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Some tests on ES - AS 11, a novel anti-sapstain formulation, and its properties
1987 - IRG/WP 3399
The results of some tests with the formulation ES - AS 11 are given. The formulation is an attempt to improve the performance of an anti-sapstain chemical by: 1) increasing its penetrability 2) uniquely combining its active ingredients. Very short times of treatment (dipping not longer than 5 seconds), low concentrations of active ingredients, and lower toxicological and environmental risks may be a promising result.
U Straetmans


IRG 11 invitation
1980 -
IRG Secretariat


A review of environmental emissions from building and construction materials in comparison with preserved wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-11
A review of the public domain literature concerning emissions to the environment from materials which are used in the construction of buildings (e.g. Concrete, Asphalt, Galvanised Steel), in comparison with preserved wood, and a review of the approaches taken by the construction sector in assessing the risk from environmental emissions, in comparison with the approaches taken by the wood preservation sector.
E F Baines


Health hazards and environmental aspects when using Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives in vacuum pressure plants
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-11
Apart from the biological efficacy of wood preservatives, the health and environmental aspects concerning the utilisation of wood preservatives, the use of treated timber and the disposal of impregnated wood are of high significance today. Therefore, information on a possible aerial concentration of wood preservatives, on the mobility of active substances in soil leached from treated timber in service and on the composition and toxicity of thermal decomposition gases releasing on combustion of impregnated wood, are of absolutely fundamental interest. Measuring procedures relevant for the practical application will be presented, and the results concerning the utilisation of Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives will be described. With the proper use of Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives, the aerial concentration at workplace falls distinctly below the maximum permissible limit. If vacuum pressure treated timber is used properly, no active substances will seep into the ground water as a result of the leaching process of impregnated wood in service. The composition measured and the acute toxicity of the thermal decomposition gases released on combustion of impregnated wood may axtually be compared to those of untreated timber.
W Hettler, S Breyne, M Maier


Fungus cellar and field tests with tall oil derivatives. Final report after 11 years' testing
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30007
Two derivatives of tall oil were tested as wood preservatives in a fungus cellar and in ground contact (field test). Stakes of Pinus sylvestris sapwood were used in the tests. For the field test the size of the stakes was 20 x 50 x 500 mm³ and for the fungus cellar test 20 x 20 x 250 mm³. The stakes were vacuum-pressure treated with the two products and exposed in 1981. The field test site used was in Uppsala, where the soil type is clay. In 1991 the last stakes in the field test were rejected and in 1992, the last stakes in the fungus cellar failed. The effect against biological degradation of the two products is compared with that of wood preservatives in current use.
J Jermer, Ö Bergman, T Nilsson


Evaluation of an alkyl ammonium compound as a fungicide to control sapstain and mould during diffusion storage
1984 - IRG/WP 3282
An alkyl ammonium compound ('Akzo' ES 255) was evaluated for its effectiveness against mould and sapstain during diffusion storage of boron-treated rubber wood. Though ES 255 at 1.0% concentration was effective against mould (71%) and sapstain (89%) it is less satisfactory compared to 0.5% sodium pentachlorophenoxide against mould (92%) and sapstain (98%).
R Gnanaharan


A rapid colorimetric assay for mold spore germination using XTT tetrazolium salt
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20462
A rapid colorimetric assay was developed to quantitate metabolic activity in mold spores during germination using 2,3-Bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[9phenyl-amino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT). The assay was used to demonstrate inhibition of spore germination following exposure to different biocides and variability in the inhibition of spore germination of different mold species to the same biocide.
C A Clausen, V W Yang


A new model for wetting and drying of wood end-grain – with implications for durability and service-life
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20477
New experimental data for wetting and drying of wood end-grain, Sandberg (2009), imply that traditional models for moisture transport are not at all applicable. A new model is developed to consider the phenomenological behaviour of water transport in and out of end-grain, using the pore water pressure and sorption scanning properties. Modelling results are compared to experimental results and the consequences for durability are discussed.
L-O Nilsson, K Sandberg


The Effect of Soil pH on the pH of Treated Southern Pine in Ground Contact after 12 Months
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50281
Southern pine samples treated with soluble and particulate copper solutions were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and after 6 and 12 months after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH.
L Jin, C Schauwecker, C Vidrine, P Walcheski, A Preston


Annual Report 2010
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60302
IRG Secretariat


Agenda 2011 Plenary meeting
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60303
IRG Secretariat


The 42nd Annual Meeting of IRG. Abstracts of documents
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60304
IRG Secretariat


The 42nd Annual Meeting of IRG. Programme
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60305
IRG Secretariat


Budget for 2011 (forecast May 2011)
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60306
IRG Secretariat


Budget for 2012
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60307
IRG Secretariat


Reporting minutes of the Plenary Meeting 2011
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60316
IRG Secretariat


IRG Documents 2011
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60318
IRG Secretariat


