IRG Documents Database and Compendium


Search and Download IRG Documents:



Between and , sort by


Displaying your search results

Your search resulted in 26 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Conditions for basidiospore production in the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum separium in axenic culture
1984 - IRG/WP 1232
Attempts to control and optimize the production of hymenial structures and basidiospore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium in axenic culture resulted in the proposal of the following conditions as being suitable. The dikaryotic mycelia originally isolated from basidiocarps could consistently be induced to produce hymenial structures and pure basidiospore collects if illuminated by near ultraviolet light with emission maximum at 355 nm ("black light") at a temperature of 15°C on a chemically defined medium, where the concentration of the carbon and the nitrogen sources were shown to be of critical significance. The necessary conditions for basidiospore production in lignicolous fungi in general are is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman


Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coatings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10035
The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans was previously examined, using agar plate tests, with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood (Sharpe and Dickinson, 1992). This study compared these findings with the nutritional capability of four other fungi (Alternaria sp., Cladosporium cladosporoides, Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) commonly isolated from wood surfaee coatings. The liquid culture techniques were used to assess the relative abilities of the fungi to utilise a range of simple sugars, wood sugar alcohols, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin degradation compounds. The observations were used to explain why Aureobasidium pullulans is able to occupy so successfully, often in monoculture, the wood-paint interface niche.
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson


A medium for mass culturing of a bamboo boring beetle Dinoderus minutus Fabricius
1983 - IRG/WP 1182
The bamboo is a traditional product of Japan. But its susceptibility to insects is one of the most important problems. The author has found that for the determination of the effectiveness of insecticides it is very easy to obtain sufficiently numerous adults of Dinoderus minutus by using Buckwheat Cake. The Buckwheat Cake is prepared with buckwheat flour and thin paper. The author has previously found that Buckwheat Cake is suitable for the culturing of Lyctus brunneus and these results were presented in 1981. In culturing Dinoderus minutus, Buckwheat Cake has been found to be also easier and fasting in bringing forth the adults than natural bamboo.
K Suzuki


A preliminary study on the feasibility of substituting the soil culture medium in soil block tests
1984 - IRG/WP 2209
In this work the possibility was studied of substituting the soil culture medium in preservative screening methods. The conclusions are that another type of material, Sphagnum moss, can be used with advantages, but that some more information is still needed to give a real idea regarding the differences caused by the substrate tested.
J C Moreschi


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers to be used on hidden unpainted surfaces of wooden antiques were investigated. We studied relevant properties of five different coating materials: thickness, hardness by resistance to scratching, adhesion, flexibility, resistance to temperature changes, conformability to the concept of reversibility and bioresistance against wood boring insects. The most promising results were exhibited by the coating that is commercially used for protection of fresh log ends in forests, immediately after a tree is cut.
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


Bacterial wood degradation by a pure culture
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10093
A single-celled bacterium isolated from lake water yielded cell wall degradation in Scots pine sapwood samples. The bacterium attacked all cell wall layers in one month of laboratory culture. It was identified as Aureobacterium luteolum.
O Schmidt


Analysis of volatile emissions as an aid in the diagnosis of dry rot
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2393
The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans was grown in pure culture on malt extract and on sapwood of pine. The volatile compounds emitted from the cultures were determined by diffusion sampling on tubes filled with Tenax TA, thermal desorption and gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry in order to find markers for attack of the fungus.
J Bjurman, J Kristensson


Suppression of aerial hypha formation by spent culture filtrate of a non-degradative strain of Postia placenta
1991 - IRG/WP 1498
ME20, a wild-type monokaryotic strain of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta, does not cause significant weight losses in standard soil-wood block decay tests and fails to form aerial hyphae in liquid and agar culture. This abnormal morphological feature may be caused by the same aberrant physiology that prevents the strain from degrading wood efficiently. ME20 releases elevated levels of the autolytic enzymes laminarinase and protease into culture media. These autolytic enzymes may degrade the cell wall and hyphal sheath, thus preventing aerial hypha formation and limiting wood colonization. If abnormally high levels of autolytic enzymes suppress aerial hypha formation, any strain of Postia placenta grown in their presence should take on the appearance of ME20. MAD698, a standard floccose test strain of Postia placenta, was grown in fresh media containing increasing concentrations of filter-sterilized spent culture filtrate of ME20. Aerial hypha formation was strongly inhibited or prevented when the spent culture filtrate made up 40% or more of the medium. Spent media from MAD698 caused a similar effect but only at higher concentrations (80 and 100%). The suppression does not appear to be caused by extracellular autolytic enzymes since commercial preparations of laminarinase, chitinase, and protease did not reproduce this effect. The suppressive agent appeared in ME20 culture filtrate after only two weeks of growth. It has a molecular weight of less than 10,000 and is resistant to boiling. Additional research is needed to characterize ist nature, thus identifying a potential biorational inhibitor of wood-decay fungi.
J A Micales


