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Minimum standards for habitability in emergency housing
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50312
In this study we evaluated the properties of a prefabricated HOUSING prototype based on a 64mm thick "Structural Insulated Panel" (SIP; hereinafter SIP64), built by two OSB panels bonded with a two component polyurethane adhesive to a high density expanded polystyrene core. This panel was manufactured as a main element for walls in the construction of emergency housing. The thermal insulation of the SIP64 panel was evaluated according to NCh853Of.91 (thermal insulation standard to calculate the thermal resistance and transmittance). The thermal requirements for exterior walls, Roof an ventilated floors in Chile are dictated by the General Urbanism and Construction Code (OGUC) for 7 climatic zones, so we could secure in which zone it was possible to use de SIP64 panel on exterior walls. Analytical calculation is obtained from the thermal resistance of the SIP64 panel was equal to 1.41 [m * K / W] equivalent to a thermal transmittance of 0.71 [W / m * K], therefore the SIP64 panel matches the thermal requirements in all climatic zones except zone VII. In terms of fire resistance, the quality of SIP64 panel was determined empirically to withstand a common fire under NCh 935/1.Of97 standard test. In this case, it is also the Chilean General Urbanism and Construction Code that dictates the fire resistance requirement for vertical bearing elements. The fire resistance of the panel corresponds to the F15 class, which meets the minimum safety requirements for bearing vertical elements and non- supportive frame walls. Ultimately, it was concluded that it is feasible to use the SIP64 panel as the main element in the construction of emergency housing, meeting the minimum requirements of habitability and safety, and safeguarding the technical design and construction requirements dictated by the OGUC form permanent housing. The SIP64 panel proved also to below cost and easily built, which is also e main interest in emergency housing.
R Garay, F Pfenniger, W Figueroa

A suggested method to test the toxicity of wood preservatives towards the house longhorn beetle
1977 - IRG/WP 275
This method was developed in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and is used to get quick information on the toxicity of wood preservatives against house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). The method can be used for superficially treated or deeply impregnated wood blocks, and by using small or normal size test material it can be used as a laboratory or field test, and also for accelerated infestation of test material out of ground contact. The paper is given to the International Research Group on Wood Preservation as a suggested method which could possibly be used as a standard. Only the laboratory test method is described.
N Vidovic

Sex pheromone of the male house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10100
Since 1990 studies have been conducted with respect to the chemical communication of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The structure of glands located in the prothorax of the beetles was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses of different extracts from beetles resulted in the finding and identification (GC-, GC/MS-, and HR-GC/MS-studies) of specific substances derived from the prothoracal glands: (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediol and (2R,3R)-2,3hexanediol. In wind tunnel experiments, unmated female beetles were attracted over a distance of 1m by males, headspace extracts of males, the 3 major components of the glands as well as by the synthetic blends of the components. Thus, the bioassays revealed the initiation of premating behaviour by emission of a long-range sex pheromone from the male prothoracal glands. The pheromone functions as activator, attractant and possibly aphrodisiac for unmated females. Further studies are conducted with respect to disturbance and prevention of mating behaviour of Hylotrupes bajulus in the attics of houses by using pheromone traps.
U Noldt, R Fettköther, F Schröder, H Meyer, K Dettner, W Francke, W A König

On the problem "House Longhorn Beetle" in hardwoods and an aid to distinguish between Hylotrypes bajulus and Hesperophanes cinereus larvae
1981 - IRG/WP 1141
S Cymorek

Questionnaire: Facility for accelerated stake tests in unsterile soil
1981 - IRG/WP 2166
An acceptable name for this type of test facility has not yet been devised, but it has previously been referred to as a FUNGUS CELLAR or as a TROPICAL DECAY HOUSE. The attached pamphlet (What's New in Forest Research No.65) describes in broad terms the facility used for this purpose at FRI in New Zealand. Over the last two or three years several laboratories and commercial firms have installed so-called fungus cellars. At the 1981 I.R.G. Meeting in Sarajevo it was proposed that a survey be undertaken to obtain basic information on the various developments in this new area of biological testing. To this end, I shall be pleased if you complete the enclosed questionnaire and return it to: Dr J.A. Butcher, Forest Research Institute, Private Bag, Rotorua, NEW ZEALAND. A full report on this survey will be presented at the next I.R.G. meeting scheduled for Turkey in May 1982.
J A Butcher

