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The use of ESR spectroscopy to assess the photostabilising effects of wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20186
The degradation of wood surfaces exposed to UV light which leads to poor performance of clear coatings is understood to be due to delignification via a mechanism involving free radicals. Certain wood preservatives most notably CCA are able to photostabilise wood and therefore they may reduce the concentration of free radicals formed when treated wood is exposed to ultraviolet light. As a first ste...
S Schmid, R D Webster, P D Evans


Experiments on the degradation of tributyltin oxide: A progress report
1984 - IRG/WP 3287
A variety of experiments designed to assess the chemical and physical factors affecting the degradation of tributyltin oxide in treated timber are described. Simple procedures in which temperature and oxygen availability were increased in the presence of wood and water suggest that the wood itself was of prime importance. Attempts to decrease degradation with antioxidants were unsuccessful but led...
R J Orsler, G E Holland


Fungal Attack on Lignin and Cellulose: Elucidation of Brown- and White-Rot Mechanisms Comparing Biomimetic and In-Vivo Degradation Patterns
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10714
This paper examines research and hypotheses that have been developed over several years on wood degradation mechanisms. This information is combined with new data and analyses to explain why wood decay patterns caused by brown-rot fungi and specific types of white-rot fungi are different. New data, including work with both biomimetic studies on low molecular weight compounds, degradative enzymes, ...
V Arantes, B Goodell, A M F Milagres, Yuhui Qian, T Filley, J Jellison, S Kelley


Susceptibility of angiosperm sapwood to white-rot fungal colonization and subsequent degradation: a hypothesis
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10211
It has long been recognized that angiosperm sapwood in nature is relatively easily and preferentially degraded by white-rot fungi. This susceptibility to white-rot fungi is generally believed to be mainly caused by the structure and concentration of angiosperm lignin. However, an explicit explanation as to why lignin structure makes a particular wood vulnerable to white-rot colonisation and subseq...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas


The effect of low molecular weight chelators on iron chelation and free radical generation as studied by ESR measurement
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10367
The focus of this work was to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in brown-rot decay. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), is an attractive technique for the identification and study of chemical species containing unpaired electrons (such as radicals and certain transition metal species). ESR spin-trapping techniques...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell


Wood degradation mechanisms by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10229
A mechanism for the degradation of wood by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum is outlined. The mechanism includes the function of redox-cycling, low molecular weight phenolic derivatives which sequester and reduce iron in acidic environments. The role of oxalate for the sequestration of iron (hydr)oxides and the pH dependent transfer of iron to the G. trabeum phenolic chelators, as well as ...
B Goodell, J Jellison


Controlling the sapstain fungus Ceratocystis coerulescens by metabolites obtained from Bjerkandera adusta and Talaromyces flavus
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10024
Sapstain causes severe damage to wood and wood products, posing a major economic problem for the wood industry. The purpose of this study was to determine if metabolites from Bjerkandera adusta and Talaromyces flavus would (1) decolorize stain in wood caused by Ceratocystis coerulescens and (2) prevent sapstain by Ceratocystis coerulescens. We studied the interaction of the sapstain fungus Ceratoc...
S C Croan, T L Highley


Generation of hydroxyl radical by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1360
In an electron spin resonance (ESR) survey of various liquid cultures and wood slivers innoculated with the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, the spin trap dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) was used to detect the presence of the hydroxyl radical. The ESR spectra for the paramagnetic DMPO- hydroxyl radical adduct was observed in (1) nitrogen-limited, liquid cultures having 1.0% glucose or 0.1% c...
B Illman, D C Meinholtz, T L Highley


Targeted inhibition of wood decay (Using everything but the kitchen sink)
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10203
Low molecular weight oxidative decay agents have been implicated in the degradation of wood by brown-rot decay as evidenced by chemical analysis of brown-rotted wood and detection of oxalic acid and hydroxy radicals. Fenton chemistry (H2O2 / Fe++) is often proposed as the mechanism for generating hydroxy radicals. Previous authors have shown iron to enhance the brown-rot hydrolysis of wood, while ...
F Green III, T A Kuster, T L Highley


Recent development in North American industrial wood preservation plants
1988 - IRG/WP 3467
After remaining static for many years there have been a number of changes in plant design and treating cycles in recent years. This has been particularly true in the USA where few restrictions are placed on plant treating cycles by specifications; since only results type specifications are used. It is also important to realize that the AWPA Specifications for Southern Yellow Pine only call for tre...
J F Bridges


Environmentally benign wood preservatives based on organic biocide antioxidant combinations: A brief review of laboratory and field exposure results and discussion of a proposed mechanism
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30335
The combination of various organic biocides with commercial antioxidants generally increased the biocides’ efficacy 2-3 fold against wood-destroying fungi in short-term laboratory decay tests, and some positive results have been obtained after 2-4 years of outdoor exposure. The two antioxidants principally examined, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene, are low cost and, since both are f...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, W Henry, C Pittman, D Wipf, B Goodell


Fungal detoxification of organotin biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 1258
The ability of a range of wood decaying fungi to inactivate bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TnBTO) in the extracellular growth medium, in stationary liquid culture was determined. A distinction between the ability to tolerate the fungicide and to inactivate it was made: the white-rot organism Coriolus versicolor being the most efficient inactivator. In an attempt to determine the extracellular agents r...
P S Belford, D J Dickinson


