservation especially for ground contact uses. But the topics are essential for the related students, researchers, teachers, forest conservators, bamboo merchants, bamboo preservers, conscious buyers or users and different fund giving international organizations. This ‘“Conservation and Preservation of Bamboo’” deals with these issues, essential particularly for the people in Asia, written based on 26 years experience, research and review of relevant literatures. This book is mostly a composition of several published research oriented applied literatures written solely by the author, compiled somehow differently. To make the concepts of bamboo propagation and preservation and different relations more clear and subjective, several documentary colored photographs, data and graphs have been added with previous works of different authors. There is an anatomical and morphological similarity among all bamboo species available in the world except different vascular bundle types. Unlike timbers of different timber yielding plants the preservatives and preservation methods once found successful for a particular bamboo species is usually applicable for all species depending on the usage purposes in different climatic conditions. Moreover, some important constructional bamboos are mostly available in all Asiatic countries or can be grown except in temperate regions.
A K Lahiry

Chapter 8 - Episode of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-08
In this chapter 7 (seven) poems entitled “The Bamboo’s Preface”, “The Bamboo’s Interim”, “The Fast Growing Grass”, “The Wild Grasses”, “The Bamboo’s Episode”, “The Bamboo’s Outlook”, “The Commitment” have been composed based on the habit, nature, introduction, properties, values, outlooks, importance, uses and melodies of bamboos in Asia. The conservation and preservation of bamboos have been emphasized through descriptive foot notes, commitment and showing possible ways how to preserve them. These poems were published earlier in author’s environmental book entitled “The Melodious Earth and Her Environmental Rules”.
A K Lahiry

Chapter 10 - Preservation of muli bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-10
Environmentally and economically very important mulibamboo (Melocanna baccifera) grown in Bangladesh was fond to be easily pressure treatable with CCA-C at green and air dry conditions. The green and air-dried bamboo treated at same treating conditions and concentration showed 110 per cent (2.10-times) higher retention in air-dried bamboo than green one. Adequate lower retention equivalent to 6.40 kg/m3 (1.25 per cent w/w) dry oxides of CCA-C for indoor and outdoor overhead uses, can be obtained by full-cell pressure treating round green bamboo with 4 per cent CCA-C solution or sliced air-dried bamboo with 2 per cent CCA-C solution. Adequate higher retention equivalent to 20 kg/m3 (4 per cent w/w) for ground and water contact uses can be obtained by treating airdried (15 per cent MC) round bamboo with 5 per cent CCA-C solution. CCA retains more in node than internode and CCA-C fixes adequately in bamboo if dried slowly after treatment and before use. Two small holes at each internode before pressure treatment ensure treatment of split free bamboo.
A K Lahiry

Chapter 11 - Preservation of talla bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-11
Researches revealed that the talla bamboo (Bambusa tulda Roxb.)) in Bangladesh could be full-cell pressure treated with CCA in green and dry conditions. The dry bamboo gives higher loading absorptions than green one when impregnated at same treating conditions. Also higher absorptions are obtained at nodes rather than internodes. Adequate penetration and retention results for ground and water contact uses are only possible by treating bamboos pre-dried to 10-15% MC. The green bamboo is easily treatable for indoor and overhead outdoor uses. The service life of this socio-economically important bamboo can easily be increased at least two times than nominal by CCA treating either green or dry bamboo. Two small holes made before pressure treatment in each internode will give split-free bamboo.
A K Lahiry