Incursion of Hylotrupes bajulus Linnaeus (European House Borer) into Western Australia
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10558
In January 2004, an adult Hylotrupes bajulus Linnaeus was detected emerging from a beam of Pinus pinaster in a house in Perth, Western Australia. The timber had been locally grown and milled. Surveys to define the extent of the infestation show it is restricted to dead pine trees in 28 sites around Perth. The biological and economic feasibility of eradication is being assessed. Since about 2001, kiln dried plantation gown Pinus radiata and Pinus pinaster timbers have largely replaced Australian native hardwoods in building construction in Western Australia. More than 80% of this structural pine is not treated with preservatives, and is at risk from attack by H.bajulus. The replacement cost of untreated pine in house construction in Western Australia is estimated to be about $Aus3 billion.
M Grimm

Questionnaire on the distribution of the house borer Hylotrupes bajulus
1982 - IRG/WP 1170
H Becker

An annotated list of Anobiidae (Col.) known from New Zealan
1983 - IRG/WP 1200
R Crabtree

Detection of Acoustic Emission (AE) generated by termite attack in a wooden house
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20166
Recently, considerable attention has been paid to methods for termite control, which involves few or no chemicals. To reduce the amount of termiticide needed, it is necessary to detect termite attack in wood as early as possible. The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring for the nondestructive detection of termite attack has been discussed previously. In this study, we propose some technical solution for the application of AE monitoring to practical control operations. Using a needle-type waveguide combined with an AE sensor (PZT sensor), AEs generated and propagated within floors and walls could be detected effectively. A 0.04 mm-thick sample of the piezoelectric polymer PVDF, which was inserted between the construction members of wooden houses, could detect Aes propagated both in such members and at joint surfaces, although PVDF film is less sensitive than a PZT sensor. The feasibility of using a portable AE detector as the input device for a total security system against termite attack in a house is also discussed.
Y Fujii, Y Yanase, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura, S Okumura, M Kozaki

The geographical distribution of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L) Serville (Col., Cerambycidae). An attempt at a cartographical compilation of existing data
1978 - IRG/WP 176
The larvae of the house longhorn beetle belong to the most economically important pests of softwood in service in most European countries and also in some areas overseas. I have reported earlier regarding the history, the question of where the pest originally came from, and concerning attacks in earlier and recent times (1968, 1970, 1974, 1976). In this report an attempt has been made to compile cartographically the currently existing data.
H Becker

Tanalith T - a new preservative system for protecting house frames in Australia from termite attack.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30306
The sawn timber industry in Australia has expressed a desire for a new low cost termite treatment. The treatment needs to be on-line in the dry mill, minimising material handling costs and with a very fast processing time to meet timber flow through the dry mill. The preservative, Tanalith® T, forms an envelope on both Pinus radiata and Pinus elliotti sawn timber. Field trials conducted in Australia have confirmed this envelope will protect house framing timber from the most economically important termites in Australia. This paper reviews other research topics carried out during the development of Tanalith® T as a suitable preservative system for termite protection.
P R S Cobham, J Snow

Threshold levels for dip treatments of chlorpyrifos for borer control
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10137
Chlorpyrifos has been used in non-pressure treatments of freshly sawn lumber and millwork for ten years or longer to control wood boring beetles. Since chlorpyrifos provides a quick kill of existing beetle larvae at the time of the treatment in solution concentrations as low as 0.05%, treaters tend to use less than recommended rates as a cost saving measure. However, laboratory studies conducted in the United States and Europe have shown that concentrations of 0.5% to 1.0% are needed for residual control. A review of these laboratory studies is presented in this paper.
R D Fears, J L Leca

Effectiveness of the new chemical wood preservative Borosol 9? against a house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30355
Chemical wood preservative Borosol 9, consisting of boric acid - alkanolamine complex, is a new wood preservative with proven efficacy against wood decay fungi. However, we were interested in its efficacy against larvae of house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). Thus, experiment according to the EN 46 procedure was performed. Specimens made of Norway spruce wood (Picea abies) were brushed twice with 10 % Borosol 9 solution. The results showed that most of the larvae were able to tunnel into the treated specimens, but none of them were found alive after the test period of 12 weeks. On the other hand, all control untreated samples were damaged by H. bajulus larvae activity and 98 % of larvae survived. Results indicate that Borosol 9 has an efficient insecticidal activity and acts protective against wood boring insects.
G Babuder, M Petric, F Cadež, M Humar, F Pohleven