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers to be used on hidden unpainted surfaces of wooden antiques were investigated. We studied relevant properties of five different coating materials: thickness, hardness by resistance to scratching, adhesion, flexibility, resistance to temperature changes, conformability to the concept of reversibility and bioresistance against wood boring insects. The most promising results were exhibited by the coating that is commercially used for protection of fresh log ends in forests, immediately after a tree is cut.
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


A modified method to determine the toxic values of chemicals against Lyctus africanus (Lesne) by larval transfer method (laboratory method)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20309
Lyctus africanus (Lesne) is the commonest species widely distributed by trade throughout India. It is one of the most important insect pest attacking logs, branchwood and and practically every kind of manufactured wooden article that contains sapwood. Presently, in India many short rotation and alternate timbers are being used for making many finished products .The inclusion of sapwood containing starch makes these products very susceptible to insect borer attack. Consequently, many wood preservative companies are coming out with many formulations to combat powder post beetle attack. Currently there exists no Indian standard to test these wood preservatives against the powder post beetle infestation. Since the testing using adult beetle releasing increases the testing period it is not much appreciated. As insect borer larval activity is visible to judge the progress of the test and also as it reduces the test period, a modified method to determine the toxic value of the chemicals against Lyctus africanus-Lesne by larval transfer method has been standardized based on the European standard EN21.
R Muthukrishnan, O K Remadevi


The effect of different concentrations of polesaver rods on the survival of selected decay fungi in liquid culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30166
An in-vitro method was developed to determine the effect of solutions of Polesaver Rods on the survival of selected decay fungi. Polesaver Rods are a diffusing preservative treatment containing fluorine and boron designed for the internal remedial treatment of power poles. Two white-rot fungi, Perenniporia tephropora and Trametes versicolor, and two brown-rot fungi, Polyporus verecundus and Gloeophyllum abietinum, were grown in flasks of liquid growth media containing one of eight different concentrations of Polesaver Rods. Subcultures were made from the mycelium in the flasks after 1 day, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks exposure. Sampled mycelium was inoculated onto a malt agar medium and emergent fungi were identified to determine survival of the original inoculum. Media aliquots were taken at each sample time for confirmatory analysis of boron and fluorine concentrations as well as the determination of residual glucose. All four test fungi exhibited increasing susceptibility to the Polesaver Rod solutions with time. Exposure for one week to the highest concentration (1.6% Polesaver Rod) was sufficient to kill all test fungi. Three of the fungi survived 2 weeks exposure to a 0.4% Polesaver Rod solution. After 8 weeks exposure to this concentration only one of the test fungi that was selected in this experiment for its known tolerance to boron, Polyporus verecundus, was able to survive.
M A Powell, T Deldot, C McEvoy


A technique for fructification and basidiospore production by Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex fr.) SF Gray in artificial culture
1986 - IRG/WP 2255
A method for fructification and basidiospore production by Serpula lacrymans is outlined. A wheat flour/malt extract medium or an oat grain medium, enriched with alanine, tri-potassium phosphate and thiamine supported good fructification of the fungus at a temperature of 12°C. The influence on fructification of temperature, light and inoculum is discussed. To date, 22 stains from a total of 38 tested, fructify in culture.
S Cymorek, B M Hegarty


