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A new approach on conservation of wooden heritage
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40291
Biodeterioration of wooden art objects has to be treated in a more delicate manner than biodeterioration of wood. Any treatment applied to the art object should not alter the visual, structural or scientific integrity of the object. These requirements therefore restrict the use of biocides and some alternative treatment procedures like high and low temperatures and radiation. Fortunately, an alternate procedure is available, anoxic treatment using argon gas, that has so far proven to be effective at killing all insects stages of life and some fungi important in wood degradation. The argon anoxic procedure is described in this paper.
R J Koestler, C Tavzes, F Pohleven


Conservation of wooden cultural property
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30038
A survey of the conservation of wooden archtitectual monuments, art objects and archaeological finds is presented. Each of the three areas has typical conservation problems which reqire the use of selected wood preservatives and consolidation agents. Furthermore specific protection and consolidation methods are necessary. A precise damage diagnosis with non-destructive testing methods is the first step in a careful conservation work.
A Unger, W Unger


Wood preservation in Yugoslavia
1984 - IRG/WP 3319
This report, which is one in a series written by some of the most eminent experts in wood preservation in the world, is meant to serve as a practical guide to all those, both in Yugoslavia and in other countries, who wish to collaborate in the field of wood preservation production, wood preservation treatments and in the development and research work necessary in this subject. The report offers the essential data concerning the timber resources in Yugoslavia, the country's most dangerous wood-destroying organisms, the wood preservatives available and their manufacturers, as well as giving information about the facilities that exist in the country for wood preservation, and the universities, research institutes and other institutions that are concerned with protecting wood. The publication also gives information on the current regulations, standards and other specifications relevant to the subject in Yugoslavia. The report concludes with a bibliography which should be of help to those who are interested in the wood preservation projects and publications of Yugoslavia.
N Vidovic, D Murko, R Cockcroft


Introducing bamboos for their importance and conservation
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10546
Bamboo is a socio-economically, industrially and environmentally important forest and rural crop in Asia. It is an essential task for the people in this region to conserve the bamboos and preserve the bamboo products for their sustainable continuity. An earnest need for this task is to introduce a variety of important information on bamboos. In this research paper the botanical position, distribution, utilization, outlooks, production, research, importance, propagation, natural durability, preservative treatment, importance of preservative treatment, treating principles, research on preservative treatment of bamboos have been presented briefly.
A K Lahiry


Wood preservation in Iran
1984 - IRG/WP 3270
The report sketches the history of the use of wood in Iran to the establishment of the country's national forest service and gives some figures for Iran's timber needs by the year 2000. Progress in wood preservation has been slow, although items such as railway sleepers and poles have been pressure treated since the first pressure impregnation plant was erected in 1932. Today there are only four pressure treatment plants in the country. These employ both creosote and water-borne preservatives. Pentachlorophenol and other organic solvent type preservatives are used by spraying, dipping and soaking. Termites are one of the main hazards. The report concludes by recommending that the wood preservation industry should be slowly expanded to meet the needs of the Iranian people and that, as Iran is self-sufficient in wood preservative materials, research should be deployed to investigate how these might best be used to preserve the country's timbers.
P Niloufari, R Cockcroft


Conservation of Nypa fruticans and Indigenous Timber Species of Sundarban Mangrove Forest of Bangladesh by Using Preservative Treatment.
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40297
This report describes the possibilities and benefits of preservative treatment of some Bangladeshi wood species. It is concluded that: Heartwood of Sundri is not easily treatable. The treating schedule of 14.1 kg/cm² pressure and eight hours treatment period may be used for treating sundry logs. During the treatment of Sundri wood must not mix with other species. Other timber species such as Gewa, Keora, Baen, Goran etc are easily treatable by full cell pressure method using schedule of four to six hours treatment period and 14.1 kg/cm² pressure. All the timber species must be sufficiently dry up before preservative treatment. Moisture content should be less than 20% in 1.5 inch (37-38 mm) depth from wood surface. Treatment schedule may vary depending up on size of wood and purpose of use. Pressure treatment of Golpata is very easy, it may treat by dipping technique using schedule of over eight hours with more than 5% CCB preservatives.
G N M Ilias