The impact of global warming on the UK distribution of house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10414
This paper reviews the effects of global warming on insect populations and distribution. The affects of global warming on the spread of Hylotrupes is predicted through a review of research related to the influence of temperature on its life-cycle and flight. Records of Hylotrupes distribution were obtained from published surveys, entomologists and museum collections and were plotted for the UK. The UKCIP98 model for climate change was then used to present the average maximum daily temperatures over the emergence period at present, and in the future. The model predicts a 3°C rise in annual temperature by the 2080's. This increase may enable mated females to fly on a greater number of days and over a greater area. The discussion highlights gaps in knowledge concerning the UK population that makes rate of spread difficult to predict at present.
P Oevering, A J Pitman

Molecular studies on house rot fungi by RAPD-PCR
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10195
For genetic information and in view as a possible diagnosis method various isolates of the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, the wild merulius, S. himantioides, and the cellar fungus, Coniophora puteana, from Asia, Europe and USA were investigated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The banding patterns obtained revealed for S. lacrymans a rather species-specific reaction which may used to distinguish the dry rot fungus from other indoor rot species. On the other hand, the isolates of the wild merulius and the cellar fungus showed more polymorphism possibly suitable for identification of special isolates.
O Schmidt, U Moreth

Über Hausbock Hylotrupes bajulus (L.), (Col., Cerambycidae), in Laubholz: Versuche mit Laubholzarten, Prüfung der Wirkung von Ligninstoffen und von Ginkgo biloba, Beobachtungen an Hesperophanes. [On House-longhorn Beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.), (Col., Cerambycidae) in hardwood: Investigations with several hardwood-species, tests on activity of lignin components and Ginkgo biloba, observations on Hesperophanes]
1982 - IRG/WP 1144
Hylotrupes bajulus-larvae feed and develop in softwoods, hardwood acts as a feeding poison. The reason for this is still little known. According to literature some observations contradict this established opinion and the question was raised, whether the colour-strain scutifer (= lividus) is able to live in hardwood. Testing ten European and tropical hardwood-species (following the DIN-EN test procedure 46) with recently hatched larvae of the normal strain and var. scutifer (F3), all larvae died within 4 weeks. Breeding and test results indicated a lethal-factor in the scutifer-strain, as postulated by BECKER (1977). Larvae of medium weight (50...160 mg) transfered into blocs of 9 hardwood-species died or were badly affected within 60 days. Only in Ilomba (Pycnanthus angolensis) 7 of 10 larvae survived, 3 were still in good condition. In combined hardwood-softwood blocs, larvae survived much better, feeding predominantly in the softwood. But they often gnawed through the hardwood and pupation and development into the beetle-stage occured there. Derivates of lignin were tested according to testprocedures DIN-EN 46 (preventive activity) and DIN-EN 47 (determination of thresholds). None of the substances were active in nominal value within the range of concentrations (2.5 or 4%, 18 to 27 kg/m³) tested. The syringa-group, typical for hardwood-lignin, tested by Syringaacid, Syringaaldehyd and Acetosyringon, had no special effect. Wood of the Maiden hair-Tree, Ginkgo biloba (which shows negative reaction to Mäule-reagent by lack of the syringa-group like softwood) was very poisonious even after extractions by water and solvents to the larvae. Thus the softwood-indicator Hylotrupes bajulus underlines the more independent systematic position of the Ginkgobsida. The syringa-group seems not to be decisive alone. Observations of Hylotrupes in hardwood were reported mainly from South- and Southwest-Europe. New observations and breedings of single larvae revealed the probability, that this findings depend on Hesperophanes-species. For example the larvae of Hylotrupes and Hesperophanes cinereus are difficult to distinguish.
S Cymorek

