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Corrosion of fasteners in heat-treated wood – progress report after two years’ exposure outdoors
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40296
The corrosion of common fastener materials now in use - mild steel, zinc-coated steel, aluminium and Sanbond Z-coated steel – has been evaluated after two years’ exposure outdoors in untreated and heat-treated spruce (Picea abies) respectively. Spruce from South-western Sweden was used. The heat-treatment was carried out in Finland according to the ThermoWood process at a maximum temperature ...
J Jermer, B-L Andersson


Information from the COIPM Wood Group. Summary received via Mme Dr Anna Gambetta (Italy)
1987 - IRG/WP 4139
Two co-operative programmes were discussed: 1) The IRG/COIPM co-operative programme on the CCA/CCB wood treatments and 2) The IRG/COIPM co-operative programme for testing the resistance of plastic wrapping for wooden pilings. The following was reported: In the wood treatment programme, beech, pine and alstonia wood samples have been pressure treated with 3 retentions (3%, 6% and 10%) of CCA and CC...
J R DePalma


Long-term performance of a "wax" type additive for use with water-borne pressure preservative treatments
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40159
Field performance results are updated for matched CCA treated decking boards with and without an emulsion water repellent additive incorporated with the initial pressure treatment. Decks have been exposured for over 9 years in Harrisburg, NC. Boards were evaluated for in-service and laboratory performance for water repellent efficacy, as well as additive loadings in the boards after this exposure....
A R Zahora


Bibliography: Interactions of wood preservatives with wood, metals, glues, paints and concretes
1983 - IRG/WP 3271
H Becker


Comparisons of differences in electrical conductivity and corrosivity between CCA-oxide and CCA-salt treated wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3178
CCA preservatives have served well in many applications throughout the world. In developed areas it is the preservative in demand for clean dry paintable surfaces with long durability. In developing areas it is widely used for economic and logistical reasons. With the current emphasis on energy resources, the CCA preservatives are gaining greater acceptance as a substitute for hydrocarbon-related ...
J A Taylor


Effects of the addition of polyethylene glycol to the CCA-C preservative treatment
1985 - IRG/WP 3337
A modification of the CCA-C wood preservative system for utility poles has been investigated to see if spur penetration into the poles is assisted during climbing. Addition of polyethylene glycol to the CCA system has been shown to accomplish this purpose. This paper addresses the effects of the addition of polyethylene glycol to other physical properties germane to utility poles....
W P Trumble, E E Messina


Corrosion of zinc-coated nails used with preservative-treated western red cedar shakes in service
1982 - IRG/WP 3197
The corrosion of metal fasteners used with certain wood species and with preservative-treated woods can be a serious problem. The chemical reactivity of western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) extractives to iron and copper is well documented and wood preservative treatments containing copper, chromium, and/or ammonium hydroxide can be expected to similarly attack some metals. This problem is compo...
R S Smith, E L Johnson, A J Cserjesi


Evaluation of the corrosivity of the treated wood - Laboratory vs field test methodologies
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20211
The corrosivity of treated wood to fasteners has been evaluated using laboratory test procedures, including AWPA Standard E12-94. The standard method was modified in order to allow detailed study of commercial metal fasteners in terms of sample types, installation configuration and exposure conditions. Parallel field tests were also performed. The experimental results generated from these tests su...
L Jin, A F Preston


Copper linoleate: A new low toxcity wide spectrum, heavy duty wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30082
Copper linoleate, a "fixed" copper soap has been developed and evaluated in South Africa over a 30-year period. The initial product, an organic solvent based preservative has been tested in pine poles against termites and fungi. Results indiate that the product has performed well against existing heavy duty wood preservatives such as CCA and creosote in long term field trials (30 years). The paper...
D Conradie, P Turner, W E Conradie, A J Pendlebury, T Pizzi


The degradation of wood by metal fastenings and fittings
1972 - IRG/WP 302
As well as the hazards of biological decay, timber used in boat building is subject to the effects of chemical decay associated with the corrosion of metallic fastenings. The title has been deliberately chosen to emphasize that in wooden construction the troubles are not just those of corrosion of the fastenings, but also the destructive secondary effects on the wood caused by the products of the ...
L C Pinion


Corrosion of fasteners in treated wood
1971 - IRG/WP 303
Surveying tests for determining the corrosion rates of some metals and alloys in wood untreated as well as treated have been made. It is shown that ordinary steel corrodes faster than other common fastener metals such as copper, brass, aluminium and stainless steel do. Zinc coatings, however, will prevent the steel corrosion effectively provided that the coatings are thick sufficiently. Catalytic ...
T Wallin


Performance of preservative-treated wood not in ground contact
1975 - IRG/WP 254
Experimental sash units of Pinus strobus L. and Pinus resinosa Ait. wood were removed from a test fence at Ottawa, Canada after outdoor exposure of over 20 years. The units were superficially treated, prior to painting, with preservatives containing either copper naphthenate, pentachlorophenol or a combination of zinc naphthenate and pentachlorophenol. Results indicated that all treatments were ef...
J K Shields, J Krzyzewski


Timber preservatives and corrosion
1983 - IRG/WP 3228
A survey of preservative treated timber commodities has illustrated problems that may be caused by corrosion. After treatment, timber should be compatible with commonly used fasteners. Whilst many corrosion methods have been used in the past, no standardized method is used by workers in timber preservation. The Queensland Department of Forestry is developing laboratory test methods for assessing c...
R I Davis