New perspectives on the biology of the tropical powderpost beetle, Minthea rugicollis (Walk.)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10085
Minthea rugicollis (Walk.) is one of the most important pests of seasoned hardwoods in the tropics. The species owes its ubiquity largely to its insidious development within a nutrient-filled environment and also to a strong coevolutionary specialization with its natural habitat, wood. Such an environment provides a buffer to extrinsic fluctuations and accounts for a wider range of tolerance by immature stages to variations in climatic conditions than would otherwise be possible. Aspects of culture methods, characteristic habits and external tolerances are emphasised so as to generate new perspectives in understanding the fundamental biology of this organism and to improve current wood preservation strategies.
F Abood, R J Murphy, R W Berry


Aspects of the fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in liquid culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30160
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) that has found use as an anti-sapstain preservative for the transportation of softwood lumber from Canada to overseas markets. However, its use is limited by the knowledge that certain mould fungi seem capable of degrading it. The aim of this research was to gain knowledge about the fungal degradation of DDAC. The effects of Verticillium bulbillosum - a demonstrated QAC-degrading mould - on DDAC within a defined liquid culture were studied. Interactions between the liquid medium and DDAC; the degree of fungal tolerance under varying conditions; and rate of degradation paralleled with fungal growth were examined.
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick


The use of preservative containing waste wood as substrate for growing greenhouse crops
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50011
In the Netherlands a large amount of waste wood and wood waste is produced every year. An important part of this amount comes from the pallet and packaging industries. One of the possibilities to re-use this relatively clean material is to convert it into substrates for growing crops in glass houses instead of the commonly used materials such as rock wool and glass wool. In this research, the influence of several material parameters such as wood species, texture, density, height, water holding capacity on the growth of cucumbers has been studied and this has been compared with the growth on rock wool, which is applied in approximately 95% of the glasshouses in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the influence has been investigated of anti blue stain preservatives on the growth of the cucumber plants, this kind of preservatives is often used in the dutch industry for protection of pallets. In general it can be concluded that when waste wood is to be used as substrate a few preservatives can be accepted and some others can not. The wood species teture, density, height and water holding capacity of the substrate showed to have only a slight effect on the growth of cucumbers.
W J Homan,H Militz


Minimum inhibitory concentration of methylene bisthiocyanate towards selected wood inhabiting fungi in liquid culture and on radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30261
The objective of the current study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) towards wood inhabiting fungi common on unseasoned radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). The fungi used were Ophiostoma floccosum, Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma viride. Fungi were individually inoculated into nutrient media spiked with different concentrations of MBT. After 12 days of incubation, biomass and microscopy were used to determine the MIC value for each fungus tested. For wood, radiata pine wafers were inoculated with individual fungi prior to dip-treatment with different concentrations of MBT. Fungal growth over the surface of wafers was assessed visually over five weeks and used an indicator to define a MIC value. Of all fungi tested, T. viride exhibited the greatest fungicidal tolerance in liquid media and on wood. For all fungi, spores and hyphal fragments were more sensitive to MBT than established hyphae, and considerably higher levels of MBT were required to kill growth of test fungi on wood than in liquid culture.
T Singh, B Kreber, C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, A Stewart


Control of wood biodeterioration by fungal metabolites
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1527
Treating wood with different conventional preservative chemicals for protection and economic utilisation is well known. Tough some of these chemicals are toxic to skin, their use as wood preservative is unavoidable as they should be toxic to biodeteriorating organisms also. Recent advances in chemistry of natural products enabled the use of wood extractives as biocidal compounds against biodeteriorating organisms. Similary metabolites of marine organisms such as sponge, moluscus, horse shoe crabs, have been suggested as useful wood preservative substances. Many fungi colonise wood, interact each other during their succession, and produce toxic metabolites for their survival and dominance. Prelimirlary studies on these metabolites, when tested, showed inhibitory effect on some of the known wood rotting fungi, which has prompted, to make an attempt to use the fungal culture filtrate as possible wood preservatives. Keeping this in view, fungal culture filtrates of Trichoderma viridae; Sporotrichum Pulverulentum; Chaetomium globulosum and Penicillium spinolosum were extracted with kerosine for use as possible preservatives. Rubber and Mango wood were treated with these Fungal Culture Filtrate (FCF) and then were exposed to Brown an white rots to find out the induced resistance. Treated wood were also exposed to field conditions to find out preservative action under natural conditions.
H S Ananthapadmanabha, H C Nagaveni, V V Srinivasan


