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Chapter 4 - Propagation of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-04
The cultivation and propagation of bamboos are very essential to meet various human needs and environmental requirements. Different methods of propagation and regeneration of bamboos have been described in this chapter. The possibility of propagation through seeds are restricted and limited because of its inadequacy and non-viability. Due to this natural obstacle bamboos are predominately pr...
A K Lahiry


Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coatings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10035
The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans was previously examined, using agar plate tests, with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood (Sharpe and Dickinson, 1992). This study compared these findings with the nutritional capability of four other fungi (Alternaria sp., Cladosporium cladosporoides, Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) common...
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson


A medium for mass culturing of a bamboo boring beetle Dinoderus minutus Fabricius
1983 - IRG/WP 1182
The bamboo is a traditional product of Japan. But its susceptibility to insects is one of the most important problems. The author has found that for the determination of the effectiveness of insecticides it is very easy to obtain sufficiently numerous adults of Dinoderus minutus by using Buckwheat Cake. The Buckwheat Cake is prepared with buckwheat flour and thin paper. The author has previously f...
K Suzuki


A preliminary study on the feasibility of substituting the soil culture medium in soil block tests
1984 - IRG/WP 2209
In this work the possibility was studied of substituting the soil culture medium in preservative screening methods. The conclusions are that another type of material, Sphagnum moss, can be used with advantages, but that some more information is still needed to give a real idea regarding the differences caused by the substrate tested....
J C Moreschi


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers...
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


Conditions for basidiospore production in the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum separium in axenic culture
1984 - IRG/WP 1232
Attempts to control and optimize the production of hymenial structures and basidiospore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium in axenic culture resulted in the proposal of the following conditions as being suitable. The dikaryotic mycelia originally isolated from basidiocarps could consistently be induced to produce hymenial structures and pure basidiospore collects if illuminated by near ultraviol...
J Bjurman


Bacterial wood degradation by a pure culture
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10093
A single-celled bacterium isolated from lake water yielded cell wall degradation in Scots pine sapwood samples. The bacterium attacked all cell wall layers in one month of laboratory culture. It was identified as Aureobacterium luteolum....
O Schmidt


Analysis of volatile emissions as an aid in the diagnosis of dry rot
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2393
The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans was grown in pure culture on malt extract and on sapwood of pine. The volatile compounds emitted from the cultures were determined by diffusion sampling on tubes filled with Tenax TA, thermal desorption and gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry in order to find markers for attack of the fungus....
J Bjurman, J Kristensson


Suppression of aerial hypha formation by spent culture filtrate of a non-degradative strain of Postia placenta
1991 - IRG/WP 1498
ME20, a wild-type monokaryotic strain of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta, does not cause significant weight losses in standard soil-wood block decay tests and fails to form aerial hyphae in liquid and agar culture. This abnormal morphological feature may be caused by the same aberrant physiology that prevents the strain from degrading wood efficiently. ME20 releases elevated levels of the aut...
J A Micales


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers...
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


A modified method to determine the toxic values of chemicals against Lyctus africanus (Lesne) by larval transfer method (laboratory method)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20309
Lyctus africanus (Lesne) is the commonest species widely distributed by trade throughout India. It is one of the most important insect pest attacking logs, branchwood and and practically every kind of manufactured wooden article that contains sapwood. Presently, in India many short rotation and alternate timbers are being used for making many finished products .The inclusion of sapwood containin...
R Muthukrishnan, O K Remadevi


The effect of different concentrations of polesaver rods on the survival of selected decay fungi in liquid culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30166
An in-vitro method was developed to determine the effect of solutions of Polesaver Rods on the survival of selected decay fungi. Polesaver Rods are a diffusing preservative treatment containing fluorine and boron designed for the internal remedial treatment of power poles. Two white-rot fungi, Perenniporia tephropora and Trametes versicolor, and two brown-rot fungi, Polyporus verecundus and Gloeo...
M A Powell, T Deldot, C McEvoy


A technique for fructification and basidiospore production by Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex fr.) SF Gray in artificial culture
1986 - IRG/WP 2255
A method for fructification and basidiospore production by Serpula lacrymans is outlined. A wheat flour/malt extract medium or an oat grain medium, enriched with alanine, tri-potassium phosphate and thiamine supported good fructification of the fungus at a temperature of 12°C. The influence on fructification of temperature, light and inoculum is discussed. To date, 22 stains from a total of 38 te...
S Cymorek, B M Hegarty