Microwave Modification of Bamboo Culm to Improve Permeability
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40592
Bamboo is a woody, valuable and strong material that has been used for a long time. In spite of its numerous beneficial properties, bamboo is susceptible to attack by fungus and insect therefore preservative treatment is regarded as necessary. Preservative treatment must provide sufficient uptake and even distribution in the culms for adequate protection. The treatability of dry bamboo, however, is generally poor. In dry state, distorted structure of bamboo nodes obstructs liquid penetration. Recently, microwave technology was evaluated for improving wood permeability. Microwave significantly improves wood permeability as a result of the modification. Microwave applicator where wood meet the waves was designed to suit heating purposes. Specially designed PC-1 applicator was developed for bamboo culm modification. The applicator allows microwave energy to heat the culm walls and not specifically heat the centre. This paper is studying the use of microwave technology for bamboo culm to improve its permeability. It includes comparing the conventional and PC-1 applicators for bamboo treatment. The results show that the PC-1 applicator allows surface modification of bamboo and creates short fractures that allow liquid to penetrate into the culm walls without necessarily filling up the central hollow section. Microwave energy modification of 0.05 kWh achieved optimum fractures for greatest uptake (173.59 kg/m3), which is about three times greater than non-modified samples.
K Sugiyanto, P Vinden, G Torgovnikov, S Przewloka

Solvent drying and preservation of timber
1977 - IRG/WP 381
Processes which combine drying and preservation are first reviewed. Some preliminary experiments are then described in which blocks of green Sitka spruce sapwood were immersed, in a solution of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in methanol at 60°C. Satisfactory penetration of the preservative and exchange of methanol and water occurred in a few hours. The methanol was removed rapidly from the wood by evaporation. Satisfactory penetration of TBTO into initially methanol-saturated samples occurred in a similar period. The factors influencing. such treatments are discussed. High initial moisture content of the wood and a high operating temperature are particularly desirable. Some aspects of the possible commercial operation of the process are discussed.
J A Petty

The IRG..Chanelling information and ideas into the mainstream of wood preservation technology
1985 - IRG/WP 5241
IRG Secretariat

Wood preservation in Poland
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30362
Dynamic growth of market demand for wooden elements and articles, generated in Poland increase of interest in industrial preservation. Today, Poland is a substantial producer and exporter of wood made products. Majority of exported wood - approximately 70% - is scotch pine (Pinus silvestris L.), which, due to its natural durability, requires preservation.
A Kundzewicz

Manual of a mini treating plant for waterborne preservative treatment of timber and bamboo
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40130
This contributional article includes machinaries and equipments necessary for a small wood treating plant for the pressure treatment of tim bers with waterborne preservatives along with the cost and design. The preservative treatment limitations, treatment schedules and specifications for different products have been described. The cost of a mini treating plant will be 6,00,000 Tk. (13,000 US$), suitable for preserving timber and bamboo products for indoor and outdoor uses and will out last teak wood. The additional durability of timber and bamboo will create economically and environmentally safe conditions.
A K Lahiry

The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of raw material use (kg), energy consumption (MJ), emissions (COx, NOX, SOx, etc.) and final waste (in kg). The critical point in an LCA is the definition of comparable "functional units" for similar products made of different materials with different service lifes. As the LCA method has often proved to be very complex, lime-consuming, expensive and difficult to interpret and translate into practically usefull results, alternative methods are developed. Three methods are described and compared on the basis of various examples. It is hoped that this may be of use as a starting point for further discussion on the suitability of applying the LCA on (preservative treated) timber products.
P Esser, J Cramer

Environmental status of wood preservation in the UK
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50018
The environmental status of wood preservatives and treated wood in the UK is summarised. The current legislatory position with respect to approvals, supply, use and waste disposal is considered. The bibliography at the end of this paper contains details of all publications referred to together with other relevant information although this cannot be exhaustive.
M Connell

IRG - wood preservation - annual report 1999; wood preservation in Slovak Republic
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40192
This report gives basic information about wood preservation in Slovak Republic, related to the wood preservation research and education, to the most important wood-destroying organisms, to the wood preserving industry, and also to the problems of standards, market and environment.
L Reinprecht

Comité International Permanent pour la Recherche sur la Préservation des Matériaux en Milieu Marin. Information from the Wood Group
1980 - IRG/WP 460
E G B Jones

The International Research Group on Wood Preservation. A Short Presentation
1979 - IRG/WP 92
IRG Secretariat

The Seventeenth Report of The International Research Group on Wood Preservation 1987-1988
1988 - IRG/WP 5322
R Cockcroft

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