Section reports from IRG 42
2011 - IRG/WP 11-60317
J Lloyd


Future Directions Regarding Research on the Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood: Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood. February 8-11, 2004, FL, USA Workshop – Research Needs
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50222
This paper presents a series of documents that focus on research needs for potential future work focusing on the environmental impacts of preservative-treated wood. These documents were developed through a conference sponsored by the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions (FCES), located in Gainesville, Florida. The conference was held in Orlando, Florida, February 8 – 11, 2004 and the title of the conference was, “Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood.” Approximately 150 people from 15 countries attended the conference. The “research needs” documents developed to date were summarized from: 1) feedback received from conference participants prior to the conference and 2) a two hour workshop held at the conclusion of the conference. A draft voting ballot has been prepared from these documents. This ballot is currently being reviewed by the FCES conference Technical Advisory Committee and a final ballot will be released in mid-April for a vote among the conference participants. A copy of the draft voting ballot is included at the end of this document. Results of the vote will be released at the 35th Annual IRG Meeting in Slovenia.
H M Solo-Gabriele, J D Schert, T G Townsend


Mobility and bioavailability of wood preservation chemicals in soil - actual field measurements
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-11
Wood material intended for outdoor use is often impregnated with chemicals to withstand attack from fungi and bacteria. Both inorganic and organic substances are used to protect the wood, and they are used in a toxic and bioavailable form. At wood preservation facilities severe soil contamination can be encountered due to spills and deposition of sludge, especially at old sites. Two sites, one where creosote and one where CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) were applied, were examined for toxicity and mobility of contaminants. Both the soil (solid phase) and soil-water (aqueous phase) were investigated with Microtox - Vibrio fischeri - inhibition of luminescence test. At both sites significant differences were observed between the solid and aqueous phase. Soil toxicity was generally related to degree of contamination, whereas soil-water toxicity was related to soluble compounds in the wood preservation chemicals. The toxic soluble compounds were also found to migrate from the sites.
S Andersen, G Rasmussen


Strategies of risk reduction in sensitive environments - Case studies
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-11
The application of risk assessment procedures is based on widely agreed criteria and, whenever necessary, default values. The assessment itself aims to cover a wide extent of situations through "reasonable worst case scenarios". The result, based on the ratio of predictive to no-effect concentrations "PEC/PNEC", is usually performed into various regulations on a pass/fail basis, practically by ban/approval. Due to the volumes handled (more than 2/3 of the total), there is evidence that the main potential of emissions is represented by the industrial facilities. This document pays a particular attention to situations which escape to the usual knowledge, among the remaining third: it is an attempt to address questionable cases that are rather ignored than managed. It calls for the use of means which, in certain cases, may significantly reduce the risk (simple guidance for decisions and controlled conditions) and solve local problems with a limited impact. At this early stage, the contents of this document should be taken as proposals: in case they would develop interest, they will have to be widely consolidated, discussed and validated, particularly concerning the options taken on substances and materials.
G Ozanne


Quality and safety scheme for wood in food contact
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-11
When there is no tolerance concerning the content in food of potential contaminants the scheme is limited to a ban of any contaminant with objectives of undetectable amounts at the limits of detection of the chemical analysis. When some tolerances exist, there is a need to check the compliance of a production to such requirements, putting in place the necessary prevention of any accidental situation, within the frame of a clean production flow-sheet. In both cases the introduction of quality assurance, namely at the stage of records and treatability, combined with adapted statistical control on the input and output of a production process and generalisation of cleaner production principles gives a high level of confidence to the wood products. A practical experience is described in this document.
G Deroubaix


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 11: Report of fourth inspection (3 years) in Italy
1981 - IRG/WP 471
The wood samples of Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris were submerged in the sea at Follonica, Italy, in Apri1 1977. Follonica, latitude 42°55' North and longitude 10°45' East, is situated on the Tyrrhenian coast. The recorded temperature varies from 13°C td 25°C, salinity 37- 38%. and pH about 8. The inspections were carried out after 6 months (10/1977), 12 months (4/1978), 24 months (4/1979) and 36 months (4/1980).
A Gambetta, E Orlandi


The natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 bamboo species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10708
Tests on the natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 common bamboo species were conducted. The results showed that there was a linear relation between bamboo density and its preservative retention by mass, and the preservative retention of bamboo reduced while its density increased. The test also showed that there were significant differences in the natural durability of bamboos, but the natural durability of bamboo was not related closely to its density, and 11 bamboos were all belonged to non-durable grade, lasting less than 2 years in filed exposure.
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


Chapter 11 - Preservation of talla bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-11
Researches revealed that the talla bamboo (Bambusa tulda Roxb.)) in Bangladesh could be full-cell pressure treated with CCA in green and dry conditions. The dry bamboo gives higher loading absorptions than green one when impregnated at same treating conditions. Also higher absorptions are obtained at nodes rather than internodes. Adequate penetration and retention results for ground and water contact uses are only possible by treating bamboos pre-dried to 10-15% MC. The green bamboo is easily treatable for indoor and overhead outdoor uses. The service life of this socio-economically important bamboo can easily be increased at least two times than nominal by CCA treating either green or dry bamboo. Two small holes made before pressure treatment in each internode will give split-free bamboo.
A K Lahiry


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