Enhanced removal of CCA from treated wood by Bacillus licheniformis in continuous culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50083
A gram positive, spore-forming bacterium, which was isolated from a 20-year-old Forest Service test plot of CCA-treated 2 x 4's in Madison, WI., demonstrated the ability to release copper, chromium, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood in liquid culture. CCA-treated sawdust was exposed to this organism, which has been presumptively identified as Bacillus licheniformis. Analysis of the sawdust by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed 80% reduction in copper and 43% reduction in arsenic when the sawdust was exposed to B. licheniformis in a standard mixed culture for 10 d compared to an untreated control. Enhanced release of metals was demonstrated when CCA-treated sawdust was exposed to the bacterium under continuous culture conditions in a chemostat. Steady-state growth of the bacterium under continuous culture conditions released 93% copper, 45% arsenic, and 6% chromium by weight from the sawdust. Exposure of CCA-treated wood to this isolate of B. licheniformis removed significant amounts of copper and arsenic from the wood.
C A Clausen


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers to be used on hidden unpainted surfaces of wooden antiques were investigated. We studied relevant properties of five different coating materials: thickness, hardness by resistance to scratching, adhesion, flexibility, resistance to temperature changes, conformability to the concept of reversibility and bioresistance against wood boring insects. The most promising results were exhibited by the coating that is commercially used for protection of fresh log ends in forests, immediately after a tree is cut.
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


Utilisation of carbohydrates by stain fungi in agar culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10248
Stain fungi are often defined by their ability to utilise the starch and free sugars found in ray parenchyma cells, and their inability to utilise other wood constituents. However, several species of stain fungi produce bore holes in wood cell walls. This suggests that enzymatic activity capable of degrading structural polysaccharides and/or lignin is associated with the growth of the appressorium and transpressorium structures developed by these stain fungi. This pilot study examined possible base media for growth of three common blue-stain fungi isolated from hardwood sawmills in Victoria, Australia. Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Graphium/Ophiostoma sp., and Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud were grown on agar supplemented with a variety of carbon sources, and mycelial growth rates were measured to determine which carbohydrates can be used by these fungi.
J Snow, P Vinden, S M Read


Mycoparasitism by some white rot fungi on blue stain fungi in culture
1986 - IRG/WP 1304
When studying biological control of blue stain an interesting phenomenon of parasitism by some white rot fungi on blue stain fungi has been encountered. The majority of the 22 tested white rot fungi act parasitically upon blue stain fungi. The most interesting species among them is Bjerkandera adusta (Willd. ex Fr.) Karst., causing almost complete or complete decoloration of the hyphae of the blue stain fungi in culture on agar substrate. Obviously, complex enzyme reactions are involved; the main role probably performed by peroxidases. Bjerkandera adusta (Willd. ex Fr.) Karst., acted similarly upon blue stained wood, which was rapidly bleached.
R Benko, B Henningsson


Identification and inhibitory effect of volatiles from different ages of a Trichoderma aureoviride culture on selected wood decay fungi.
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10110
The ability of a Trichoderma sp. to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over a four week period of growth was examined and the inhibitory effect of these volatiles against four selected basidiomycetes over the same period was assessed. After trapping, on tubes filled with chromatography packing material, VOCs were analysed on an integrated automated thermal desorbtion mass spectrometer system. A total of 72 separately identified compounds were recovered although production of any single compound was time dependant. The inhibitory effect of the VOCs against the four basidiomycetes varied dependant on the age of the Trichoderma culture. Highest levels of inhibition being produced by cultures which were 1-2 weeks old at which time 85% inhibition of Neolentinus lepideus was recorded. It was noticeable that highest levels of inhibition of the basidiomycetes was associated with a major shift in the profile of VOCs produced at that time. The potential exploitation of VOC production by Trichoderma isolates for the biological control of decay in wooden structures is briefly discussed.
A Bruce, A Kundzewicz, R E Wheatley