A suggested method to ascertain the toxicity of wood preservatives against the house longhorn beetle
1976 - IRG/WP 271
This abstract is given to let IRG members know about a method sometimes used in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo for obtaining rapid information on the toxicity of insecticides and ready made wood preservatives against the house longhorn beetle, which is the most common insect found attacking timber roof constructions in houses in Yugoslavia. In this method, 8-10 months' old larvae are used and placed in hollowed wooden cylinders which are then mounted and held in position on treated pine sapwood test blocks. By such means, the larvae have to follow the only way towards the treated blocks. On completion of the test, it is ascertained whether the larvae have passed through the treated layer and have continued normal life in the test blocks. The blocks used are normally treated in the manner prescribed by the wood preservative manufacturers, but surface or deep impregnation methods can be used to determine the lethal dose. Experience to date has indicated that old larvae are more resistant than those which are newly hatched and used according to DIN 52 163/73. It has been found also that several preservatives tested by this method have failed in spite of claims by their manufacturers that these had curative efficacy and a high toxicity to larvae.
N Vidovic

The use of preservative containing waste wood as substrate for growing greenhouse crops
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50011
In the Netherlands a large amount of waste wood and wood waste is produced every year. An important part of this amount comes from the pallet and packaging industries. One of the possibilities to re-use this relatively clean material is to convert it into substrates for growing crops in glass houses instead of the commonly used materials such as rock wool and glass wool. In this research, the influence of several material parameters such as wood species, texture, density, height, water holding capacity on the growth of cucumbers has been studied and this has been compared with the growth on rock wool, which is applied in approximately 95% of the glasshouses in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the influence has been investigated of anti blue stain preservatives on the growth of the cucumber plants, this kind of preservatives is often used in the dutch industry for protection of pallets. In general it can be concluded that when waste wood is to be used as substrate a few preservatives can be accepted and some others can not. The wood species teture, density, height and water holding capacity of the substrate showed to have only a slight effect on the growth of cucumbers.
W J Homan,H Militz

Service life of outdoor wooden constructions. Expectations of private house owners in Sweden
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10401
Wood is traditionally used in indoor as well as outdoor applications. However, if not kept dry, wood is easily attacked by wood degrading micro-organisms. Thus the service life is heavily affected by construction design, choice of wood and wood treatment. For most constructions there is an expected service life. The expectations concerning wooden constructions and what kind of wood is chosen to fulfil the expectations have not been very well known. To increase the knowledge about the Swedish private house owners' expectations of the service life of outdoor wooden constructions an inquiry was carried out. The inquiry showed that private house owners expect long service lives of their constructions. About 25% thought that a service life between 10 and 20 years was sufficient but approximately 60% wanted the constructions to last for more than 20 years. The main reason for replacement of a wooden construction was said to be fungal decay. This is in contradiction to the opinion that poor appearance or old-fashioned design is the most important reason.
M-L Edlund, J Jermer

A rearing procedure for the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus L
1973 - IRG/WP 228
The technique practised at the Princes Risborough Laboratory for culturing Hylotrupes bajulus is described. It is modified from methods previously suggested by German workers. A protein and vitamin enriched wood diet to accelerate larval growth is employed and larvae are subsequently given a period of cool storage to induce pupation. Adults are confined in groups with prepared surfaces for egg laying: batches of eggs are removed daily and incubated over trays. Egg larvae fall into the trays as they hatch and are used for experimental work or for starting new cultures. The cycle takes under a year and adults, eggs and larvae can be available at any time throughout the year.
R W Berry

Practical experiments with Boracol 10 Rh used as a fungicide in the repair process after attack by the dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans)
1987 - IRG/WP 3458
The test is carried out in an old house in Nyhavn, Copenhagen. The roof and the walls close to were heavily attacked by dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) because damage to the zinc covering the frontspice were letting in water to the wood and wall construction. An attack by the dry rot fungus is more complicated to repair compared with other wood destroying fungi because beside the damage on wood, mortar in the walls is penetrated by the hyphae of the fungus. The reason for this is the need for basic building materials the dry rot fungus has to neutralize the great production of oxalic acid.
J Bech-Andersen