Wood preservation in Nigeria - Its increasing relevance, observed constraints and potential as a forest conservation option
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3732
The paper discusses the demand and supply of wood and wood products in Nigeria and points out that in view of the large population (88 million) and search for wood for housing and furniture, the demand exceeds supply. There is great shortage of industrial and domestic woods resulting in underutilization of installed machineries in forest industries and low profit margin. Under this prevailing condition, wood preservation has a definite positive role to play in reducing pressure on productive high forests and timber plantations for logs by prolonging the service life of woods in storage and in service. However, factors such as high depreciation of the local currency, Naira against the U.S. Dollar and British Pound Sterling, high cost of imported wood preservatives, low income per capita especially in the rural areas where over 70% of the population live, have tended to slow the pace of advancement of wood preservation practice in the country. With rising costs of sawn timbers and other wood products coupled with the urgent need to enhance their performance and prolong their service life, the paper concludes that wood preservation has a bright future in Nigeria. Moreover, development of less-toxic and environmentally safe wood preservatives, application of fire retardant preservatives, remedial treatment of utility poles and timbers as well as dimensional stabilization of woods will help greatly to raise the status of wood preservation in Nigeria.
M A Odeyinde, S C Ifebueme


Mechanical strength of wood from the Vasa shipwreck
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20381
Samples from three ancient ship wrecks (Vasa, Elefanten, and Gröne Jägaren) and recent oak samples as reference were examined with regard to mechanical strength using the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) - test method, which delivers the resistance to impact milling (RIM) of a material. Adoption and optimisation of the test method for the particular sample size of the wooden drilling cores was necessary. After that optimisation the HEMI method proved to be suitable not only for cube like specimen but also for specimens from wooden drilling cores. The RIM of the different wreck samples was partly significantly different from the recent reference material. Low values indicated deterioration of some cores. Interestingly the wooden core with high iron content showed the highest RIM, even significantly higher than that of untreated recent oak.
A O Rapp, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher, T Nilsson, C Björdal


Ecological methods and products for wood protection used for restoration and conservation of built heritage cultural assets to increase natural durability and duration of exposure in open air museums
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40506
Wood is a perishable material, hygroscopic and fuel, which cause attention to selecting the wood species that is going to be exhibited in relation to humidity and soil. With variable depending on its humidity and moisture from the atmosphere or soil, wood is a good living environment for fungi and insects, but suffer biodegradation processes and dimensional changes. Observations over time on wood building behavior determined limiting actions of biodegradation phenomena, with different products with antiseptic, waterproof and fireproof properties. The development of forestry research and of chemical industry in particular, have put on the market for wood protection treatment a number of solutions which subsequently proved toxic to humans and the environment. Now the latest generation methods and products available to conservators and restorers disposal for use in preserving the old wooden racks and the new one used in restoration. The National Institute Wood throughout over 75 years of existence, helped by laboratory and in situ tests, carried out by specialists, contributed to marketing the new products and ways to protect freshly shot down wood used in construction and in the conservation and restoration of cultural goods. Attempts are made by exposure to fungi, insects and moisture under laboratory conditions or by exposure to natural climate conditions in the polygon NIW. The preventive protection can extend about 3-5 times the duration of use and reduce downgrading quality with over 30% of the wood used.
M Pruna, D Purice, D Dumitru Copacean