Chapter 4 - Propagation of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-04
The cultivation and propagation of bamboos are very essential to meet various human needs and environmental requirements. Different methods of propagation and regeneration of bamboos have been described in this chapter. The possibility of propagation through seeds are restricted and limited because of its inadequacy and non-viability. Due to this natural obstacle bamboos are predominately propagated by natural vegetative multiplications. Hence the possible common and easy way of artificial propagation (propagation by means of human actvity and nursing) is from its vegetative parts containing rhizomes, nodes and buds. The commonly pacticed artificial vegetative propagation methods are offset planting, part-clump planting, culm or stem cutting, branch cutting, ground layering, seedling layering, macroprolification of seedling, stump sprouting. The modern technique for the mass production of bamboos, which offers disease-free, monoclonal, superior, planting material in large numbers as and when required, is the tissue culture technique. The active materials for tissue culture are only the seeds, embryo and buds. Tissue culture helps to conquer the problems of non-viable seeds, scarcity of seeds and seedlings and helps in the restoration of the shrinking bamboo resources and ensures conservation of forestal environment.
A K Lahiry


Modern Instrumental Methods to Investigate the Mechanism of Biological Decay in Wood Plastic Composites
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40674
Various instrumental techniques were used to study the fungal decay process in wood plastic composite (WPC) boards. Commercial boards exposed near Hilo, Hawaii (HI) for eight years in both sun and shadow locations were inspected and tested periodically. After eight years of exposure, both boards were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while a selected area of the board exposed in shadow was additionally tested using microscopy and micro x-ray computed tomography (CT). Experimental boards exposed to either exterior conditions in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) or a laboratory decay process were used for verification of MRI and CT results obtained from the commercial board. MRI detected the presence of free water and its distribution in the exposed commercial board samples tested. Fibre saturation in the experimental board was found to be about 22%, in comparison to 27 – 30% present in most wood species. There was good correlation between the detection of free water by MRI and by destructive testing. Reconstructed volumes from CT scans of the tested boards allowed for the WPC microstructure to be observed in various planes of view and for void analysis of the material to be conducted. A significantly higher average percentage volume of voids was detected in the exposed sample compared to its reference unexposed counterpart. CT scans and subsequent void analysis of the experimental soil block culture test samples of known weight loss in wood demonstrated this technique to be reasonably accurate in the detection of voids created due to biological decay. No obvious relationship was established between the presence of free water detected by MRI and the average volume of voids detected by CT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the presence of fungal mycelia in the exposed commercial board cross-section imaged by both MRI and CT. It was confirmed that both MRI and micro CT could be used for non-destructive evaluations of WPC materials, including their decay process. This work also found that many different decay fungi species could colonize and internally damage WPC, and that fungal decay in WPC seems to be a self-propagating process requiring an initiation time period where no obvious decay damage is observed.
G Sun, R Ibach, M Gnatowski, J Glaeser, M Leung, J Haight


Redwood Durability in NZ – Can pure culture laboratory tests predict outdoor service life
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20610
Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is an alternative species in New Zealand to the large scale Pinus radiata plantations. Redwood is classified as moderately durable but its durability is extremely variable. In order to reduce this variability in future stock, understanding growth conditions, clone, and tree age effects are important however this involves many samples and is not suitable for assessment in field trials where tests take many years to complete. Therefore laboratory trials have been used to assess the multitude of parameters. But how reliable are these in assessing in-service durability? In this study we have compared the data from EN113 laboratory tests with in-ground and above ground data from trees of similar ages and growth sites to understand the correlation between laboratory and field data along with natural durability classification methods. The European standard for natural durability has recently been updated and the method in which durability class is calculated in the laboratory has changed therefore in this paper we have calculated durability class for laboratory samples using both EN350:1994 and EN350:2016 methods as a comparison. For field trials we have used the Australasian standard durability classifications (AS5604:2003) and the European standard classifications (EN350:2016) to calculate durability class. It was found that durability classifications of laboratory samples that were subjected to leaching (EN84:1989) before exposure correlated well with in-ground field tests but that there were differences in durability classification between classification methods with the laboratory classifications being slightly more durable using the new EN350 method compared to the old method. Similarly the Australasian standard gave higher classifications in general than the European standard for in-ground tests. The durability rating of non-leached blocks related well to above ground exposure trials even though above ground tests were subjected to rain and UV exposure. The effect of extractive wash off would need to be studied to get a true correlation. It was deemed important to include leached and non-leached laboratory samples wherever possible to understand the range of durability of each wood species. It is not recommended to rely totally on laboratory data although laboratory tests are beneficial for screening lots of different elements.
D O’Callahan, C Chittenden, J van der Waals, D Meason, T Singh


Next Page