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The influence of gaseous oxygen concentration on fungal growth rates, biomass production and wood decay
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10283
The effects of air and several levels of oxygen balanced with nitrogen (% oxygen (v/v) nitrogen to 100%) on growth rates, biomass production and wood decay were investigated. The best technique for measuring daily growth rates in anaerobic jars was found to be by using 40 mm petri dishes which were attached to the walls of the jars. At the end of the test period the same petri dishes were also used for determining the dry weight of the fungal mycelia. The results showed that 5% oxygen concentration was very favourable for white rot and brown rot fungi (Basidiomycetes). When oxygen levels were reduced from 1% to 0.01%, the growth rates and dry weight of these fungi were steadily decreased. On the other hand, there was a large difference between very low oxygen levels (0.01 to 1%) and other levels (5 to 21% 02). In the case of other fungi there was not a big difference on their growth rates and biomass. Observational and numerical results on Fagus sylvatica (beech) and Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) degradation by Coriolus versicolor, Coniophora puteana and Chaetomium globosum showed that there was a large difference in the degradation of the wood samples caused by C. puteana and C. versicolor when exposed to air and other levels of oxygen (0.25,1, 5 and 10% 02). Weight losses obtained by C. globosum as a soft rot on timber specimens in air and other oxygen levels were all in same range and below 5%. On the other hand there was a safety point at 5% 02 below which the fungus was unable to degrade beech. This point was 10% 02 for scots pine. At these points, weight losses were under 5%.
S M Kazemi, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Influence of the nutritional elements on pigmentation and production of biomass of bluestain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10198
The effect of the carbon source and the amount of the nitrogen on the melanization and the production of mycelial mass of bluestain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was studied by using solid state cultivations. The carbon sources used varied from easily soluble sugars to structural polysaccharides existing in lignocellulosic material. The amount of melanin was evaluated by using partial purification and the conventional measurement methods. The production of melanin was clearly dependent on the amount and quality of carbon source as well as the amount of nitrogen. A. pullulans has a high tendency to produce melanin on nitrogen poor media supplemented with easily soluble sugars (eg. glucose, sucrose, mannose and xylose). The production was restricted on nitrogen rich media. The production of melanin was totally inhibited on the media containing celluloses or lignin as sole carbon sources.
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, F Thomassin


In Vitro Growth of the Basidiomycetes Physisporinus vitreus strains in various conditions in comparison with some white rot fungi
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10987
The paper has preliminary test results to select Pysisporinus vitreus fungal strains for further experiments in a large research project on copper tolerance of P. vitreus by chemotropic test, choice test, and agar plate toxicity tests and determination of the effect of various ions on oxalic acid secretion by these white rot fungi. In the project, it is also aimed to run fungal decay tests to determine nano and soluble-Cu tolerance of the test fungi and Cu depletion by the fungi. A myco-remediation process of nano and soluble-Cu-treated wood by the test fungi in liquid media is also planned to determine the effect of the ions on their remediation potential. Twelve P. vitreus and nine white rot fungal strains were tested to determine optimum growth conditions in both solid malt extract agar (MEA) or potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates and liquid (N-rich and standard) media. The growth media was also regulated to different pH degrees. Radial growth of the fungi was monitored for 12 days on the media. At the end of the incubation period, the mycelial biomass and the medium pH were also determined. Considering the growth and biomass production by the fungi, MEA at 5.6 as solid medium and the standard liquid media at 5.6 and 7 were determined as most suitable artificial media. In all cases, the media at pH 9 provided unfavorable conditions for fungal growth. P.vitreus FP71186, P.vitreus ME441, and P.vitreus P151 strains were selected for further steps of the project based on their growth rate, biomass production and their capability to lower pH levels.
E E Soytürk, S N Kartal


Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no loss of activity was detected after 2 h in 9 M urea or 6 M guanidine-HCl. Boiling the enzyme for 5 min in 2.5% SDS + 0.5% b-mercaptoethanol reduced its activity by 65%, as measured by the production of reducing sugars. The activity of a-D-galactosidase, another enzyme detected in large quantities in the decayed wood, was reduced by 98% under these conditions. Optimum pH and temperature ranges were pH 2-6 and 50-60°C, respectively. The enzyme appears to be a glycoprotein containing 50-60% carbohydrate (w/w); the carbohydrate moiety may protect the enzyme from adverse environmental conditions. The control of brown rot by in situ inactivation of xylanase may not be feasible because of the enzyme's extreme stability.
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley


Biological control with Trichoderma harzianum in relation to the formation for spores the production of soluble metabolites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10073
The amount of spores produced by three strains of Trichoderma harzianum on the aerial mycelium of agar cultures and in shake cultures, respectively, correlated with the inhibition zones exerted against Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an agar diffusion test. The amount of soluble antifungal metabolites as well as the protein content also correlated with the inhibition zones and the amount of spores produced. The antifungal metabolites were identified to be trichorzianines. They were the only compounds with antifungal activity. It is concluded that the trichorzianines are responsible for the biocontrol effect by soluble metabolites and that they are produced during conidiogenesis.
J Bürgel, E Horvath, J Haschka, K Messner


Acoustic communication between Microcerotermes crassus Snyder
1982 - IRG/WP 1158
An unusual acoustic communication within a nest of Microcerotermes crassus SNYDER is reported. The signals produced by the termites are described and possible reasons for this behavior are considered.
U Kny


Japanese wood preserving industry
1990 - IRG/WP 3596
Although a great amount of wood is in use in Japan, a little attention has been paid to the significance and importance of wood preservation. The fact reflects that only less than 0.5% of the total wood consumption is treated with wood preservatives today in the country. Over the 20 years before 1970, the annual volume of preservative treated (pressure treatment) wood was relatively at a stable level of approximately 500,000 m³. After the prominent peak of 709,000 m³ in 1968, 500,000 to 600,000 m³ of wood had been annually treated until 1980. In the 1980's the pace of production of preservative-treated wood gradually declined, down to 400,000 m³ in 1988. As for commodities treated with wood preservatives, poles and sleepers have been remarkably decreasing, and wood foundation sills which newly appeared on the market in the late 1960's became a major item. It is expected that new treated commodities will be accepted among Japanese people to stimulate the activity of wood preserving industry in Japan.
K Tsunoda


The influence of crystalline and amorphous cellulose on extracellular hydrogen peroxide production by brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1482
The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to play a key role in the degradation of wood by wood-rotting fungi. The production of extracellular hydrogen peroxide was studied by a quantitative method which detects the oxidation of the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) by H2O2 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in liquid culture medium. The carbon sources used were crystalline and amorphous cellulose. Two brown-rotters, Serpula lacrymans and Poria placenta, were able to produce clearly detectable amounts of extracellular hydrogen peroxide in liquid medium which contained crystalline cellulose as carbon source. No detectable H2O2 was produced in conditions where amorphous medium was used as carbon source. This result suggests that the conformational structure of the substrate may induce H2O2 production by brown-rot fungi.
A-C Ritschkoff, L Viikari


Production of treated wood in Brazil in 1982 and 1983
1985 - IRG/WP 3327
The data of Brazilian production of treated sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other commodities are given for the years of 1982 and 1983. This report updates information given to the Group in Document No: IRG/WP/3321 Wood Preservation in Brazil, STU information no 445
M S Cavalcante


The role of communication in the field of environment protection: A case study "Wood Protection"
1990 - IRG/WP 3574
L Wöss


Wood preservation in East European countries
1989 - IRG/WP 3527
The paper discusses the main problems of wood preservation in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German DR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and the USSR. The main types of wood preservatives produced have been presented, as well as the state of standarization to test their properties. There have been considered methods of wood treatment in use and application range of treated wood.
J Wazny