Conservation and preservation of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635
The Science and Technology related to bamboo and bamboo preservation is a very captious subject involves most of the Sciences, Engineering and Technology and Environmental Sciences. Recently the environmental studies related to arsenic have been considered very essential for the people of South Asia, especially for the people of Bangladesh and West Bengal of India because of recent arsenic calamity in groundwater. Similarly the environmental studies related to preservation of wood and bamboo products by the most effective arsenic containing wood preservative is deemed necessary for the conservation of forests in this area, because the forest is the indispensable fragment of global environment. The people should know the benefits and importance of preservative and preservative treated bamboo. At the same time they should have information on different preservatives, preservative treatment processes, and service records of bamboo products, available bamboo species and their possible products. At the same time the propagation, identification and conservation of bamboo through different applied nursing and conservation methods are also essential to know and apply for the protection of this special type of plant. The promotion of mass awareness on these issues is also vital to solve the national and global environmental and socio-economical problems. Wood and bamboo preservation is an active part of modern Forestry Management Practices. The bamboo reserve cannot be increased and cannot be properly maintained without bamboo preservation. There is no book written in English available covering its identification, propagation or artificial regeneration, conservation through nursing and preservation especially for ground contact uses. But the topics are essential for the related students, researchers, teachers, forest conservators, bamboo merchants, bamboo preservers, conscious buyers or users and different fund giving international organizations. This ‘“Conservation and Preservation of Bamboo’” deals with these issues, essential particularly for the people in Asia, written based on 26 years experience, research and review of relevant literatures. This book is mostly a composition of several published research oriented applied literatures written solely by the author, compiled somehow differently. To make the concepts of bamboo propagation and preservation and different relations more clear and subjective, several documentary colored photographs, data and graphs have been added with previous works of different authors. There is an anatomical and morphological similarity among all bamboo species available in the world except different vascular bundle types. Unlike timbers of different timber yielding plants the preservatives and preservation methods once found successful for a particular bamboo species is usually applicable for all species depending on the usage purposes in different climatic conditions. Moreover, some important constructional bamboos are mostly available in all Asiatic countries or can be grown except in temperate regions.
A K Lahiry


Degradations and conservation strategies for an XVIII-th century wooden church from Oltenia County, Romania
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40521
The wooden churches construction has a rich tradition in Romania, the technique spreading from North – Maramures, to South, especially in hill and mountain areas. The church from Ursi village, Oltenia County, represents a particular case, the church being abandoned since 1913. The lack of a roof for a long time resulted in severe deterioration of the whole structure. Yet the inner and outer wall painting retains, in many areas, both the colors freshness and the adherence to the wood wall, owing to a particular working technique. The resistance structure was strongly affected by weather conditions and especially by xylophages or micro- and macromycetes attack. The paper presents a recovery project of this architectural jewelry, regarding both the wooden construction and the painted decoration.
G Niculescu, O Chachula, A Nicolaescu


Chapter 8 - Episode of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-08
In this chapter 7 (seven) poems entitled “The Bamboo’s Preface”, “The Bamboo’s Interim”, “The Fast Growing Grass”, “The Wild Grasses”, “The Bamboo’s Episode”, “The Bamboo’s Outlook”, “The Commitment” have been composed based on the habit, nature, introduction, properties, values, outlooks, importance, uses and melodies of bamboos in Asia. The conservation and preservation of bamboos have been emphasized through descriptive foot notes, commitment and showing possible ways how to preserve them. These poems were published earlier in author’s environmental book entitled “The Melodious Earth and Her Environmental Rules”.
A K Lahiry


Cobblestone Church in Gross Gievietz: Historic Wooden Construction and Potential for Conservation and Use
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10760
A majority of cobblestone churches situated in the German Federal State Mecklenburg-Vorpommern demonstrates immense construction deficiencies and are threatened by decay. The historic cobblestone church located in Groß Gievitz, built in the 13th century, is one such church in which the roof beam constructions have degraded considerably due to deficiencies in reconstruction measures. This paper documents the current state and deficiencies of the roof constructions. Investigations concerning the history of building were carried out in order to classify the periods of additions and repairs to the building (SCHULZE 2006). Dendrochronological techniques were used to determine the age of the beams and as part of the beam characterization process. Existing beam defects and deficiencies were determined by a wood conservation survey. The causes for deterioration have been identified, and suggestions for remediation made. Mapping and analyses were based on regulations and bulletins of German associations for conservation of monuments and various specialized literature. The results of our research will support the implementation and performance of remediation measures to conserve the roof beam construction and to maintain durability as long as possible.
A Schulze, W Unger