New perspectives on the biology of the tropical powderpost beetle, Minthea rugicollis (Walk.)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10085
Minthea rugicollis (Walk.) is one of the most important pests of seasoned hardwoods in the tropics. The species owes its ubiquity largely to its insidious development within a nutrient-filled environment and also to a strong coevolutionary specialization with its natural habitat, wood. Such an environment provides a buffer to extrinsic fluctuations and accounts for a wider range of tolerance by im...
F Abood, R J Murphy, R W Berry


Aspects of the fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in liquid culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30160
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) that has found use as an anti-sapstain preservative for the transportation of softwood lumber from Canada to overseas markets. However, its use is limited by the knowledge that certain mould fungi seem capable of degrading it. The aim of this research was to gain knowledge about the fungal degradation of DDAC. The effe...
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick


The use of preservative containing waste wood as substrate for growing greenhouse crops
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50011
In the Netherlands a large amount of waste wood and wood waste is produced every year. An important part of this amount comes from the pallet and packaging industries. One of the possibilities to re-use this relatively clean material is to convert it into substrates for growing crops in glass houses instead of the commonly used materials such as rock wool and glass wool. In this research, the infl...
W J Homan,H Militz


Minimum inhibitory concentration of methylene bisthiocyanate towards selected wood inhabiting fungi in liquid culture and on radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30261
The objective of the current study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) towards wood inhabiting fungi common on unseasoned radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). The fungi used were Ophiostoma floccosum, Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma viride. Fungi were individually inoculated into nutrient media spiked with differ...
T Singh, B Kreber, C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, A Stewart


Control of wood biodeterioration by fungal metabolites
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1527
Treating wood with different conventional preservative chemicals for protection and economic utilisation is well known. Tough some of these chemicals are toxic to skin, their use as wood preservative is unavoidable as they should be toxic to biodeteriorating organisms also. Recent advances in chemistry of natural products enabled the use of wood extractives as biocidal compounds against biodeterio...
H S Ananthapadmanabha, H C Nagaveni, V V Srinivasan


Enhanced removal of CCA from treated wood by Bacillus licheniformis in continuous culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50083
A gram positive, spore-forming bacterium, which was isolated from a 20-year-old Forest Service test plot of CCA-treated 2 x 4's in Madison, WI., demonstrated the ability to release copper, chromium, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood in liquid culture. CCA-treated sawdust was exposed to this organism, which has been presumptively identified as Bacillus licheniformis. Analysis of the sawdus...
C A Clausen


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers...
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


Utilisation of carbohydrates by stain fungi in agar culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10248
Stain fungi are often defined by their ability to utilise the starch and free sugars found in ray parenchyma cells, and their inability to utilise other wood constituents. However, several species of stain fungi produce bore holes in wood cell walls. This suggests that enzymatic activity capable of degrading structural polysaccharides and/or lignin is associated with the growth of the appressorium...
J Snow, P Vinden, S M Read


Uptake by grape plants of preservatives from pressure-treated posts not detected
1975 - IRG/WP 350
Leaf and stem tissue and fruit of grape plants (Vitis rotundifolia Michx. cv. Magnolia) were analyzed for copper, chromium, and arsenic, 1, 2, and 3 years after planting 3 inches from copper-chrome-arsenate or fluor-chrome-arsenate-dinitrophenol-treated southern pine posts. Quantities of copper in leaf and stem tissue and fruit of plants next to posts treated with copper-containing preservatives r...
M P Levi, D Huisingh, W B Nesbitt


Mycoparasitism by some white rot fungi on blue stain fungi in culture
1986 - IRG/WP 1304
When studying biological control of blue stain an interesting phenomenon of parasitism by some white rot fungi on blue stain fungi has been encountered. The majority of the 22 tested white rot fungi act parasitically upon blue stain fungi. The most interesting species among them is Bjerkandera adusta (Willd. ex Fr.) Karst., causing almost complete or complete decoloration of the hyphae of the blue...
R Benko, B Henningsson


Amenability of radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) as affected by aspects of cell ends in uniseriate ray parenchyma tissue
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40252
The principal objective of this article was to recognise and understand the amenability of ray parenchyma cell ends (end platform) in uniseriate ray tissue to influence the radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) by examination of most (Queen Charlotte Islands in Rhondda, South Wales) and the least (South Oregon in Dalby, North-East England) seed origins that grown in ...
I Usta, M D C Hale


Identification and inhibitory effect of volatiles from different ages of a Trichoderma aureoviride culture on selected wood decay fungi.
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10110
The ability of a Trichoderma sp. to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over a four week period of growth was examined and the inhibitory effect of these volatiles against four selected basidiomycetes over the same period was assessed. After trapping, on tubes filled with chromatography packing material, VOCs were analysed on an integrated automated thermal desorbtion mass spectrometer syste...
A Bruce, A Kundzewicz, R E Wheatley


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