Protection of buildings, other structures and materials in ground contact from attack by subterranean termites with a physical barrier - a fine mesh of high grade stainless stee
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10014
A new type of physical barrier for the prevention of attack by subterranean termites on buildings, other structures and materials in ground contact - a fine mesh of highalloy (originally 304, now 316) stainless steel - has recently been developed and patented worldwide by industry in Australia. The termite resistance of the material was assessed by CSIRO in laboratory and field trials. In the labo...
M Lenz, S Runko


Deterioration of wood viewed from iron nail
1991 - IRG/WP 2368
Deterioration of nail was graded by a five - rank numerical - rating. The rating of nail moisture content and decay of wood were inspected in a mortal-wall of 34-year-old house. The wood was mostly in decay, when the rating of the nail was above about 4, and the moisture content was above about 20%. Nailed wood specimens kept in several humidity room of 20°C for 4 years showed that the rating of ...
H Imamura


Dura-Treet II, a water dispersible pentachlorophenol
1980 - IRG/WP 3165
During the past several decades, penta petroleum wood treating has become increasingly popular. Penta is an effective chemical compound against wood organisms causing decay and rot, is safe to handle, also clean and easy to use. In terms of preservative cost, it has been and remains by far the least expensive of the three major preservatives. However, when the cost of petroleum carrier is added, t...
D B Hatcher


Electrochemical deterioration of wood in sea-water
1981 - IRG/WP 464
In the specialistic literature only few items can be found dealing with the specific kind of wood deterioration called electrochemical corrosion of wood. This deterioration occurs predominantly on marine vessels, yachts, and other marine craft where wood is jointed by means of various metal connectors. Up to date information demonstrates that in wood surrounding copper connectors, when in proximit...
J Raczkowski


Determination of corrosive effect of liquid wood preservatives to metals – First experiences with a National Standard which is in revision
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20321
The development of standards is an essential tool to characterise different kind of materials and products. An important aspect during the development of a new product is to check the corrosion behaviour with other materials. Corrosion can cause several problems like pitting corrosion. Consequently the knowledge concerning the corrosive effect of liquid wood preservatives is important due to the s...
E Melcher


Metal plate fasteners in trussed rafters treated with preservatives or flame retardants - corrosion risks
1977 - IRG/WP 3104
In designing roof trusses employing metal plate fasteners it is generally assumed that the roof will remain dry in service. Whilst this is generally true, damp conditions do arise under some circumstances, although it is not possible to quantify the extent of the risk. It is only possible, therefore, to give general recommendations which must be interpreted in the light of local experience of serv...
R A Laidlaw, L C Pinion


The future for chromium in wood preservation
1985 - IRG/WP 3332
Most water-borne preservatives contain CrVI compounds, originally to reduce corrosion although now also to improve toxicant fixation. Chromium contributes to preservation and this is recognised in, for example, New Zealand and USA where chromium contents are included in calculations of overall preservative activity of CCA formulations, but chromium may also have anti-stain and joinery (millwork) p...
B A Richardson, T R G Cox


Effect of humidity and temperature on fastener withdrawal resistance from CCA and ACZA treated Douglas-fir
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20209
The effects of preservative treatment on fastener withdrawal was investigated in Douglas-fir lumber conditioned to two moisture regimes. In general, conditioning samples to 19% moisture content produced more substantial changes in withdrawal resistance of galvanized fasteners than did conditioning to 12%. Treatment had little or no effect on withdrawal resistance of stainless steel fasteners. With...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell


Effects of the sulfuric acid modification of CCA treating solution
1987 - IRG/WP 3415
Sulfuric acid modification of CCA treating solution is often used to control the formation of sludges and undesirable deposits on the surface of treated wood. The consequences of sulfuric acid addition are examined in this work and negative effects are shown to far outweigh any benefits. Major risks include the loss of copper due to leaching from treated wood and the accelerated corrosion of treat...
R F Fox, H J Fry, E A Pasek, A S Ross


Corrosion of metal fasteners in contact with copper preservative treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20370
The corrosion rates of metal fasteners in contact with alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood with or without commercially available water repellent was compared to that of cedar. In this experiment, fasteners were sandwiched between two pieces of treated wood and exposed to a humid environment at a slightly elevated temperature. The use of a “sandwich” design allowed periodic examination of ...
BaekYong Choi, J N R Ruddick


The effect of brighteners on wood surface aesthetics – exploring the use of various organo-phosphonates based precursors
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30441
Freshly cut hardwood lumber such as white oak, red oak, beech, or redwood are rich in mineral stain (mostly iron and calcium), which provides a strong discoloration of the wood surface significantly influencing the aesthetic of the wood surface and strongly affecting the cost of this lumber. The influence of mineral stain on soft wood discoloration (Southern Yellow Pine, Douglas fir, etc.) is les...
R Craciun, P Mitchell


Corrosion of fastener and connector in contact with alkaline copper treated wood – it is a problem
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40437
For many decades, chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the most common wood preservative used in North America for residential and industrial applications. Since December 31, 2003, the use of CCA for residential application was voluntarily terminated. One of the most widely accepted alternative wood preservatives in Western Canada is Alkaline Copper Quaternary Compound (ACQ). This paper will compar...
J N R Ruddick


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