Some fundamental thoughts on the prediction of field performance from lab-testing based on comparison of lab and field test results of some copper-free materials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20269
In the paper results from lab testing (ENV 807 and EN 113) are compared with field results (EN 252) of differently treated wood. Depending on the type of the organic biocide containing material and depending on type of soil and type of decay differences were found in suitability of the lab methods to predict field performance. The attempt is made to interpret the found differences. Furthermore it ...
A O Rapp, U Augusta


The role of oxygen and oxygen radicals in one-electron oxidation reactions mediated by low-molecular weight chelators isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum.markup
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10086
The KTBA assay for determination of one-electron oxidation activity was used to assay reactions of low-molecular weight chelators isolated from the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The assay, performed either under air or nitrogen showed that molecular oxygen was an important factor in chelator-mediated oxidation reactions. A reduction in oxidative activity was observed when superoxide dismu...
Jun Lu, B Goodell, Jiang Liu, A Enoki, J Jellison, H Tanaka, F Fekete


Further steps in the development of above ground wood preservative systems
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30300
Metal and organo-metallic wood preservative systems have provided the consumer with cost effective wood preservative systems which satisfy the performance requirements in a wide range of end uses. With increasing environmental and legislative control, metal-free formulations have emerged as the dominant preservative systems for the protection of timber in the lower hazard classes. In higher ha...
P Warburton, A S Hughes


Free radical process controlled by manganese peroxidase and lipid-related metabolites produced by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10412
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, a specific lignin-degrading fungus produced free unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) including 9,12-octadecaienoic asid, together with saturated fatty acids (SFAs) at an incipient stage of cultivation on wood meal cultures. In prolonged cultivation period after two weeks, the amount of intact fatty acids decreased with increasing in organic hydroperoxide and TBARS producti...
T Watanabe, M Enoki, S Sato, Y Honda, M Kuwahara, N Shirai, K Messner


Degradation of resin constituents in various wood species by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10301
In previous studies, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was shown to cause extensive degradation of lipophilic extractives (resin) in Scots pine wood. Further research was carried out in order to investigate the ability of Bjerkandera sp. for reducing resinous constituents in various softwood (Douglas fir, larch and spruce) and hardwood species (birch, beech and poplar). The greates...
J Dorado, T A Van Beek, F W Claassen, R Sierra-Alvarez


Bethoguard; A new wood protecting fungicide for use in metal free ground contact wood preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30301
Research has identified the limitations in both the spectrum of activity and permanence of organic biocides placed in wood in high hazard environments, particularly in the absence of heavy metals such as copper. More specifically, the control of soft rot decay in wood in soil contact has proven to be most problematic. The new organic biocide, Bethoguard; an oxathiazine, has demonstrated excellen...
S C Forster, G R Williams, M Van Der Flaas, M Bacon, J Gors


PXTS; A Metal Free Oligomer Wood Preserving System - A Summary of Data To Date
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30350
The world is continually looking for new wood preservative technology, especially to address environmental concerns. Recent changes in the USA have limited the use of arsenical containing formulations to industrial use through a negotiated voluntary cancellation of most residential label uses. PXTS (Polymeric Alkylphenol Polysulfide) offers a brand new technology that is an all organic system, lik...
M H Freeman, D D Nicholas, D Renz, R Buff


Paintability and gluability of wood treated with arsenic-free and chromium free preservative treatments
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40342
The objective of this project was to study, in comparison with traditional CCA treatment, the paintability and gluability of wood treated with arsenic-free and chromium-free preservative treatments. Four formulations, all certified CTB P+, were selected in accordance with their representativeness of the preservative product market: one CCA reference formulation and three chromium and arsenic free...
L Podgorski, G Legrand


Chapter 11 - Preservation of talla bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-11
Researches revealed that the talla bamboo (Bambusa tulda Roxb.)) in Bangladesh could be full-cell pressure treated with CCA in green and dry conditions. The dry bamboo gives higher loading absorptions than green one when impregnated at same treating conditions. Also higher absorptions are obtained at nodes rather than internodes. Adequate penetration and retention results for ground and wate...
A K Lahiry


Chapter 12 - Treatment Groups of Bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-12
Study on distribution of CCA in three major bamboo species in Bangladesh, full-cell pressure treated at green and dry conditions revealed two treatment groups and some treating principles. Higher adequate treatment for ground and water contact use is only possible by treating problematic bamboo species pre-kiln dried up to half of its FSP and non-problematic species pre-dried up to FSP (20% ...
A K Lahiry


The Effect of Water Repellent on Semi-Field Leaching of Active Substances from Metal Free Wood Preservative Formulation
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30615
The risk assessments for the use of wood preservatives proposed by the OECD and used under the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) (98/8/EC) require the derivation of leaching rates for active substances. These rates are to be used as input data in to agreed exposure scenarios. A comparison of the leaching of active substances from wood treated with a metal free preservative formulation with and wit...
D G Cantrell


Performance of biocide-free preservative-protective systems modified with organosilicon compounds
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30628
The objective of the research was to determine the influence of organosilicon compounds in preservative-protective systems on the selected properties of pine wood aimed for outdoor use. The investigations were made for biocide-free systems based on alkyd resin and natural oils modified with alkylalkoxy-, amino- and glycidoxysilanes. The special attention was paid on the influence of hydrophobic pr...
B Mazela, P Hochmańska, T Krystofiak


Field performance of wax treated wood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30649
The durability and outdoor performance of wax treated Scots pine sapwood was investigated in above ground field tests. Therefore wood impregnated with three different waxes was exposed in horizontal lap-joint test which is running since eight years. Durability, wetting resistance and the susceptibility to checking has been investigated. In summary, all wax treated wood performed better compared to...
C Brischke, E Melcher


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