In-house accelerated method for testing decay resistance of treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20286
Fungicidal compounds often change their effectiveness when they are incorporated into candidate formulations. For this reason fungistatic effectiveness needs to be re-evaluated as many times as the formula has been modified for better performance. To avoid multiple expenses, in-house fungistatic tests are essential. Our goal was to develop in-house usable, simple but reliable and reproductive procedure for testing decay resistance of the Sansin priming formulae without a need for special testing equipment. Our preliminary trials have proved that commercially available, heat processed wood pellet fuel can be used as an excellent substrate for growing certain wood rotting fungi. In contact with water wood pellets quickly disintegrate and convert into sawdust, gaining up to three times increase in volume. When wood pellets are wetted with water containing hydrogen peroxide, the vapors of this antiseptic kill non-desirable air-borne contaminants and protect the substrate from further contamination for as long period as peroxide remains in the substrate at sufficient concentration. When peroxide protected substrate is spawned with well-organized fungal organisms (for example true decay/test fungi), they will rapidly colonize the substrate and develop a powerful mycelial network capable of decomposing most of the natural fiber based materials. Treated and non-treated wood specimens were buried in spawned, hydrogen peroxide protected wood pellet fuel-based substrate and placed in transparent, perforated plastic containers to determine the effect of this procedure on rapid colonization and accelerated wood degradation. Parallel test was set up with specimens inserted in 150mm diameter dishes containing fungal cultures developed on the beer based agar medium. The results after 45 and 90 days of exposure to the brown rot causing fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum indicate that the weight loss in control blocks in containers was higher than in the dishes for 7 and 11 percent respectively.
N Vidovic

Influence of preservative treatment on the glueing of the members of glued laminated frames and effectiveness with respect to newly hatched larvae of the house longhorn beetl
1971 - IRG/WP 203 E
The object of the work is to check the general properties of a glued laminated beam after treatment of the members composing it by means of commercial insecticidal and fungicidal formulations in clear solvent under the most common conditions of manufacture. The species used have been spruce, redwood and Douglas fir in planed boards of 80 cm long, 14 cm wide and 20 mm thickness at about 12% moisture content, glued after treatment with a commercial glue of the resorcinol-formaldehyde type at the rate of 6 laminates to make one experimental beam. The treatment products have been 4 in number, commercialized and readily available on the French market. These products will be called A-B-C-D. They all belong to the organochlorine type in solution in an organic solvent, the other material and solvents being allowed to be different. In general, the boards used were composite cut and comprised essentially of heartwood, the proportion of sapwood at the edge being often of little importance. A preliminary initial measurement of the absorption of the preservative product by each board was made by weighing. The following tests have been persued after gluing. Resistance to delamination - Resistance to shearing in compression and percentage of adhesion. The biological tests have been carried out by exposing newly hatched larvae of the house longhorn beetle on the external zones of beams (sappy zones for the species with sapwood distinct and susceptible to attack). The first results scrutinized permit us to think that with the weak amounts used the mechanical properties of the beams will remain satisfactory. After observation of the behaviour of the newly hatched 1arvae, chemical quantitative analyses are going to be undertaken in order to establish the threshold of effectiveness of the four products.
J Guillemain-Thévenot

A field test on susceptibility of wood-based board materials to moulds
1989 - IRG/WP 3545
A field test on susceptibility of wood-based board materials to mould growth was carried out under practical, but severe, service-conditions. A total of 19 commercially available composite boards were investigated. It was found that all board materials tested were not completely immune to mould attack. Test results revealed that among the three main categories of wood-based boards involved, particleboards were the most susceptible, followed by fiberboards. Plywoods were less susceptible to mould growth. The test also showed that among various types of board materials, the asphalted fiberboard, the particleboards made from birch wood shavings, and wood-industry residues were the most vulnerable to mould growth.
Qiao Wang, B Henningsson

Protection for whole-of-house timbers from subterranean termites in Australia
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20315
A field study was designed to increase maximum protection of whole-of-house timbers against subterranean termites. Concrete slab and suspended floor simulated houses were constructed using untreated and treated (slow acting toxicants) timber frames. The treated and untreated timber structures within the simulated houses were exposed with or without soil chemical and/or physical barriers in the field. Although many termite species are known to be present in this field site, the five major economic termite species found attacking either trees, the bait stations or the structural timbers were: Coptotermes spp.; Heterotermes spp., Nasutitermes spp., Schedorhinotermes spp., and Mastotermes spp. The study explores termite foraging behaviour and the termiticidal efficacy of various termite control measures used to prevent termite attack and damage of the simulated houses under natural field conditions.
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Vinden, P Blackwell, J Hann

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