The potential of propolis and other naturally occurring products for preventing biological decay
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30575
The potential of using a range of naturally occurring plant extracts and propolis from bee hives for enhancing the durability of timber in service as well as helping with the conservation of archaeological timbers is considered in this paper. Results reported demonstrate that there is some degree of protective effect noted, suggesting a viable treatment option might be developed based on a deeper understanding of some of the actives and their suitability for use. The challenges faced in developing a product specifically for wood protection are significant and may be too costly for the returns. To achieve commercial reality would be more likely if the active ingredient could find a role in agriculture e.g. fruit protection, crop protection and other larger scale markets.
D Jones, N Howard, E Suttie


Cultural heritage – research into innovative solutions and methods for historic wood conservation
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10874
Nowadays, interdisciplinary knowledge, tools and techniques are increasingly used to protect and conserve monuments representing our cultural heritage. This is of great importance especially in case of conservation and restoration of wooden historic artefacts which, as a result of physical, chemical and biological corrosion, have lost their technical, aesthetic and decorative properties. If those processes are not consciously stopped by appropriate conservation works, with the elapse of time they will start to threaten the existence of valuable relics leading to their irreversible destruction. Our generation is responsible for evolving modern, improved techniques and methods ensuring adequate, professional protection for historic artefacts. What is necessary to achieve this goal is close and smooth cooperation between conservators and museum workers, strongly supported by specialised knowledge of scientists representing diverse research disciplines, including biology, microbiology, chemistry, and physics. The aim of the new “Cultural heritage – research into innovative solutions and methods for historic wood conservation” project, supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education ( “Dziedzictwo kulturowe – poszukiwanie nowoczesnych środków i metod konserwacji drewna zabytkowego”, No. 2bH 15 0037 83), is to develop new materials and techniques for conservation of wooden artefacts. Many different types of wood are planned to be studied, including dry wood (e.g. sculptures, paintings on wooden panels as well as various wooden constructions: churches, cottages, sheds, etc.) and wet wood (archaeological wood), individually selected for research in accordance to the level of wood degradation. The main idea behind the innovative solutions is based on technology using organosilicon compounds, particularly polysiloxanes and silsesquioxanes, and nanocellulose. Taking into consideration unique opportunities offered by the mentioned substances, it is highly probable that a new method for strength restoration of destroyed wood will be developed, which will therefore enable wooden historic objects to keep their shape and spatial form. Successful realisation of the project’s assumptions will open new horizons in research on conservation and preservation of wooden cultural heritage.
M Broda, B Mazela


Make do and mend: Re-using timber in Smithfield Market
2022 - IRG/WP 22-50371
Historic buildings are part of our built environment. They are a record of how construction and use of materials have evolved and provide excellent opportunities for regeneration of urban areas. Moreover, re-using these buildings and as much of the material within, contributes to the Green Revolution. Currently, there is tremendous growth in green construction and as Bob Dylan once said, “the times they are a changing.” The design and construction industries are focussing on reducing a building’s carbon footprint. Furthermore, with phrases such as ‘circular economy’ and ‘sustainability’ capturing the zeitgeist, what better example of carbon emissions reduction is there than re-using existing buildings? Some of the most sustainable materials used in a refurbishment project may be the ones already in it. Forest and wood-based industries can play an important role. Compared with other construction materials, wood and wood-based products are low in embodied energy. Trees sequester carbon in wood as they grow, and once converted into timber products, this carbon remains locked-up over the life of the product. Timber is the ultimate renewable material and its reuse within an existing building can sit within the circular economy by ensuring its retention or reuse. With ever increasing energy and resources going into timber production, the construction industry should consider how to reuse and recycle timber, which in turn will reduce consumption of natural resources, even if they are sustainable. A holistic approach to the investigation of timber within an existing building, using a combination of non-destructive survey methods, applying visual grading rules to determine strength, and undertaking repairs with the minimum of intervention, (ideally using recovered timber from within the building) can result in the retention and re-use of much of the original material. This exerts less pressure on natural resources and reduces carbon footprints. Go timber!
J R Williams