Laboratory tests on natural resistance to Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) attack of native hardwoods for crossarms production
1985 - IRG/WP 1266
Eletropaulo (Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S/A) and IPT (Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo S/A) are carrying on a study to evaluate wood species for crossarms in replacement of Aspidosperma polyneuron - Apocynaceae (Peroba-rosa) traditionally used for this purpose. Nineteen Amazon wood species were elected, with physical and mechanical properties equal or better than those presented by Peroba-rosa. Biological tests with these woods and physical tests of crossarms were carried out. Here is presented the results of the resistance test to Cryptotermes brevis attack.
M D Canedo, A T De Lelis


Inventory of the use of preservative-treated wood and wood preservatives in Sweden 1900-1997
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50137
The objective of this study was to present an overview of the use of wood preservatives and their active ingredients and industrially preservative-treated wood in Sweden since the beginning of the 20th century. The data presented in the report could for example be used as a basis for different waste management scenarios for preservative-treated wood. Before 1960 railway sleepers and utility poles were the most important preservative-treated commodities used in Sweden. Since 1960 sawn timber and other commodities have dominated the market. The total production of preservative- treated wood during the last ten years has been between 400 000 and 600 000 m3 per year. During this period about 60% of the production has been for the Swedish domestic market. A relatively small number of preservative types has been used in Sweden. Creosote has been used mainly for sleepers and poles. CCA dominates for sawn timber, but since 1994 preservatives based on other active ingredients than arsenic and chromium - such as ACQ, copper-azole and copper-HDO - have gained market for above ground commodities. Light organic solvent type preservatives (LOSP), with active ingredients such as organotin compounds and, recently, triazoles, were introduced in the 1970s for the treatment of external window joinery. Since 1900 up to 1997, in total, approximately 640 000 tonnes creosote, 14 000 tonnes arsenic and 9 000 tonnes of each of copper and chromium have been used in Sweden for industrial wood preservation for the domestic market only.
J Jermer, K Nilsson


Conditions for basidiospore production in the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum separium in axenic culture
1984 - IRG/WP 1232
Attempts to control and optimize the production of hymenial structures and basidiospore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium in axenic culture resulted in the proposal of the following conditions as being suitable. The dikaryotic mycelia originally isolated from basidiocarps could consistently be induced to produce hymenial structures and pure basidiospore collects if illuminated by near ultraviolet light with emission maximum at 355 nm ("black light") at a temperature of 15°C on a chemically defined medium, where the concentration of the carbon and the nitrogen sources were shown to be of critical significance. The necessary conditions for basidiospore production in lignicolous fungi in general are is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman


Bioconversion of wood wastes into gourmet and medicinal mushrooms
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50129
Increased wood wastes, including thinned material from stagnated and overstocked small-diameter forests, are a menace to forest health, to the sustainability of ecosystems, and to community economic viability. The objective of this study is to recycle wood wastes into value-added products, such as gourmet and medicinal mushrooms, by using the white-rot basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. populinus, P. pulmonarius, and other Pleurotus species. When supplemented with low concentrations of dextrose, these basidiomycetes exhibit an excellent ability to colonize and stimulate fruiting body production on wood wastes. Inoculated wood wastes in air-permeable bags are incubated at 24°C in the dark for 3 to 5 weeks. When exposed to light cycle (10-h day), humidity, and air, they fruit within 4 to 8 weeks. Lyophilization of cultures stimulates filamentous mycelial growth and fruiting is then initiated within 3 to 7 days.
S C Croan


The influence of boric acid on respiratory quotients and methane production of subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10136
The toxicity of boron compounds to subterranean termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus) was studied by analysing changes in the levels of oxygen uptake respiratory quotients and methane production. Termites were fed with filter paper treated at different levels of boric acid, the RQ was evaluated by constant volume manometry and the methane production by gas chromatography. Results are discussed in relation to termite gut symbiontes.
L Nunes, D J Dickinson


Some statistics on the Brazilian Wood Preservation Industry: 1980-81
1982 - IRG/WP 3214
Statistical data on the production of pressure treated wood and on the consumption of wood preservatives are given for the years of 1980 and 1981 in Brazil.
M S Cavalcante, F C Geraldo, A R De Freitas


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation (Introductory letter)
1981 - IRG/WP 3184
H Willeitner


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation
1981 - IRG/WP 3185
H Willeitner


Oxalic acid production of fifteen brown-rot fungi in copper citrate- treated southern yellow pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10388
Non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives have grown in number since the 1980's as a response to environmental concerns posed by arsenicals. Interest in copper tolerant decay fungi has increased accordingly. Oxalic acid (OA) production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Serpula, Gloeophyllum, Laetiporus, Coniophora, Antrodia, and Tyromyces were evaluated for OA production bi- weekly in southern yellow pine (SYP) blocks treated with 1.2% AI copper citrate (CC). Ten fungi were designated copper tolerant and produced 2 to 17 times more OA in the CC-treated blocks than in untreated SYP after 2 weeks. Weight losses ranged from 20 to 55% in CC-treated SYP after 10 wks. Five fungi were copper-sensitive, producing low levels of OA and low weight losses on CC-treated blocks. In this study, early induction of OA appears to closely correlate with copper tolerance. We conclude that brown-rot fungi able to exceed and maintain an OA concentration of >400 mM in this study effectively decayed SYP treated with copper citrate.
F Green III, C A Clausen


Wood extractive concentration and sem examination of pretreated southern yellow pine wood chips with blue-stain fungi for mushroom production
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10407
Mushroom-producing white-rotting basidiomycetes either do not colonize or else colonize very poorly on freshly prepared southern yellow pine wood chips. This study evaluates the resinous extractive content of southern yellow pine before and after treatment with colorless mutant blue-stain fungi. The blue-stain fungi penetrate into the sapwood of southern yellow pine and utilize nonstructural resinous extractives, simultaneously reducing the total resinous extractive content. Scanning electron microscopic examination showed that heavy mycelial growth with good sporulation occurred on the surface of wood chips within 2 days and in parenchyma cells within 6 days. Ophiostoma spp. removed 61.1% to 99.9% of the extractives from the southern yellow pine wood within a period of 4 to 5 days. We conclude that white-rot basidiomycetes can easily colonize and produce fruiting bodies on treated southern yellow pine wood wastes.
S C Croan, J Haight


Heat treatment of wood strands for OSB production: Effect on the mechanical properties, water absorption and dimensional stability
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40238
The effect of heat treatment on the mechanical and physical properties of commercial OSB strands was evaluated. Heat treatment was applied under inert atmospheric conditions to wood strands. The aim of this study was to examine the heat treatment parameters to achieve significant reduction of thickness swelling (upon exposure to moisture in service) without causing excessive reductions in strength. Heat treatments of 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, and 260°C for 20 minutes were applied and swelling tests were performed. Subsequently the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity were measured in wood strands. High temperature treatments resulted in significant reductions in thickness swelling of wood strands but resulted in 20% reductions of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity.
G J Goroyias, M D C Hale


Wood preservation in Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 3216
The report reviews the forestry potential of Turkey and also the historical background of wood preservation in the country. The wood preservation industry in Turkey is mainly concentrated on the treatment of poles and railway sleepers. There is no official body responsible for wood preservation activities, and therefore its promotion depends mainly on the voluntary research efforts carried out by the universities and the Forest Research Institute. Present standards are inadequate to meet contemporary standards of wood protection used in other countries. These should be completely revised and updated. Its forest products potential and geographical location combine to give Turkey a great advantage for exportation of its timber to the Middle East countries. But first of all Turkey has to solve its own problems of promoting a productive industry and efficient wood preservation.
R Ilhan, R Cockcroft


First draft of a monographic card for Fomitopsis pinicola (Fr.) Karst
1980 - IRG/WP 196
P W Perrin


Influence of abiotic factors on the production of Basidiocarps by lignocellulolitic Hymenomycetes from native forest and plantations of Pinus elliottii Engelm in the Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo, Brazil
1991 - IRG/WP 1469
A report on the influence of abiotic factors on the production of basidiocarps by lignocellulotic Hymenomycetes of native forest and Pinus elliottii. It was concluded that the climatic conditions (temperature, humidity, microhabitat) and the decay stage of the logs affected the production of basidiocarps by Hymenomycetes.
M Aparecida de Jesus


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